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Explore the fifteen key policy areas

Fifteen topics were originally discussed in the “Shaping a 21st Century Policy Consensus” conference. These are by no means exhaustive and as the binding constraints that hold back economic growth and social progress are different in different countries, each nation should have different policy priorities. Nevertheless, these fifteen topics showcase the breath of analysis inspiring the project. For each topic, invited authors reflect on the current state of the policy debate, highlighting points in the respective fields where there is «general» or «emerging» agreement, points where the consensus has changed in recent years, the limits to the new thinking and emerging policy priorities and challenges.

The aim is not providing a set of one-size-fits-all recipes, but creating a dialogue around which new ideas can coalesce, exploring practical solutions at the local, national and global levels.

Education and Human Capital

Author: Lant Pritchett (University of Oxford)

Respondents: Miguel Urquiola (Columbia University) and Pedro Carneiro (UCL) 

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Lant Pritchett

Lant Pritchett is a development economist from Boise Idaho. He has been affiliated with five universities: BYU (BS 1983), MIT (PhD 1988), Harvard (2000-2004, 2007-2018), Oxford (2018- 2023), and now LSE—all great global universities but only one has produced multiple NFL quarterbacks. He has lived in five countries: USA (mostly), Argentina (1978-1980), Indonesia (1998-2000), India (2004-2007, 2012), and the UK (2018-2022). Working at the World Bank from 1988 to 2007 forced eclecticism and he has researched/written on more topics than his discipline, which believes in specialization, thinks seemly. He has published widely on his London Consensus topic of education and human capital, but also on trade policy, exports, economic growth, health policy, welfare state, and state capacity (and contributed to World Bank reports on infrastructure, foreign aid, structural adjustment, economic growth, conflict, and service delivery. He currently lives in the mountains of Utah and dotes on four grandchildren.

Miguel Urquiola

Miguel Urquiola is Dean of Social Science and Professor of Economics at Columbia University. He has chaired Columbia’s Department of Economics and its Committee on the Economics of Education. He is also a member of the School of International and Public Affairs (SIPA). Outside Columbia, Urquiola is a Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) and has held appointments at Cornell University, the World Bank, the Bolivian Catholic University, and the Bolivian government. Urquiola’s research is on the Economics of Education. It focuses on understanding how schools and universities compete, and how educational markets differ from other markets economists study. He has written numerous journal articles on these issues, and a book on why American universities excel at research.

Pedro Carneiro

Pedro Carneiro is Professor in the Department of Economics at University College London, a Research Economist at the Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, and a Research Fellow at the Institute for Fiscal Studies. His research interests include: human capital formation; early years interventions; education policy; intergenerational mobility; inequality; anti-poverty programs. He has worked in the evaluation of education, health and poverty programs in several developing countries. He is a Fellow of the Econometric Society, and has published papers in several journals including the Quarterly Journal of Economics, American Economic Review, Econometrica, and Journal of Political Economy.

Environment and Climate Change

Authors: Elizabeth Robinson (LSE) and Chukwumerije Okereke (AE-FUNAI) 

Respondents: Susana Mourato (LSE) and Robin Burgess (LSE) 

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Elizabeth Robinson

Elizabeth Robinson is the Director of the Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment at the LSE. Elizabeth is an environmental economist with over twenty-five years’ experience undertaking research particularly in lower-income countries, including six whilst living in Tanzania and Ghana. Much of her research addresses climate change and systemic risk; and tracking the co-benefits of climate change mitigation and health, oriented particularly around food security and nutrition. From 2004-09 she was coordinating lead author for the International Assessment of Agricultural Science and Technology for Development, sub-Saharan Africa. She was on the UK Defra Economic Advisory Panel for five years; and in 2019-20, Specialist Advisor to the UK House of Lords Select Committee on Food, Poverty, Health, and Environment. She is Working Group 1 lead for the Lancet Countdown, that addresses climate change impacts, exposures, and vulnerability; and recently accepted an invitation to chair of the newly formed Advisory Group on the Economics of Climate Risk and Adaptation for the UK Climate Change Committee's fourth UK Climate Change Risk Assessment, CCRA4.

