Czech Republic

In brief: Czech findings from EU Kids Online 2020

Czech children aged 9 to 17 most frequently use smartphones to access the internet – 84% do so daily. Older children generally use the internet more often and participate in more online activities; consequently, they also encounter more online risks. Interestingly, some commonly feared online risks do not seem to upset Czech young people very often. After encountering sexually explicit content, 41% reported feeling happy and 39% were not upset. Similarly, 78% were happy and 10% were not upset after a face-to-face meeting with a person they only knew from the internet. It is worth noting that a majority of such meetings (67%) was with someone their age, and only 7% were with adults.

There are some intriguing gender differences regarding online risks. For example, while slightly more boys received sexually charged messages, girls were more often specifically asked to share intimate information. Girls also encountered online content supporting extreme thinness more frequently. On the other hand, more boys than girls struggle with computer viruses and spend too much money on in-app purchases and online games. Regarding cyberaggression, girls, as well as younger children, were more upset after being attacked online. The highest percentage of cyber aggressors was among older boys aged 13 to 17 (19%), more than twice as much as among girls of the same age (8%). 


Reports and resources



Dedkova, L., Smahel, D., & Just, M. (2022). Digital security in families: The sources of information relate to the active mediation of internet safety and parental internet skills. Behaviour & Information Technology, 41(5), 1052-1064.

Drtilova, H., Machackova, H., & Smahelova, M. (2022). Evaluation of Web-Based Health Information From the Perspective of Women With Eating Disorders: Thematic Analysis. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 24(6).

Elavsky, S., Blahošová, J., Lebedíková, M., Tkaczyk, M., Tancos, M., Plhák, J., Sotolář, O., & Smahel, D. (2022). Researching the links between smartphone behavior and adolescent well-being with the FUTURE-WP4 (Modeling the future: Understanding the impact of technology on adolescent’s well-being Work package 4) project: Protocol for an ecological momentary assessment study. JMIR Research Protocols, 11(3), e35984.

Görzig, A., Blaya, C., Bedrosova, M., Audrin, C., & Machackova, H. (2022). The amplification of cyberhate victimisation by discrimination and low life satisfaction: Can supportive environments mitigate the risks? The Journal of Early Adolescence. Advance online publication.

Gulec, H., Kvardova, N., & Smahel, D. (2022). Adolescents' disease- and fitness-related online health information seeking behaviors: The roles of perceived trust in online health information, eHealth literacy, and parental factors. Computers in Human Behavior, 134, 107318.

Knapová, L., Smahel, D., Dedkova, L., & Matyas, V. (2022). Comparing Nonresponders and Responders of Online Intercept Surveys: A Large-Scale Experimental ICT Security-Related Study. Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies, 3107621.

Kruzikova, A., Knapova, L., Smahel, D., Dedkova, L., & Matyas, V. (2022). Usable and secure? User perception of four authentication methods for mobile banking. Computers & Security, 115, 102603.

Kvardova, N., Machackova, H., & Smahel, D. (2022). A moderated mediation model for body-positive online content and body image among adolescents. Body Image, 42, 370-374.

Lebedíková, M., Mýlek, V., Subrahmanyam, K., & Smahel, D. (2022). Exposure to Sexually Explicit Materials and Feelings after Exposure among Adolescents in Nine European Countries: The Role of Individual Factors and Social Characteristics. Archives of Sexual Behavior.

Mascheroni, G., Cino, D., Mikuška, J., & Smahel, D. (2022). Explaining inequalities in vulnerable children’s digital skills: The effect of individual and social discrimination. New Media & Society, 24(2), 437–457.

Smahel, D., Dedkova, L., Kraus, L., Matyas, V., & Stavova, V. (2022). Investigating Installers of Security Software in 20 Countries: Individual-and Country-Level Differences. Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies, 1230344.


Bedrosova, M., Machackova, H., Serek, J., Smahel, D., & Blaya, C. (2021). The relation between the cyberhate and cyberbullying experiences of adolescents in the Czech Republic, Poland, and Slovakia. Computers in Human Behavior, 126, 107013.

Drtilova, H., Smahel, D., & Smahelova, M. (2021). Advantages and disadvantages of Internet use: The perspective of women with eating disorders experience. Health Communication. Advance online publication.

