If you are citing generative AI tools in your assessed work, please do so ethically and responsibly. You should read the latest School guidance on Artificial Intelligence, assessment and academic integrity. Academic departments may diverge from the School policy, so you should check your department’s position on the use of generative AI in assessed work.
The main citation styles used at LSE have already developed guidance for how to cite generative AI tools in the body of your assessment and in the bibliography or reference list. We provide examples of how to cite generative AI tools according to a) APA, b) Chicago, c) Harvard, and d) OSCOLA. We also subscribe to Cite Them Right, the accompanying website to the textbook, which includes guidance on citing generative AI in various citation styles.
APA made suggestions for how to cite generative AI in April 2023 - and they have been included in Cite Them Right.
Example in-text citation: When prompted with “Is the left brain right brain divide real or a metaphor?” the ChatGPT-generated text indicated that although the two brain hemispheres are somewhat specialized, “the notation that people can be characterized as ‘left-brained’ or ‘right-brained’ is considered to be an oversimplification and a popular myth” (OpenAI, 2023).
Bibliography: OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model]. https://chat.openai.com/chat.
The Chicago Manual of Style suggested how to cite generative AI in an FAQ from earlier in 2023, which has also been included in Cite Them Right.
Example in-text citation (footnote): 1. Text generated by ChatGPT, OpenAI, March 7, 2023, https://chat.openai.com/chat.
Example in-text citation (author-date): (ChatGPT, March 7, 2023). Bibliography: OpenAI. “ChatGPT.” Accessed August 18 2018. https://chat.openai.com/chat
Cite Them Right suggests that if generative AI material is available online, you can cite it as an electronic version of a source (such as an artwork or article), but otherwise, if the AI’s end product (for example use of ChatGPT in conversation) is only available to you, cite this as a personal communication and include a description of the AI-generated material in your in-text citation.
In-text citation (example A): The AI-generated flower (Shutterstock AI, 2023)
Bibliography (example A): Shutterstock AI (2023) Photo of pond with lotus flower [Digital art]. Available at: https://www.shutterstock.com/image-generated/photo-pond-lotus-flower-2252080005 (Accessed: 31 March 2023).
In-text citation (example B): When prompted by the author, ChatGPT responded with a ‘definition of academic integrity’ (OpenAI ChatGPT, 2023).
Bibliography (example B): OpenAI ChatGPT (2023) ChatGPT response to John Stephens, 2 April.
OSCOLA was last revised in 2012 and is due to be revised again in Spring 2024. It is likely that the new guidance will cover citing generative AI. In the short term, you could consider the guidance issued by Robert Gordon University, for example:
Footnote: OpenAI ChatGPT response to prompt ‘what is the law in the UK regarding offensive online communications?’ (27 April 2023). Bibliography: OpenAI ChatGPT, ChatGPT response to author https://openai.com/blog/chatgpt accessed: 27 April 2023.