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Individual Mobility Budgets as a Foundation for Social and Ethical Carbon Reduction

MyFairShare is a pan-European research project that builds on the sufficiency principles to change mobility habits through individual mobility budgets.

Reducing carbon emissions is one of the most important goals to prevent the world from disastrous future consequences of climate change. The transport sector requires specific actions, as it proves most difficult to decarbonise and transport emissions are again increasing. However, efforts to foster mobility behaviour change largely fail, as future national reduction goals are too unspecific for citizens to induce a sense of personal responsibility and engagement.

The MyFairShare project is guided by three Core Principles. The first is that the challenge of transport emissions needs to be seen from a sufficiency perspective to be effectively addressed. The second is that fairness must be a fundamental value of transport systems. The third is that systemic change requires addressing not only the modes we use to move but the reasons we move in the first place.

The project combines and expands relevant knowledge, data and models to construct a scheme for fair distribution of individual mobility budgets and identifies effective policy strategies. The concept is tested in six different Living Labs varying by scale (community – municipal – (trans-)national) and scope (citizen level– transport management level – strategic development level). The resulting policy toolkits and guidelines support the introduction of socially acceptable mobility budgets on different governance levels, improving urban accessibility and transport equity.

MyFairShare builds on studies exploring the applicability of sufficiency principles to change mobility habits, for example through individual mobility budgets. Experience shows that transport emissions might be effectively reduced by limiting allowances for carbon-intensive transport modes but would only be acceptable if the individual share of allowances is perceived as fair. The project is delivered by a research consortium led by the Austrian Institute of Technology (AIT). This consortium includes nine partners from six countries: Austria, Germany, Latvia, Norway, Switzerland and the UK.

LSE Cities’ work for the project addresses the rationale for focusing on and targeting transport (sub)sectors along with exploring the respective data requirements and explicit boundaries of mobility budgets (e.g. types of mobility, travel needs, geographic scales). This engagement ultimately targets the development of an actionable concept of fairness in mobility and accessibility that is suitable for operationalising mobility budgets. As part of its research, LSE Cities will conduct an institutional analysis and will identify the degree to which different policy instruments can address mobility budgets alongside the socio-economic and politico-institutional determinants critical for their potential implementation.  

LSE Cities is leading the London Living Lab (supported by Transport for London and the University of St Gallen) that analyses the role of attitudes towards fairness and decision processes for behavioural change in the setting of Individual Mobility Budgets. 

This lab includes a detailed analysis of current mobility behaviour focussing on distributional aspects of carbon emissions and space consumption linked to transport. Separately, a representative survey on attitudes related to fairness in urban mobility is conducted. The lab also engages with car drivers in London through an experiment operating at two levels: First, a series of convenings replicating the format of a citizen jury to discuss and develop fair transport policy approaches for London. Second, a sequence of short mobility behaviour experiments during which participants respond to different input and instructions as part of the living lab experimentation.

To find out more about the project, its core principles, its basic concepts and the six living labs and to explore a collection of publication and tools prodeuce by the MyFairShare consortium please visit the project website at


Project Team

Principal Investigators
Dr Philipp Rode, Associate Professor (Education), LSE
Co-Director, Executive MSc in Cities, LSE Cities
Dr Nuno F da Cruz, Assistant Professorial Research Fellow, LSE Cities

Senior Advisors
Prof Mike Savage, Department of Sociology, LSE
Prof Francisco H. G. Ferreira, International Inequalities Institute, LSE
Ben Plowden, LSE Cities, LSE
Dr Kate Laffen,
Department of Psychological and Behavioural Science, LSE

Alexandra Gomes, LSE Cities
Jannis Linke, Insitute of Mobility, University of St Gallen
Dr Kate Laffen
Department of Psychological and Behavioural Science, LSE
Catarina Heeckt, LSE Cities
Charlie Hicks, LSE Cities


Working Papers 

Rode, P. (2022) 'Enabling sufficiency: towards an actionable concept of fairness in mobility and accessibility'. MyFairShare - Individual Mobility Budgets as a Foundation for Social and Ethical Carbon Reduction Working Paper, (14 March 2022). LSE Cities Working Papers.

Agrawal. H, Jha. N, Kelly. G, & Villarroel. K. (2022). Operationalizing fairness in next generation road pricing and mobility budgets: Helping London transport achieve net zero by 2030. Master in Public Policy, School of Public Policy and LSE Cities (Public Policy Applications module report).

Arxer, E.. Movillo, S. (2023). Mobility Budgets: Design recommendations for Transport for London, Public Policy Applications, Master in Public Policy, School of Public Policy and LSE Cities (Public Policy Applications module report).

Journal Articles

Rode, P. (2023) Fairness and the sufficiency turn in urban transport. Journal of City Climate Policy and Economy. ISSN 2816-7414

Articles and essays

Rode. P. (2023). Overcoming urban car dependence. Research for the World Magazine. 21 Nov 2023.

Principal Investigators
Dr Philipp Rode
Dr Nuno Ferrira da Cruz

Senior Advisors
Prof Mike Savage, Prof Francisco H. G. Ferreira, Ben Plowden, Dr Kate Laffen

Alexandra Gomes, Jannis Linke, Kat LaffanCatarina Heeckt, Charlie Hicks, 

Project Partners
AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH (AIT); University o
f Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), Austria; German Aerospace Center (DLR); Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies (LLU); University of Latvia (LU); Institute of Transport Economics (TOI), Norway; Insitute of Mobility, University of St Gallen

London Living Lab Partner
Transport for London

Project Funder
Economic and Social Research Council: Home (ESRC) as part of Urban Europe, European Research Area Network Cofund Urban Accessibility and Connectivity (ENUAC)

Research Strand
Cities, Environment and Climate Change

2021 - 2024