Elena Almeida is a Senior Policy Fellow at the Grantham Research Institute, specialising in nature-related financial risks and central banking. She led the NGFS-INSPIRE Study Group to explore linkages between biodiversity loss and financial stability, from the perspective of central banks and supervisors, and co-authored the group’s “Central Banking and Supervision in the Biosphere: An agenda for action on biodiversity loss, financial risk and system stability” report.  


Prior to joining LSE, Elena spent almost 10 years in various policy-related roles, including working on monetary policy at the Central Bank of Malaysia and sustainable finance at the UK Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office. Prior to joining LSE, she worked as a Climate Advisor at the Bank of England, leading the central bank’s work on nature. Elena holds degrees in Economics from the University of Sussex and International Management from the London School of Economics and Political Science.

Research interests

  • Biodiversity loss and links to the financial system
  • Environmental considerations for central banking
  • Net zero/low carbon transition pathways for emerging and developing markets
  • Sustainable development


Research - 2022


Policy - 2023

Policy - 2022

This Final Report provides the conclusions of the NGFS-INSPIRE Study Group on Biodiversity and Financial Stability on the scale of the threats from 'biodiversity-related risk' to the global financial system, reviews the actions that central banks, supervisors and other financial actors are already taking in response, identifies policy options for evaluating and mitigating financial risks arising from biodiversity loss and makes recommendations for near-term action. Read more

Policy - 2021

This report is intended as a stocktake of the current context for central bank and financial supervisory action on biodiversity loss. It sets out the state of understanding on the linkages between biodiversity-related risks and financial stability, provides examples of emerging central bank and private finance activity, and identifies key themes, challenges and open questions. Read more


Books - 2022


Events - 2022


News - 2024

News - 2023

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