Please click here for Romanian language Website

In brief: Romanian findings from EU Kids Online 2020

Although internet access for Romanian children from mobile devices has increased more than four times since 2010 (reaching 84% in 2018), access limitations remain due to economic factors such as cost or poor infrastructure. Therefore, 65% of children perceive the devices as too expensive, 37% perceive the costs of connecting to the internet as too high, while 25% report the internet signal as being too weak or non-existent in the area in which they live.

Self-reported negative online experiences of children have increased (33% in 2018 vs 21% in 2010). The highest increase can be found among 9- to 10-year-olds (29%), which means earlier exposure to online risks. Regarding cyberbullying, although boys report having been victims more than girls, girls tend to be twice as bothered as boys (53% vs 24%). A third said they had witnessed someone being bullied online in the past year (from 21% for 9- to 10-year-olds to 45% for 15- to 17-year-olds). Of those who noticed online bullying, almost half tried to help the victim, 45% did nothing, while 7% encouraged the aggressor. Sharing children’s personal data on the internet without their consent is frequent in Romania (for 28% of children’s parents and 17% of children’s teachers). As a consequence, almost a third received negative comments (boys more than girls, who were more upset); they were also more likely to ask for the content to be removed.


  • Romanian national report: Velicu, A., Balea, B. & Barbovschi, M. (2019). Acces, utilizări, riscuri și oportunități ale internetului pentru copiii din România. Rezultatele EU Kids Online 2018. EU Kids Online și DigiLiv-REI
  • A third of Romanian children have been exposed to some form of cyberhate speech in the past year (from a quarter for the 9- to 10-year-old group to half for the 15- to 17-year-olds). Twelve per cent of all children have themselves received hate messages online, targeting them or their group (of these, half received these messages monthly).
  • In a rather permissive attitude, almost half of the children condone the use of violence against someone who insults family or friends, reflected in the data about cyberhate: of those exposed to cyberhate, almost a quarter have intentionally searched for this type of content (a worrisome 30% in the 9- to 10-year-old group), while 8% of all children reported they have sent these kinds of messages themselves. 

Reports and resources


Summary of findings


Safety guide


The EU Kids Online fieldwork involved several questionnaires. First, a face to face interview with one parent. Second, a face to face interview with the child. Then a self-completion interview for sensitive questions, with one version for 9-10 year olds and one version for 11-16 year olds.

Romanian language

Questionnaire for parent

Questionnaire for child

Self-completion questionnaire for child (Children age 9-10)

Self-completion questionnaire for child (Children age 11-16)

Hungarian language

Questionnaire for parent

Questionnaire for child

Self-completion questionniare for child (Children age 9-10)

Self-completion questionnaire for child (Children age 11-16)




  • Velicu, A. & Blaya, C. (2018) Campaniile de siguranță pe internet și prevenire a cyberbullying-ului în școli. O poveste a copiilor spusă de datele proiectului EU KIDS ONLINE (School’s Campaigns for Online Safety and Cyberbullying Prevention. A Children’s story based on the data of EU Kids Online Project),Revista Română de Sociologie (Romanian Journal of Sociology). 1-2 


  • Ponte, C. Velicu, A., Simões, J.A., Lampert. C. (2017) Parental practices in the era of smartphones, in Vincent, J & Haddon L.(eds.). Smartphone cultures. Routledge


  • Velicu, Anca (2016) L'Internet mobile dans la vie des enfants : regards croisés entre la famille et l'école. In Drăgan, I., Pelissier, N and Frumusani, D. (eds) Journalisme et transformations sociales: des anciens aux nouveaux medias, Paris: L'Harmattan.
  • Dinh T., Farrugia L., O'Neill B., Vandoninck S., Velicu A. (2016). Internet Safety Helplines: Exploratory Study First Findings, 8 pp: Better Internet for Kids.
  • Dinh T., Farrugia L., O'Neill B., Vandoninck S., Velicu A. (2016). Insafe Helplines. Operations, effectiveness and emerging issues for internet safety helplines, 78 pp: European Schoolnet/Kapersky Helpline Fund.
  • Balea, B. (2016). Digital natives or not? How do romanian adolescents cross the boundaries  of internet common use? Studia UBB Sociologia, 61(1), p. 59-76.
  • Balea, B. (2016). Patterns in internet use among children and adolescents in Romania. Romanian Journal of Sociological Studies, 2, p. 3-15