Chukwumerije Okereke

Chukwumerije Okereke is a Professor of Global Climate and Environmental Governance and Director of Center for Climate and Development at Alex Ekwueme Federal University Ndufu- Alike Nigeria. Previously, he was a Professor of Environment and Development at the University of Reading where he also served as the Co-Director of Climate and Justice Centre and the Leverhulme Climate Justice Doctoral Scholarship Programme. Before joining Reading University, he was a Senior Research Fellow and Head of Climate and Development Centre at the Smith School Enterprise and the Environment, University of Oxford. He was Coordinating Lead Author IPCC AR6 and currently a Visiting Professor at LSE. His work is devoted to ethical dimensions of climate governance and understanding the mix of policies, strategies, and institutional arrangements that can help to address climate change and natural resource degradation in Africa in the context of sustainable development and Africa’s structural economic transformation.

Susana Mourato

Susana Mourato is LSE’s Vice President and Pro-Vice Chancellor (Research) and Professor of Environmental Economics. Much of her research has been in the area of social value measurement, testing and applying economic valuation techniques to a wide range of environmental, health and social impacts related to ecosystem services, biodiversity, air and water pollution, climate change, low carbon technologies, and cultural heritage. She currently leads a project for the OECD evaluating the impact of chemicals on IQ, as well as projects for LSE Middle East Centre estimating preferences for climate change policies in the Gulf Region, and for water conservation in Kuwait. She sits on the Culture & Heritage Capital Advisory Board, of the UK Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport.

Robin Burgess

Robin Burgess is a Professor of Economics, Co-Founder and Director of the International Growth Centre and Director of the Economics of Environment and Energy Research Program all at the LSE. He also serves as the current President of BREAD, on the Editorial Board of VoxDev, on the Board of CEGA and is an Affiliate of J-PAL and Y-RISE, a Research Fellow of the CEPR and a Fellow of the British Academy. His main interests are in the areas of environmental economics, development economics and political economy. He has published on a variety of topics – natural disasters, political accountability, mass media, deforestation and forest fires, access to electricity, renewable energy, marine protection zones, poverty traps, bureaucracy, youth unemployment, rural banks, land reform, labor regulation, industrial policy, taxation, poverty and growth.

Export-Led Growth

Author: Ricardo Hausmann (Harvard Univeristy) 

Respondents: Danny Quah (National University of Singapore) and Isabela Manelici (LSE) 

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Ricardo Hausmann

Ricardo Hausmann is the founder and Director of Harvard’s Growth Lab and the Rafik Hariri Professor of the Practice of International Political Economy at Harvard Kennedy School. Since launching the Growth Lab in 2006, Hausmann has served as principal investigator for more than 50 research initiatives in nearly 30 countries, informing development policy, growth strategies and diversification agendas at the national and sub-national levels. Previously, he served as the Director of the Center for International Development (2005-2019) and also as the first Chief Economist of the Inter-American Development Bank (1994-2000), where he created the Research Department. He has served as Minister of Planning of Venezuela (1992- 1993) and as a member of the Board of the Central Bank of Venezuela. He also served as Chair of the IMF-World Bank Development Committee. He was Professor of Economics at the Instituto de Estudios Superiores de Administracion (IESA) (1985-1991) in Caracas, where he founded the Center for Public Policy.

Danny Quah

Danny Quah is Li Ka Shing Professor in Economics and Dean at the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, NUS. His research on inequality and income mobility characterises the range of experiences across economies to suggest that a single narrative on inequality is unlikely to be correct or helpful. His work on world order takes an economic approach to international systems, studying the supply and demand of world order: what international system do the world’s superpowers wish to provide; what world order does the global community need. Quah is a Commissioner on the Spence-Stiglitz Commission on Global Economic Transformation and on LSE's Global Economic Governance Commission. He serves on the Executive Committee, International Economic Association; the Advisory Board, LSE IDEAS; the Eminent Advisory Council of the UNDP Bureau for Asia-Pacific; and the World Economic Forum's Global Future Council for Geopolitics. He is Vice President at the Economic Society of Singapore. He is the author of “The Global Economy’s Shifting Centre of Gravity”.

