Simon joined the Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment in May 2019. He is working as a Distinguished Policy Fellow on central banking and financial supervision in the context of environmental degradation, risk and the economic transition to a sustainable economy. He is also the Research Director of the International Network for Sustainable Financial Policy Insights Research and Exchange (INSPIRE), a global research network and research stakeholder of the Network of Central Banks and Financial Supervisors for Greening the Financial System (NGFS). He is the Global Manager of the Joint NGFS-INSPIRE Study Group on Biodiversity and Financial Stability, which is the first cross-institutional working group of its kind, with members from over 30 central banks and supervisors worldwide.


Simon obtained a Ph.D. in Economics from SOAS University of London with a thesis on “Central Banking and Economic Development”, which focused on the theoretical, historical and empirical relationship between central banking, economic growth and sustainable development. He holds an MSc in Development Studies from SOAS University of London and a BSc in Economics from the University of Bonn. Simon has worked for international think tanks and with central banks on topics of sustainable finance, central banking, financial stability and emerging markets.

Research interests

  • Central banking and monetary economics
  • Sustainable economic development and finance
  • Financial regulation and climate-related risk


Research - 2023

This paper empirically estimates the material demand requirements for so-called ‘transition-critical materials’ (TCMs) implied under two climate scenarios and finds potentially serious supply ‘bottlenecks’ for three materials – copper, lithium and nickel – which are exacerbated if the transition is delayed. Read more

Research - 2022

Research - 2021

This article investigates the use of one specific monetary policy tool, namely window guidance, by the Peoples’ Bank of China (PBC) and the China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC) to encourage financial institutions to expand credit to sustainable activities and curb lending to heavy-polluting industries. Read more


Policy - 2024

Policy - 2023

Policy - 2022

This Final Report provides the conclusions of the NGFS-INSPIRE Study Group on Biodiversity and Financial Stability on the scale of the threats from 'biodiversity-related risk' to the global financial system, reviews the actions that central banks, supervisors and other financial actors are already taking in response, identifies policy options for evaluating and mitigating financial risks arising from biodiversity loss and makes recommendations for near-term action. Read more

This report establishes a firm basis for central bank supervisory action in mitigating the risks from the transition to net-zero and proposes a policy change to enable the Bank of England to better identify and reduce transition risk. Its analysis is relevant for other central banks around the world, too. Read more

Policy - 2021

This report is intended as a stocktake of the current context for central bank and financial supervisory action on biodiversity loss. It sets out the state of understanding on the linkages between biodiversity-related risks and financial stability, provides examples of emerging central bank and private finance activity, and identifies key themes, challenges and open questions. Read more

Policy - 2020

Policy - 2019


Books - 2022


Events - 2022

Events - 2020


News - 2024

News - 2023

News - 2021

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