Galbava, S., Machackova, H., & Dedkova, L. (2021). Cyberostracism: Emotional and behavioral consequences in social media interactions. Comunicar, 29(67).

Knapova, L., Kruzikova, A., Dedkova, L., & Smahel, D. (2021). Who is smart with their smartphones? Determinants of smartphone security behavior. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 24(9), 584-592.​

Kvardova, N., Smahel, D., Machackova, H., & Subrahmanyam, K. (2021). Who is exposed to harmful online content? The role of risk and protective factors among Czech, Finnish, and Spanish adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 50, 2294-2310.

Mýlek, V., Dedkova, L., & Smahel, D. (2021). Information sources about face-to-face meetings with people from the Internet: Gendered influence on adolescents’ risk perception and behavior. New Media & Society. Online publication.

Sevcikova, A., Vasek, D., Blinka, L., Machackova, H., & Jezek, S. (2021). Markers of sexual life and health in association with internet use for sexual purposes in Czechs aged 50 and older. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 18, 355-367.


Bai, S., Elavsky, S., Kishida, M., Dvorakova, K., & Greenberg, M. (2020). Effects of mindfulness training on daily stress response in college students: Ecological momentary assessment of a randomized controlled trial. Mindfulness, 11(6), 1433-1445.

Dedkova, L., & Smahel, D. (2020). Online parental mediation: Associations of family members’ characteristics to individual engagement in active mediation and monitoring. Journal of Family Issues, 41(8), 1112-1136.

Elavsky, S., Knapová, L., Klocek, A., & Smahel, D. (2020). Mobile health interventions for physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep in adults aged 50 years and older: A systematic literature review. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 27(4), 565-593.

Knapova, L., Klocek, A., & Elavsky, S. (2020). The role of psychological factors in older adults’ readiness to use eHealth technology: Cross-sectional questionnaire Study. Journal of Medical Internet Reseach, 22(5), e14670.

Kvardova, N., Machackova, H., & Smahel, D. (2020). The direct and indirect effects of online social support, neuroticism, and web content internalization on the drive for thinness among women visiting health-oriented websites. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(7).

Lakomy, M., Hlavova, R., Machackova, H., Bohlin, G., Lindholm, M., Bertero, M. G., & Dettenhofer, M. (2020). The motivation for citizens’ involvement in life sciences research is predicted by age and gender. PLOS ONE, 15(8), 1-17.

Machackova H., & Tkaczyk, M. (2020). The effect of media and political beliefs and attitudes on trust in political institutions: A multilevel analysis on data from 21 European countries. Communication Today, 11(2), 65-83.

Machackova, H. (2020). Bystander reactions to cyberbullying and cyberaggression: individual, contextual, and social factors. Current Opinion in Psychology, 36, 130-134.

Mikuska, J., Smahel, D., Dedkova, L., Staksrud, E., Mascheroni, G., & Milosevic, T. (2020). Social relational factors of excessive internet use in four European countries. International Journal of Public Health, 65(8), 1289-1297.

Mýlek, V., Dedkova, L., & Machackova, H. (2020). Factors influencing interactions between adolescents and unknown people from the internet: Findings from five European countries. Children and Youth Services Review, 114.

Riad, A., Huang, Y., Zheng, L., & Elavsky, S. (2020). COVID-19 induced anxiety and protective behaviors during COVID-19 outbreak: Scale development and validation. MedRxiv.

Smahelova, M., Klocek, A.,  Knapova, L., & Elavsky, S. (2020). Vnímání ve zdravotnictví využitelných informačně-komunikačních technologií českými praktickými lékaři. Praktický lékař, 100(2), 92-99.


Dedkova, L., & Smahel, D. (2019). Online Parental Mediation: Associations of Family Members’ Characteristics to Individual Engagement in Active Mediation and Monitoring. Journal of Family Issues.

Görzig, A., Bedrosova, M., & Machackova, H. (2019). Do Stereotypes of Mental and Developmental Disorders Predict Bystander Intentions in Cyberbullying? An Application of the Stereotype Content Model. International Journal of Developmental Science, 13 (3-4), pp. 83-95.

