Professor Leslie Sklair

Professor Leslie Sklair


Department of Sociology

Key Expertise
Globalisation, Capitalist Class, Culture-ideology of Consumerism

About me

Leslie Sklair is Professor Emeritus in Sociology at LSE.  He received his PhD from LSE, and his thesis, Sociology of Progress, was published by Routledge in 1970 and was then translated into German. In 1973 he published Organized Knowledge: Sociological View of Science and Technology (which was translated into Spanish). In the 1980s he carried out field research on the developmental impacts of foreign investment in Ireland, Egypt and (more intensively) China and Mexico. He published Assembling for Development: The Maquila Industry in Mexico and the United States in 1989, with a second updated edition in 1993. These works provided the material basis for Sociology of the Global System (published 1991, second updated edition in 1995, translated into Portuguese, Spanish, Japanese, Persian and Korean). A third edition completely revised and updated, of this book, Globalization: capitalism and its alternatives, was published by OUP in 2002, and Portuguese – this book  and The Transnational Capitalist Class (2001) are now in Chinese translations..

Professor Sklair was a consultant to the United Nations Centre on Transnational Corporations in New York (1987-88); the ILO in Geneva (1993); the US Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (1991); and the UN Economic Commission on Latin America in Mexico City (1992). He was a Visiting Research Fellow: at the Center for US-Mexican Studies, University of California, San Diego (1986-87; 1990); the Centre of Asian Studies, Hong Kong University (1994); and the School of Sociology, University of New South Wales, Sydney (1995). In addition, he held Visiting Professorships at the Department of Sociology in New York University (Spring 1993); and University of Hong Kong (1994). New School University in New York (2002), University of Southern California (2004) and Strathclyde University (2005-2008). He has lectured at universities and at conferences in the UK, Europe, North, Central and South America, Egypt, China, Hong Kong, Korea, Australia and Jamaica.

Professor Sklair is currently the President of the Global Studies Association and was on the International Advisory Board of the ESRC funded major project 'Cities in Conflict,' based at Cambridge University.

Sklair embarked on a new research project "Iconic architecture and capitalist globalization" in 2000, building on his previous work on "Globalization and the FORTUNE Global 500", which was partly based on interviews with major corporations around the world within a theoretical framework that recasts the relationship between global capitalism, classes, consumerism and the state. The architecture project focuses on how the transnational capitalist class uses iconic architecture. He has presented papers on this project recently at international workshops in Paris (2015) and Berlin (2016) and lectured on it in Hong Kong and Shanghai in 2016. Oxford University Press published his new book – The Icon Project: Architecture, cities, and capitalist globalization  in 2017 – a Serbian translation was published in 2023.

His new project is an investigation into the aphorism 'it is easier to imagine the end of the world than the end of capitalism and the state in the time of the Anthropocene'. The first fruits of this project can be found in his edited book, The Anthropocene in Global Media and Second Thoughts on capitalism and the State, referenced below.

Selected Publications


Sklair, L. (2022) Second Thoughts on capitalism and the State. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Sklair, L., ed. (2021) The Anthropocene in Global Media Neutralizing the Risk. London & New York: Routledge.

Sklair, L. (2017) Globalization: Capitalism and its Alternatives (Arabic Edition). Cairo: Supreme Council of Culture (in press).

Sklair, L. (2017) The Icon Project: Architecture, cities, and capitalist globalization. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN: 9780190464189


Sklair, L. (2016) 'The Transnational Capitalist Class, Social Movements, and Alternative Globalizations?’ International Critical Thought. 6(3): 1-`13.

Sklair, L. (2016) ‘The end of the world, the end of capitalism, and the start of a new radical sociology’. ISA Global Express.


Sklair, L. (2015) Global Starchitects and Iconic Architecture in the City of Capitalist Globalization. In M. Gravari-Barbas and C. Renard eds. Starchitecture et tourisme: Icônes globales d’architecture et circulations mondialisées [Global Icons of Architecture. The Iconic Architecture, the Global Architect and the Public Space] Paris: Ed. l’Harmattan.

