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Africa’s economies are contending with a diverse set of challenges and opportunities in relation to building low-carbon, green economies and the transition to net zero emissions.

This report presents a country classification of all 54 African economies' risks and opportunities from climate change and the net zero transition. This aims to support central banks to tailor their policy responses to the unique contexts in which they operate. Read more

There is growing interest in deep-sea mining as a way to secure the minerals required for technologies critical to the net zero transition. This Explainer outlines what minerals can be found in the deep sea and how they are extracted, the environmental impacts of deep-sea mining, the current status of mining activity, and its governance. Read more

This paper empirically estimates the material demand requirements for so-called ‘transition-critical materials’ (TCMs) implied under two climate scenarios and finds potentially serious supply ‘bottlenecks’ for three materials – copper, lithium and nickel – which are exacerbated if the transition is delayed. Read more

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