Isabela Manelici

Isabela Manelici joined the Department of Economics at the LSE as an Assistant Professor in the Fall of 2021. Isabela's current research lies at the intersection of Trade and Development Economics. A citizen of Romania, Isabela received her B.A. in Civil Engineering from École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (Paris), her M.A. in Economics and Finance from CEMFI (Madrid), and her PhD in Economics from UC Berkeley in 2020. For the 2020-2021 academic year, Isabela Manelici was an International Economics Section Postdoctoral Research Associate in the Department of Economics at Princeton University. Before her graduate studies in Economics, she worked as a Junior Professional Associate at the World Bank in

Fiscal Policy and Public Debt

Authors: Andrés Velasco (LSE) and Ricardo Reis (LSE) 

Respondents: Olivier Blanchard (Peterson Institute for International Economics / MIT) and Chryssi Giannitsarou (University of Cambridge) 

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Andrés Velasco is Professor and Dean of the School of Public Policy at the LSE. Since 2021 he has been a member the High-Level Advisory Group (HLAG) to the IMF and the World Bank. In 2017-18 he was a member of the G20 Eminent Persons Group. He also served as Minister of Finance of Chile between 2006 and 2010. Before coming to the LSE, he held professorial appointments at the Harvard Kennedy School, Columbia and NYU. His research has been published in leading academic journals including the American Economic Review, the Journal of Political Economy, the Quarterly Journal of Economics and the Journal of Economic Theory.

Ricardo Reis

Ricardo Reis is the A.W. Phillips Professor of Economics at the LSE. Recent honors include the 2022 Carl Menger prize, the 2021 Yrjo Jahnsson medal, election fo the Econometric Society in 2019, the 2017 BdF/TSE junior prize, and the 2016 Bernacer prize. Professor Reis is an academic consultant at the Bank of England, the Riksbank, and the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, he directs the Centre for Macroeconomics in the UK, and he serves on the council or as an advisor of multiple organizations. He has published widely on macroeconomics, including both monetary and fiscal policy, inflation and business cycles. Professor Reis received his PhD from Harvard University.

Olivier Blanchard

Olivier Blanchard is the C. Fred Bergsten Senior Fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics and the Robert M. Solow Professor of Economics emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He was chair of the economics department at MIT from 1998 to 2003. In 2008, he took a leave of absence to serve as economic counsellor and director of the research department at the International Monetary Fund where he stayed until 2015. He has worked on a wide set of macroeconomic issues, including the role of monetary and fiscal policy, speculative bubbles, the labor market and determinants of unemployment, economic transition in former communist countries, and the nature of the Global Financial Crisis. He is a fellow and former Council member of the Econometric Society, a past president of the American Economic Association, and a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Chryssi Giannitsarou

Chryssi Giannitsarou is a professor or macroeconomics and finance at the Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge. She did her graduate studies at LSE and London Business School. She is a fellow of King’s College, Cambridge, and research fellow of the Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR). Her main research area is broadly on the interactions of financial markets with the macroeconomy. She has published research that spans a wide range of topics including expectations and learning in macroeconomics, fiscal policy, international finance, household finance, etc., in many leading economics journals.

Gender and Labour Markets

Authors: Oriana Bandiera (LSE) and Barbara Petrongolo (University of Oxford)

Respondents: Ashwini Deshpande (Ashoka University) and Almudena Sevilla (LSE) 

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Oriana Bandiera

Oriana Bandiera is the Sir Anthony Atkinson Professor of Economics at the LSE, and a honorary foreign member of the American Economic Association, a fellow of the British Academy, the Econometric Society, CEPR, BREAD and IZA. She is co-editor of Econometrica, past president of the European Economic Association, and director of the Hub for Equal Representation at the LSE and of the Gender, Growth and Labour Markets in Low-Income Countries (G2LM|LIC) programme at IZA. She serves on the council of the Econometric Society, on board of the International Growth Centre and as vice-president of the Collegio Carlo Alberto. Her research has been awarded the IZA Young Labor Economist Prize (2008), the Carlo Alberto Medal (2011), the Ester Boserup Prize (2018), the Yrjö Jahnsson Award(2019), the Arrow Award (2021) and a Honorary Doctorate in Economics from the University of Munich (2021).