Sklair, L. (2015) ‘Icones Tardios: the Icon Project’. Arqa (May/June) 118, 22-3 (in Portuguese).


Sklair, L. (2013) Globalization: Capitalism and its Alternatives. Beijing: Social Sciences Academic Press (Mandarin edition). 9787 5097 30553

Sklair, L. (2013) The Role of Iconic Architecture in Globalizing Urban Megaprojects. In G. del Cerro S. ed. Urban Megaprojects: A Worldview. Research in Urban Sociology 13:159-81. 978178190 5937

Sklair, L. (2013) La ‘globalisation’ capitaliste et la classe capitaliste transnationale. In Caille, A. and Dufoix, S. eds. Le tournant global des sciences sociales. La Decouverte: Paris: 237-62. 97827071 64377

Sklair, L. (with Jason Struna) (2013) The icon project: The transnational capitalist class in action. Globalizations 10/5: 729-45.

Sklair, L. (2013) Postcolonialisms, globalization and iconic architecture. In O.P. Dwivedi and M. Kich, eds. Postcolonial theory in the global age: interdisciplinary essays. Jefferson NC: McFarland & Company: 156-173. 9780786 475520


Sklair, L. (with Laura Gherardi) (2012) Iconic architecture as a hegemonic project of the transnational capitalist class. City 16/1-2 (February-April): 57-73. 978041 5626088

Sklair, L. (2012) Towards an Understanding of Architectural Iconicity in Global Perspective. Ch. 2 in G. Bracken ed. Aspects of Urbanization in China. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. 978 908964 3988 

Sklair, L. (2012) Entries on ‘Architecture’, ‘Culture-Ideology of Consumerism’, ‘Transnational Capitalist Class’ and ‘Transnational Corporations’. In G. Ritzer, general editor. Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Globalization. Oxford and Malden MA: Wiley-Blackwell. 9781 4051 88241


Sklair, L. (2011) Iconic architecture and urban, national, and global identities. Ch. 7 in D. Davis and N. Libertun eds. Cities and Sovereignty: Identity Politics in Urban Spaces. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 978 0 253 22274 9 

Sklair, L. (2011) The Globalization of Human Rights. Chapter 2 in H. Widdows and N.J. Smith (eds) London: Routledge. 978 0 415 57941 4 

Sklair, L. (2011)‘Global Economy’. In G. Ritzer, general editor. Blackwell Concise Encyclopedia of Sociology. Oxford and Malden MA: Blackwell. 13 978 14051 24331 

Sklair, L. (2011) Entries on ‘Transnational Capitalism’ and ‘The culture-ideology of consumerism’. In D. Southerton ed. Encyclopedia of Consumer Cultures. London: Sage. 97808 72896017 

Sklair, L. (2011) The transition from capitalist globalization to socialist globalization. Journal of Democratic Socialism 1(December): 1-14. 2045 4481


Sklair, L. (2010) Corporate Social Responsibility in the Era of Capitalist Globalization. Chapter 2 in K.R. Raman and R.D. Lipshutz eds. Corporate Social Responsibility: Comparative Critiques. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 

Sklair, L. (2010) Iconic architecture and the culture-ideology of consumerism. Theory, Culture and Society 27/5 (September): 135-59. 

Sklair, L. (2010) Iconic architecture and capitalist globalization. In R. Paddison general editor. Urban Studies-Economy and Society. New Delhi: Sage. 9981847 878922. 