Helsper, E. J., & Smahel, D. (2019). Excessive internet use by young Europeans: Psychological vulnerability and digital literacy?. Information, Communication & Society.


Cernikova, M, Smahel, D., & Wright, M. F. (2018). Children’s experiences and awareness about impact of digital media on health. Health Communication, 33, 664-673.

Machackova, H., Dedkova, L., Sevcikova, A., & Cerna, A. (2018). Bystanders’ supportive and passive responses to cyberaggression. Journal of School Violence, 17, 99-110.

Ševčíková, A., Blinka, L., & Daneback, K. (2018). Sexting as a predictor of sexual behavior in a sample of Czech adolescents. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 15, 426-437.

Wright, M. F., Yanagida, T., Macháčková, H., Dědková, L., Ševčíková, A., Aoyama, I., Bayraktar, F, ... Shu, C. (2018). Face-to-face and Cyber Victimization among Adolescents in Six Countries: The Interaction between Attributions and Coping Strategies. Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma, 11, 99-112.

Cernikova, M, Dedkova, L., & Smahel, D. (2018). Youth interaction with online strangers: Experiences and reactions to unknown people on the Internet. Information, Communication & Society, 21, 94-110.

Bedrošová, M., Hlavová, R., Macháčková, H., Dědková, L. & Šmahel, D. (2018). Czech children and adolescents on the internet: Report from a survey at primary and secondary schools. EU Kids Online IV in the Czech Republic 2017–2018. Brno: Masaryk University.


Macháčková, H., & Šerek, J. (2017). Does ‘clicking’ matter? The role of online participation in adolescents’ civic development. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 11(4), article 5.

Smahelova, M., Juhová, D., Cermak, I., & Smahel, D. (2017). Mediation of young children’s digital technology use: The parents’ perspective. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 11(3), article 4.

Wright, M. F., Yanagida, T., Aoyama, I., Ševčíková, A., Macháčková, H., Dědková, L., … & Shu, C. (2017). Differences in severity and emotions for public and private face-to-face and cyber victimization across six countries. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 48, 1216-1229.


Barbovschi, M. & Velicu, A. (2015, forthcoming). Forced identities of young people: impersonated, hacked, shared or tagged without permission. Breaches of self-presentation and identity management online in EU Kids Online III and Net Children Go Mobile projects. In Lorentz, P., Metykova, M., Smahel, D. & Wright, M. (Eds.). Living in the Digital Age: Self-Presentation, Networking, Playing, and Participation in Politics. Masaryk University Press. Brno, Czech Republic. 

Dedkova, L., Cerna, A., Janasova, K., & Daneback, K. (in press). Meeting online strangers offline: The nature of upsetting experiences for adolescent girls. Communications. European Journal of Communication Research.

Dědková, L. (in press). Navazování kontaktů online a setkávání se s neznámými lidmi z internetu [Seeking and meeting online strangers]. In A. Ševčíková (Ed.), Děti a dospívající online: Vybraná rizika používání internetu [Youth online: Selected risks of internet use]. Praha: Grada.

Macháčková, H. (in press). Online komunity: v čem představují rizika pro dospívající? [Online communities: What are their risks for adolescents?]. In A. Ševčíková (Ed.). Děti online: vybraná rizika požívání internetu [Children online: Selected risks of internet use]. Praha: Grada.

Macháčková, H. (in press). Soukromí a sebe-odkrývání na online sociálních sítích [Privacy and self-disclosure on online social network sites]. In A. Ševčíková (Ed.). Děti online: vybraná rizika požívání internetu [Children online: Selected risks of internet use]. Praha: Grada.

Ševčíková, A. (Ed.) (in press). Děti a dospívající online: vybraná rizika používání internet [Children and adolescents online: Selected risks associated with internet use]. Praha: Grada publishing. 


Barbovschi, M. (2014). Dealing with misuse of personal information online – coping measures of children in the EU Kids Online III project. Special issue Communications. The European Journal of Communication Research.