Barbara Petrongolo

Barbara Petrongolo is a Professor of Economics at the University of Oxford and a Professorial Fellow at Nuffield College. She is Director of the CEPR Labour Economics Programme and Research Associate at the Centre for Economic Performance of the LSE. She previously held positions at Queen Mary University of London, the LSE, the Paris School of Economics and the University of Carlos III (Madrid). She is currently managing co-editor of the Economic Journal. Her primary research interests are in labour economics. She has worked extensively on the performance of labour markets with job search frictions, with applications to unemployment dynamics, welfare policy and interdependencies across local labour markets. Her work also researches the causes of gender inequalities in labour market outcomes, in a historical perspective and across countries, with emphasis on the role of employment selection mechanisms, structural transformation, and interactions within the household.

Ashwini Deshpande

Ashwini Deshpande is Professor of Economics, and Founding Director, Centre for Economic Data and Analysis (CEDA) at Ashoka University, India. Her Ph.D. and early publications have been on the international debt crisis of the 1980s. Subsequently, she has been working on the economics of discrimination and affirmative action, with a focus on caste and gender in India. She is the author of “Grammar of Caste: economic discrimination in contemporary India”, and “Affirmative Action in India”. She received the EXIM Bank award for outstanding dissertation (now called the IERA Award) in 1994, the 2007 VKRV Rao Award for Indian economists under 45 and SKOCH Award for Gender Economics in 2022.

Almudena Sevilla

Almudena Sevilla is a Professor of Economic and Social Policy in the Department of Social Policy at LSE and is currently the Chair of the Royal Economic Society UK Women in Economics Network. She has also held positions at University College London, Queen Mary University, University of Oxford, University of Essex , and the Congressional Budget Office in Washington DC. She received her Ph.D. from Brown University in 2004 in the fields of family and population economics and econometrics. Almudena is an applied micro economist whose research focuses on the areas of gender, child development, and human capital. Her current project, PARENTIME, has received Eur. 2M funding from the European Union as part of the ERC Consolidator Grant to develop new socio-economic theories that unpack the detailed mechanisms driving the inter-generational transmission of inequality.

Health Policy

Authors: Alistair McGuire (LSE), Joan Costa-i-Font (LSE), and Ranjeeta Thomas (LSE) 

Respondents: Carol Propper (Imperial College) and Sir Michael Marmot (UCL) 

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Alistair Mcguire

Alistair McGuire is Professor of Health Economics and Head of the Department of Health Policy at the LSE. Prior to this he was Professor of Economics at City University, London after being a Tutor in Economics at Pembroke College, University of Oxford. He has been a visiting Professor at Harvard University, the University of Sydney, the University of York and the Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona. He has been interested in the economics of health care for over 30 years, and has acted as an economic advisor to a number of governments and governmental bodies on health care (including the UK government, the UK Competition Commission, the UK Medical Research Council (MRC), the UK Economic and Social Science Research Council (ESRC), the UK National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE), the German Institut fur Qualitat Wirtschaftlichkeit im Geshundheitswesen (IQWiG)), as well as for a number of international bodies (including the World Bank and WHO) and pharmaceutical companies and health care insurance companies. He is a founding member of the global Partnership for Health System Sustainability and Resilience (PHSSR) involving over 20 countries.

Joan Costa I Font

Joan Costa-i-Font is a Professor of Health Economics, the team leader of the Ageing and Health Incentives Lab (AHIL), and a faculty associate of the International Inequalities Institute. He is network research fellow at CESifo (since 2008), HEDG (since 2007) and IZA (since 2017). He has taught at the University of Barcelona, Universita Cattolica, and Paris Dauphine, and has held visiting research positions at University of Munich (2008), Oxford University (2009), Boston College (2013) and UCL (2016). Joan has earned both a Harkness Fellowship at Harvard University and a Marie Curie Postdoctoral Research Fellowship at the LSE. He is a visiting scholar in policy evaluation at Sciences Po in Paris in 2022/23 and has been the principal investigator in several research projects and has served as a consultant for a number of international (the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, the World Health Organisation, Public Health England and the European Commission), and (since 2007) and (since national organisations (Cabinet office, NIHR, Public Health England, House of Lords).