  • Barbovschi, M., & Velicu, A. (2015). “Fraped” selves: hacked, tagged and shared without permission. The challenges of identity development for young people on Facebook. In Lorentz, P., Metykova, M., Smahel, D. & Wright, M.. (eds.), Living in the Digital Age: Self-Presentation, Networking, Playing, and Participation in Politics. Brno: Masaryk University Press.
  • Tokes, G. & Velicu, A. (2015). Poveștile de dincolo de statistici: despre competențele digitale ale copiilor și adolesenților din România (The Story Behind the Statistics on the Digital Competences of Romanian Youth). Revista Română de Sociologie (Romanian Journal of Sociology). no. 5-6
  • Velicu, Anca & Barbovschi, Monica (2015). Social Media Use in and for School: A Transnational Perspective. In. B. Patrut, D. Andone, C. Holotescu, G. Grosseck (eds.) SMART 2014 International Conference -Social Media in Academia: Research and Teaching. Bologna: Medimond, (pp. 367-374) ISBN: 978-88-7587-712-5
  • Tőkés, G. (2015). A romániai tizenévesek online szokásai [Patternuri de utilizare al internetului de către tinerii români  (RO); Patterns of the Internet Use among Romanian children (EN)]. In Töröcsik Mária (szerk.): A Z generáció magatartása és kommunikációja [Comportamentul și comunicarea generației Z (RO); The Behaviour and the communication practices of Z generation (EN) ], Pécsi Tudományegyetem, Pécs, 104-124.
  • Tőkés, G. (2015) A romániai fiatalok szemlélete az internet természetéről és hasznáról. [Atitudinea tinerilor români privind natura și rolul internetului – în limba maghiară]. Információs Társadalom 2015. 15. 2. 18–34. (ISI: 0,045, 2015)
  • Tőkés, G. (2015) „I learned all by myself”: the Romanian young people's self-perception of their digital competences. Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Communicatio. 2. 67-91. 


  • Barbovschi, M. (2014). Dealing with misuse of personal information online – Coping measures of children in the EU Kids Online III project. Communications: The European Journal of Communication Research, 39(3): 305–326. Indexat în Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI).
  • Vandoninck S., Barbovschi M. (2014). Dealing with problematic situations online: preventive measures and coping. In: Smahel D., Wright M. (Eds.), The meaning of online problematic situations for children: results of qualitative cross-cultural investigation in nine European countries, Chapt. 6, (pp. 74-125). London: London School of Economics and Political Science.
  • Ševčíková, A., Šerek, J., Barbovschi, M., & Daneback, D. (2014). The Roles of Individual Characteristics and Liberalism in Intentional and Unintentional Exposure to Online Sexual Material Among European Youth: A Multilevel Approach. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 11(2), 104-115. doi: 10.1007/s13178-013-0141-6. Indexat în Thomson Reuters (ISI).
  • Smahel, D., Green, L., & Barbovschi, M. (2014). Contextualizing children’s problematic situations online. Communications: The European Journal of Communication Research, 39(3): 225–231.
  • Velicu, A. (2014). Bullying-ul online și offline: victime versus agresori. Studiu de caz: România (Online and Offline Bullying: Victims versus Perpetrators:. A case study for Romania), Revista Română de Sociologie (Romanian Journal of Sociology). 1-2
  • Velicu, A., Mascheroni, G. și Ólafsson, K. (2014). Risks and opportunities in mobile internet use for Romanian Children. București: Ars Docendi.
  • Tőkés, G. (2014). Oportunități online și tipuri de utilizatori online în rândul tinerilor din România. Revista Română de Sociologie 2014. 1-2. 57-77. (ProQuest, Ebsco, Index Copernicus, DOAJ, REPEC)
  • Tőkés, G. (2014). Social Networking Practices of Young Romanians. Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Communicatio. 1. 87-106.


  • Barbovschi, M. (2013). Children’s meetings offline with people met online: a pan-European study of their characteristics and differences. Journal of Children and Media, 7(1). Routledge. Indexat în British Humanities Index, PsychInfo și Communication and Mass Media Complete.
  • Barbovschi, M. &  Fizesan, B. (2013). Creative internet uses – Differences in digital engagement among adolescents in Central and Eastern Europe. Lisbon: Proceedings of the E-Society IADIS conference. Indexat în Thomson Reuters (ISI), Conference proceedings citation index
  • Barbovschi, M., & Fizesan, B. (2013). Closing the gap, are we there yet? Reflections on the persistence of second-level digital divide in Central and Eastern Europe. In Ragnedda, M. &  Muschert, G.W. (eds.). The Digital Divide: Social Inequality and the Internet in International Perspective. London: Routledge.
  • Barbovschi, M., Kontrikova, V. & Bayraktar, F. (2013). Meeting new online contacts – Changes in European children’s patterns of sociality. Lisbon: Proceedings of the E-Society IADIS conference. Indexat înThomson Reuters (ISI), Conference proceedings citation index.
  • Barbovschi, M., &  Marinescu, V. (2013). Youth. Revisiting Policy Dilemmas in Internet Safety in the Context of Children’s Rights. In Brian O’Neil, Elisabeth Staksrud, Sharon McLaughlin (eds.). Towards a Better Internet for Children? Policy Pillars, Players and Paradoxes. Gothenburg: Nordicom.
  • Barbovschi, M., Green, L., & Vandoninck, S. (eds.) (2013). Innovative approaches for investigating how children understand risk in new media. Dealing with methodological and ethical challenges. London: EU Kids Online, London School of Economics and Political Science.
  • Velicu, A. & Marinescu, V. (2013) Usage of social media by children and teenagers. Results of EU KIDS Online II. In Patrut B., Patrut M, Cmeciu C. (eds.) Social Media and the New Academic Environment: Pedagogical Challenges. Hershey: IGI Global.
  • László, E. & Tőkés, G. (2013) Amenințări în spațiul online și strategiile de coping ale tinerior din România. Revista Română de Sociologie. 5-6. 410-425.