Sklair, L. (2010) (with David Miller) Corporate Social Responsibility and the Welfare State in the Era of Capitalist Globalization. Critical Social Policy 30(4): 1-24. 0261 0183 101 

Sklair, L. (2010) From International Relations to Alternative Globalization. Journal of Critical Globalisation Studies 3 (September):114-26. 2040 0498 

Sklair, L. (2010) Architectural iconicity: Malaysia’s Multimedia Super Corridor. The Newsletter (Leiden, International Institute of Asian Studies) 55 (Autumn/Winter): 19. 0929 8738


Sklair, L. (2009) La classe capitalista transnazionale e l’archittetura contemporanea nelle citta globali. Lotus International 138, pp.4-18 [Italian translation of updated version of 2005 paper]. 9 771124 906004 

Sklair, L. (2009) The emancipatory potential of generic globalization. Globalizations 6/4 (December): 523-37. 1474 7731 2009 6

Sklair, L. (2009) (with J. Sprague) Transnational capitalist class in the global financial crisis: A discussion with Leslie Sklair. Globalizations 6/4 (December): 499-508. 0042 0980 2009 11 

Sklair, L. (2009) From the consumerist/oppressive city to the functional/emancipatory city. Urban Studies 46/12: 2703-2711. 0042 0980 2009 11 

Sklair, L. (2009) The Globalization of Human Rights. Journal of Global Ethics 5/2 (August): 81-96. 1744 9626 2009 5 

Sklair, L. (2009) The transnational capitalist class – theory and empirical research. In F. Sattler and C. Boyer eds. European Economic Elites: Between a new spirit of capitalism and the erosion of state socialism. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot: 497-524. ##
Sklair, L. (2009) Transnational Practices. In G. Ritzer and Z. Atalay eds. Readings in Globalization: Key concepts and debates. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell: 184-94. 9781 4051 3273 2 

Sklair, L. (2009) Competing conceptions of globalization. In G. Ritzer and Z. Atalay eds. Readings in Globalization: Key concepts and debates. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell: 210-13. 9781 4051 3273 2

Sklair, L. (2009) The transnational capitalist class and the politics of globalization. Ch.3 in S. Dasgupta and J.N. Pieterse eds (2009). Politics of Globalization. New Delhi: Sage. ISBN 9788128299471

2008 and earlier

Sklair, L. (2008) Discourses of Globalization: A Transnational Capitalist Class Analysis. In R. Krishnaswamy and J. Hawley eds. (2008). The Postcolonial and the Global. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 215-227. ISBN 100816646090

Sklair, L. (2008) Iconic architecture and capitalist globalization. P. Herrie and E. Wegerhoff eds.Architecture and Identity. Berlin: Lit Verlag/Habitat International, pp. 207-19. ISBN 9783825810887

Sklair, L. (2008) Architettura iconica e globalizzazione capitalista. Dialoghi Internazionali 9, pp.114-45. ISSN 9788861592537

Sklair, L. (2008) Die transnationale kapitalistische Klasse. In P. Berger & A. Weiss, eds. Transnationalisierung sozialer Ungleichheit. Wiesbaden: Verlag fur Sozialwissenschaften, pp.213-240. ISBN 9783531152073

Sklair, L. (2008)Globalizace lidských práv (Globalization of human rights). In M. Hrubec, ed. Interkulturní dialog o lydských právech: Zapádni, islámské a konfuciánské perspektivy (An Intercultural Dialogue on Human Rights: The Western, Islamic and Confucian Perspectives). Prague: Filosofia, pp.49-81, ISBN 9788617337986

Sklair, L. (2007) A transnational framework for theory and research in the study of globalization. Chapter 3 in I. Rossi ed. Frontiers of Globalization Research. New York: Springer. ISBN 978037335957

Sklair, L. (2007) Achilles has two heels: Crises of capitalist globalization. Chapter 3 in W. Dinan and D. Miller eds. Thinker, Faker, Spinner, Spy: Corporate PR and the Assault on Democracy. London: Pluto Press. ISBN 9780745324449

Sklair, L. (2007) Globalisation generique, globalisation capitaliste, globalisations alternative. In F. Nahavandi ed. Vivre Ensemble au XXIeme Siecle, Bruxelles: Universite libre de Bruxelles, pp.359-71. ISBN 2872630155