Ranjeeta Thomas

Ranjeeta Thomas is Assistant Professor of Health Economics in the Department of Health Policy at the LSE. She is also an Honorary Lecturer in the Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology at Imperial College London. Her research interests are in the economics of public health practice in developing countries. Specifically, studying the role of human behaviour in disease transmission; designing and testing optimal behavioural incentives through field experiments; evaluating the impact of public health interventions on economic outcomes; and forecasting the costs and cost-effectiveness of rolling out successful interventions as policy. She has been a consultant to several international organisations including the Global Fund, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the International Decision Support Initiative. With funding from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), USA, she is currently leading field experiments in Zimbabwe to study the influence of economic preferences on risky sexual behaviour.

Carol Propper

Carol Propper is Professor of Economics at Imperial College Business School in the Department of Economics and Public Policy. Carol was made a Dame in the 2021 New Year Honours in recognition of her public services to health and economics. Her research focuses on the quality of health care delivery and health system productivity and, more broadly, on the design and consequences of incentives for the quality of public services. She was Vice Dean for Faculty and Research at Imperial Business School 2016-19, Co-Director of the Centre for Market and Public Organisation at the University of Bristol 1998-2009 and of the Centre for the Analysis of Social Exclusion at LSE 1997-2007. From 2016 she has been Deputy Editor of VOX EU. She is a Fellow of the British Academy, the Academy of Social Sciences and an International Fellow of the National Academy of Medicine and a past President of the Royal Economic Society.

Michael Marmot

Sir Michael Marmot has been Professor of Epidemiology at University College London since 1985, and is Director of the UCL Institute of Health Equity. He is the author of The Health Gap: the challenge of an unequal world (Bloomsbury: 2015), and Status Syndrome (Bloomsbury: 2004). He is a Distinguished Visiting Professor at Chinese University of Hong Kong (2019-), and co-Director of the of the CUHK Institute of Health Equity. He is the recipient of 20 honorary doctorates. Marmot has led research groups on health inequalities for nearly 50 years. He chaired the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health, WHO Regional Commissions, and reviews on tackling health inequality for UK governments. He is former President of the British Medical Association (2010-2011), and former President of the World Medical Association (2015). He is a Fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences. In 2000 he was knighted by Her Majesty The Queen, for services to epidemiology and the understanding of health inequalities. He was appointed a Companion of Honour for services to public health in the 2023 New Year Honours.


Author: Francisco Ferreira (LSE)

Respondents: Ravi Kanbur (Cornell University) and Nora Lustig (Tulane University) 

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Francisco Ferreira

Francisco H. G. Ferreira is the Amartya Sen Professor of Inequality Studies at the LSE, where he is also Director of the International Inequalities Institute. Francisco is an economist working on the measurement, causes and consequences of inequality and poverty in developing countries, with a special focus on Latin America. His work has been published widely and been awarded various prizes, including the Richard Stone Prize in Applied Econometrics and the Kendrick Prize from the International Association for Research in Income and Wealth. He is also an Affiliated Scholar with the Stone Center at the City University of New York; a non-resident Research Fellow at the Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA, Bonn); and currently serves as President of the Latin American and Caribbean Economic Association (LACEA). Prior to joining the LSE, Francisco had a long career at the World Bank, where his positions included Chief Economist for the Africa Region and Senior Adviser in the Research Department.

Ravi Kanbur

Ravi Kanbur is T. H. Lee Professor of World Affairs, International Professor of Applied Economics and Management, and Professor of Economics at Cornell University. He has served on the senior staff of the World Bank, including as Resident Representative in Ghana, Chief Economist of the African Region, and Principal Adviser to the Chief Economist of the World Bank. He has also served as Director of the World Bank's World Development Report. He is Co-Chair of the Food System Economics Commission. His past positions include: Chair of the Board of United Nations University-World Institute for Development Economics Research, Co-Chair of the Scientific Council of the International Panel on Social Progress, member of the OECD High Level Expert Group on the Measurement of Economic Performance, President of the Human Development and Capability Association, President of the Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, member of the High Level Advisory Council of the Climate Justice Dialogue, and member of the Core Group of the Commission on Global Poverty.