  • Barbovschi, M., Marinescu, V., Velicu, A. & Laszlo, E. (2012). Meeting ‘strangers’. In Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Gorzig, A. (eds.). Children, risk and safety online: Research and policy challenges in comparative perspective. Bristol: Policy Press.
  • Šmahel, D., Helsper, E. J., Barbovschi, M., & Dědková, L. (2012). Meeting online strangers among European children. In 15th European Conference on Developmental Psychology (419-422). Bologna, Italy: Medimond. Indexat în Thomson Reuters (ISI), Conference proceedings citation index.
  • Tőkés, G., László, E. & Antal, I (2012). A romániai fiatalok megküzdése az online kockázatokkal. [Copingul și reziliența tinerilor români față de riscurile online – în limba maghiară]. Erdélyi Társadalom. 10. 1. 55–79. <>
  • Fizesan, B. (2012). Digital engagement among children in Eastern Europe. Studia UBB Sociologia, 57(1), p. 83-101. 
  • Balea, B. (2012). From Unequal Access to Differentiate Use: Persistence of Digital Inequalities among Romanian Adolescents. Phd Thesis – unpublished.


  • Barbovschi, M., Marinescu, V., Velicu, A. (2011). Being in Contact with Strangers: Teenagers' Exploration of Alternative Identities Online. In Social Work Review, 2/ 2011 (ISSN 1583-0608; BDI: ProQuest,EBSCO, Social Work Abstracts, CEEOL,Index Copernicus,SCIPIO,GESIS
  • Marinescu, V. & Velicu, A. (2011) Uses of the Internet by children and youth. Results of the EU Kids Online II. In Information and Communications Technology , Media and Education. Editor: University "N. Rilski", Bulgaria


  • Tőkés, G (2010). Digitális egyenlőtlenségek a romániai fiatalok körében. [Inegalități digitale în rândul tinerilor din România – în limba maghiară]. Korunk.11.50-62.


Anca Velicu

Anca Velicu is a researcher at the Institute of Sociology (Romanian Academy). Her main research interests include youth’s use of digital technology, parental mediation, media education and the opportunities to use new media for education. In the last years she becameinterested in young children and digital technology, and how digital literacy is acquired in the early years. Some of the most important projects in which she has participated: 2017-19, Makerspaces in the early years: enhancing digital literacy and creativity (MakEY) (dir. J. Marsh), 2015-17 Friends 2.0 "Friendship" quality in the age of online social networks. Using and abusing personal information among Romanian adolescents (dir. Monica Barbovschi, funded by the Ministry of Education), 2015 Young Children (0-8) and Digital Technologies (dir. Stephane Chaudron), 2014-17, The Digital Literacy and Multimodal Practices of Young Children (DigiLitEY) (dir. J. Marsh), 2009-2014, EU Kids Online Project (dir. S. Livingstone & L. Haddon); 2012-2014, Net Children Go Mobile Project (dir. G. Mascheroni). Currently she is the national contact for the EU Kids Online Project.

Monica Barbovschi

Monica Barbovschi, Ph.D, is an associated researcher with the Institute of Sociology of the Romanian Academy and a research consultant for other research centres and institutes on the topic of internet and gender issues for young people (e.g. in Sao Paulo, European Institute for Gender Equality in Vilnius). She was involved in the EU Kids Online network as the coordinator of the Romanian team between 2009-2014 and as a team member in the Net Children Go Mobile project (2012-2014, coordinated by Giovanna Mascheroni). More recently she coordinated the UEFISCDI - Young Teams project ”The quality of friendship in the age of online social networks. Using and abusing personal information among Romanian adolescents” (2015-2017).

Bianca Balea

Bianca Balea, PhD, received her doctoral degree in Sociology from the Babes-Bolyai University with a thesis on digital inequalities among children. She participated as researcher in national and international research projects, among which most important are EU Kids Online (Romanian Team), 2009-2014 (dir. Sonia Livingstone and Leslie Haddon, LSE) and Net Children Go Mobile (Romanian Team), 2012-2014 (dir. Giovanna Mascheroni). More recently she was post-doctoral researcher within the project " The quality of friendship in the age of online social networks. Using and abusing personal information among Romanian adolescents” (2015-2017) (dir. Monica Barbovschi). Her research interests are social and digital inequalities, children’s use of new digital technologies, friendship and privacy on social media. 

Tokes Gyongyver

Gyöngyvér Tőkés, PhD, is Assistant Professor at the Department of Applied Social Sciences, Sapientia University, Târgu Mureş. She teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in media and society, and methods of researching mass communication. Her research interest is in new media, especially in internet use and the digital divide of youth in Romania.


Institute of Sociology, Romanian Academy, Calea 13 Septembrie 13, Bucharest