Sklair, L. (2007) Competing conceptions of globalization. Chapter 14 in J.T. Roberts and A.B. Hite eds.The Globalization and Development Reader. Oxford and Malden MA. Blackwell. ISBN 1405132361

Sklair, L. (2006) Competing conceptions of globalization. Chapter 4 in C. Chase-Dunn and S. Babones eds. Global Social Change: Historical and Comparative Perspectives. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801884241

Sklair, L. (2006) Capitalist Globalization and the Anti-Globalization Movement. Chapter 11 in S. Dasgupta and R. Kiely eds. Globalization and After. New Delhi: Sage. ISBN O761935061

Sklair, L. (2006) Do cities need architectural icons? Urban Studies 43/10 pp.1899-1907. ISSN 0042098043

Sklair, L. (2006) Iconic architecture and capitalist globalization. City, 10 (1). pp. 21-47. ISSN 1360-4813

Sklair, L. (2005) The transnational capitalist class and contemporary architecture in globalizing cities. The international journal of urban and regional research, 29 (3). pp. 485-500. ISSN 0309-1317

Sklair, L. (2004) Globalization and development. In: Forsyth, Tim, (ed.) Encyclopedia of international development. Routledge, London, UK. ISBN 041525342x

Sklair, L. (2004) The end of capitalist globalization. In: Steger, Manfred B., (ed.) Rethinking globalism. Rowman and Littlefield, Maryland, USA, pp. 39-49. ISBN 0742525457

Sklair, L. (2003) Globalization, capitalism and power. Developments in sociology, 10 pp. 101-121. ISSN 0956-9359

Sklair, L. (2003) Transnational practices and the analysis of the global system. In: Hulsemeyer, Axel, (ed.) Globalization in the twenty-first century. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK, pp. 15-32.

Sklair, L. (2003) Sociology of the global system. In: Lechner, Frank and Boli, John, (eds.) The globalization reader. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp. 70-76. ISBN 9781405102803

Sklair, L. (2002) Champions, losers and big business in China. Asia-Pacific business review, 9 (1). pp. 95-103. ISSN 1360-2381

Sklair, L. (2002) Democracy and the transnational capitalist class. Annals of the American academy of political and social science, 581 (1). pp. 144-157. ISSN 0002-7162

Sklair, L. (2002) The transnational capitalist class and global politics: deconstructing the corporate-state connection. International political science review, 23 (2). pp. 159-174. ISSN 0192-5121

Sklair, L. and Robbins, P. T. (2002) Global capitalism and major corporations from the Third World. Third World quarterly, 23 (1). pp. 81-100. ISSN 0143-6597

Sklair, L. (2002) Globalization: capitalism and its alternatives. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford. ISBN 9780631224617

Sklair, L. (2002) Globalization and management: the role of the transnational capitalist class. In: Joynt, Pat and Warner, Malcolm, (eds.) Managing across cultures: issues and perspectives. Thomson Learning, London, UK, pp. 269-280. ISBN 9780415135580

Sklair, L. (2001) The transnational capitalist class. Blackwell, Oxford. ISBN 9780631224624

Sklair, L. (2000) Social movements and global capitalism. In: Roberts, J. Timmons and Hite, Amy, (eds.) From modernization to globalization. Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, pp. 328-339. ISBN 9780631210979

Sklair, L. (2000) Media imperialism. In: Beynon, John and Dunkerley, David, (eds.) Globalization: the reader. Routledge, New York, pp. 28-30. ISBN 9780415929226

Sklair, L. (2000) The sociology of the global system. In: Lechner, Frank and Boli, John, (eds.) The globalization reader. Routledge, New York. ISBN 9780415929226

Expertise Details

Globalisation; Capitalist Class; Culture-ideology of Consumerism; Anthropo-scene