Nora Lustig

Nora Lustig is Samuel Z. Stone Professor of Latin American Economics and Founding Director of the Commitment to Equity Institute (CEQ) at Tulane University. She is also a nonresident fellow at the Handbook: Estimating the Impact of Fiscal Policy on Inequality and Poverty Brookings Institution, the Center for Global Development, the Inter-American Dialogue, the Paris School of Economics, and the Stone Center on Socio-Economic Inequality. Her most recent publication Commitment to Equity, (Brookings 2022) is a step-by-step guide to assessing the impact of taxation and social spending on inequality and poverty in developing countries. She is a founding member and President Emeritus of the Latin American and Caribbean Economic Association (LACEA) and served on the Atkinson Commission on Poverty, the High-level Group on Measuring Economic Performance and Social Progress, and the G20 Eminent Persons Group on Global Financial Governance 2021, the General Assembly of the Society for the Study of Economic Inequality (ECINEQ) appointed Nora Lustig as President-elect of the organization.

Innovation and Productivity

Authors: Philippe Aghion (LSE) and John Van Reenen (LSE)

Respondents: Diane Coyle (University of Cambridge) and Timo Boppart (Stockholm University / University of St. Gallen) 

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Philippe Agnion

Philippe Aghion is a Professor at the College de France, at INSEAD, and at the LSE, and a fellow of the Econometric Society and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. His research focuses on the economics of growth. With Peter Howitt, he pioneered the so-called Schumpeterian Growth paradigm which was subsequently used to analyze the design of growth policies and the role of the state in the growth process. Much of this work is summarized in their joint book Endogenous Growth Theory (MIT Press, 1998) and The Economics of Growth (MIT Press, 2009), in his book with Rachel Griffith on Competition and Growth (MIT Press, 2006), and in his survey “What Do We Learn from Schumpeterian Growth Theory” (joint with U. Akcigit and P. Howitt. In 2001, Philippe Aghion received the Yrjo Jahnsson Award of the best European economist under age 45, in 2009 he received the John Von Neumann Award, and in March 2020 he shared the BBVA “Frontier of Knowledge Award” with Peter Howitt for “developing an economic growth theory based on the innovation that emerges from the process of creative destruction”.

John Van Reenen

John Van Reenen is Ronald Coase School Professor at LSE and Digital Fellow, Initiative for the Digital Economy at the Massachusetts Institute for Technology (MIT). Until 2020 he was Gordon Billard Professor MIT Economics Department and Sloan Management School. He has published over a hundred papers on many areas in economics with a particular focus on firm performance and the causes and consequences of innovation. He was the 2009 winner of the Yrjö Jahnsson Award (the European equivalent of the Clark Medal); the Arrow Prize (2011); the European Investment Bank Prize (2014), and the HBR-McKinsey Award (2018). He is a fellow of the British Academy, the Econometric Society, the NBER, CEPR and the Society of Labor Economists. In 2017, he was awarded an OBE for “services to public policy and economics” and in 2022 he was made an honorary foreign member of the AEA.

Diane Coyle

Diane Coyle is the Bennett Professor of Public Policy at the University of Cambridge. She co- directs the Bennett Institute where she heads research under the themes of progress and productivity. Her latest book is Cogs and Monsters: What Economics Is, and What It Should Be on how economics needs to change to keep pace with the twenty-first century and the digital economy. Diane is also a Director of the Productivity Institute, a Fellow of the Office for National Statistics, an expert adviser to the National Infrastructure Commission, and Senior Independent Member of the ESRC Council. She has served in public service roles including as Vice Chair of the BBC Trust, member of the Competition Commission, of the Migration Advisory Committee and of the Natural Capital Committee. Diane was Professor of Economics at the University of Manchester until March 2018 and was awarded a CBE for her contribution to the public understanding of economics in the 2018 New Year Honours.