Ševčíková, A., Šerek, J., Barbovschi, M., & Daneback, D. (2014). The Roles of Individual Characteristics and Liberalism in Intentional and Unintentional Exposure to Online Sexual Material Among European Youth: A Multilevel Approach. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 11(2),104-115. doi: 10.1007/s13178-013-0141-6

Smahel, D., Wright, M. F., & Cernikova, M. (2014). Classification of online problematic situations in the context of youths’ development. Communications: European Journal of Communication Research.

Smahel, D., & Wright, M. (2014). The meaning of online problematic situations for children: Results of qualitative cross-cultural investigation in nine European countries. London: EU Kids Online.




David Smahel, Ph.D. is a Professor at the Faculty of Social Studies and the Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Czech Republic. He is the leader of the Interdisciplinary Research Team on Internet and Society ( which researches social-psychological implications of the internet and technology. His current research focus is on adolescents’ and adults’ internet use, the online risks of children and adolescents, the construction of online identities and virtual relationships, online addictive behavior, and online research methods. He is an editor of Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace and has co-authored book Digital Youth: The Role of Media in Development.


hana-machackova New

Hana Machackova, Ph.D. is an Associate Professor and a researcher at Interdisciplinary Research Team on Internet and Society, Department of Psychology, and Department of Media Studies and Journalism at Masaryk University. Overall, Hana researches the role of internet and technologies in adolescents' lives. Her current research focus is on online aggression, online communities, and health and well-being. Hana has participated in several national and international projects and has experience with planning and implementing quantitative designs. She is now focusing on experimental research in the area of cyberpsychology. Hana is also a leader of the working group Experimental studies on effects of media usage.



Lenka Dedkova, Ph.D. is a postdoc at IRTIS (Faculty of Social Studies, Masaryk University), and the editor of Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace. Lenka has participated in several national and international projects and has experience with social science and informatics research. Her research interests include the impact of children's and adolescents' experiences with online interactions on their well-being, online parental mediation, and usable security.



Marie Bedrosova, PhD is a postdoc researcher at Interdisciplinary Research Team on Internet and Society (IRTIS) and the Department of Media Studies and Journalism at the Faculty of Social  Studies at Masaryk University. She also works as an assistant editor of Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace. Her research interests are cyberaggression and cyberhate, with a focus on children and adolescents. She has been involved in several international projects and has experience with quantitative and experimental methodology.


Vojtěch Mýlek, M.A. is a doctoral student of Social psychology at the Faculty of Social Sciences of Masaryk University and a researcher at the Interdisciplinary Research Team for Internet and Society (IRTIS). His research focuses on adolescents' online communication and offline, face-to-face meetings with people they met on the internet. He is also interested in adolescents' risk perception and social well-being.


Nikol Kvardová, M.A. is a Ph.D. candidate in psychology at the Faculty of Social Studies, Masaryk University. Her research interests cover the role of social media in body image, the phenomenon of appearance-based cyberaggression, and online health behaviors among young people.


Michaela Lebedíková, M. A. is a doctorate student of Media and journalism studies at the Faculty of Social Studies at Masaryk University. Her main research focus are digital intimacies (mainly exposure to sexually explicit materials and sexting) and its effects on well-being, especially of adolescents. She is also interested in methodologies surrounding analysis of pornography and adolescents' use of technology with regard to their sexual lives and development.


David Lacko, M.A. is a Ph.D. student at the Faculty of Arts at Masaryk University with a focus on cross-cultural differences in perception and cognition. He is also interested in a statistics and psychometrics, cognitive psychology and eye-tracking.



Rostislav Zlámal, M.A. is a Ph.D. student of Media studies and journalism at the Faculty of Social Sciences at Masaryk University. His main research interests are data quality diagnostics and the impact of survey methodology on missing data.


Eliška Dufková, M.A. is a Ph.D. student of psychology at Faculty of Social Studies, Masaryk University. Her research interests include studying memory, more specifically the accuracy of recalled events or eyewitness identifications. She is also interested in the impacts of technology on adolescents, research on bystander effect, and different aspect of online and offline aggression.


Hana Machackova
Associate Professor
Interdisciplinary Research Team on Internet and Society
Faculty of Social Studies
Masaryk University
Joštova 10
602 00 Brno
Czech Republic
Tel: CZ +420 549 49 4744