Timo Boppart

Timo Boppart is Associate Professor at the Institute for International Economic Studies at Stockholm University and Professor at University of St. Gallen. He holds a PhD from University of Zurich. Timo Boppart's research interests are in macroeconomics broadly defined with a special focus on growth, firm dynamics, and macroeconomic development.

Labour Markets and the Future of Work

Author: Sir Christopher Pissarides (LSE)

Respondents: Alan Manning (LSE) and Kirsten Sehnbruch (LSE) 

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Christopher Pissarides

Sir Christopher Pissarides holds the Regius Chair of Economics at the LSE, the Chair of European Studies at the University of Cyprus and he co-chairs the Institute for the Future of Work, based in London. In the last decade he has worked extensively on the employment implications of automation and artificial intelligence and on the implications of covid-19 for the future of work. In 2010 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for his work on the labour market, sharing it with Dale Mortensen of Northwestern University and Peter Diamond of MIT, and in 2005 he became the first European economist to win the IZA Prize in Labor Economics, sharing it again with his collaborator Dale Mortensen. He has since been honoured with several other awards, Prizes and Society fellowships, including lifetime fellowships of the American Economic Association, the British Academy, the European Academy and the Academy of Athens.

Alan Manning

Alan Manning is Professor of Economics at the LSE and is co-director of the Centre for Economic Performance's research programme on Community and Wellbeing. From 2009-2012 he was Head of the Economics Department at LSE; from 2004 to 2011 he was a member of the NHS Pay Review Body and from 2016-2020 the Chair of the Migration Advisory Committee. His current research focuses on monopsony (finding the right balance of power between workers and employers); immigration and the trade-offs involved in different immigration policies; and how new technology affects the labour market.

Kirsten Sehnbruch

Kirsten Sehnbruch is a British Academy Global Professor and a Distinguished Policy Fellow at the International Inequalities Institute at the LSE. Previously, she was a Research Fellow at the Universidad de Chile, Director of the Institute for Public Policy at the Universidad Diego Portales (Chile), and a Senior Lecturer at the University of California, at Berkeley. During 2018, Kirsten was awarded a British Academy Global Professorship to conceptualise and measure multidimensional employment deprivations in both developed and developing countries from the perspective of the capability approach. Her work on labour markets examines informs social, labour and public policy as it allows resources to be targeted at the most vulnerable workers, while also examining the sustainability of welfare states, which support these workers and their families.

Monetary and Financial Policy

Author: Hélène Rey OBE FBA (London Business School)

Respondents: Paul Tucker (Harvard University) and Şebnem Kalemli-Özcan (University Maryland) 

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Helene Rey

Hélène Rey, O.B.E., F.B.A. is Lord Bagri Professor of Economics at London Business School. Formerly, she was Professor of Economics at Princeton University. Her research focuses on external imbalances, monetary policy and the financial sector and the international monetary system. She introduced the idea of a global financial cycle and qualified the idea of the Mundellian Trilemma. She received numerous prizes including the Bernácer Prize, the Yrjö Jahnsson Award and the inaugural Birgit Grödal and Carl Menger Awards. She is a Fellow of the Econometric Society, a Foreign Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and Foreign Honorary Member of the American Economic Association. She is an editor of the Annual Review of Economics and a vice president of CEPR. She is a member of the Bellagio Group, the Group of Thirty and of the external advisory group to the managing director of the IMF. She is on the Board of the Haut Conseil de Stabilité Financière. She is elected President of the European Economic Association.

Paul Tucker

Paul Tucker is research fellow at Harvard Kennedy School, chair of the Sytemic Risk Council, and author of Unelected Power: The Quest for Legitimacy in Central Banking and the Regulatory State (Princeton University Press, 2018) and Global Discord: Values and Power in a Fractured World Order (Princeton University Press, 2018).

Şebnem Kalemli-Özcan

Şebnem Kalemli-Özcan is Neil Moskowitz Endowed Professor of Economics at University of Maryland, College Park. She is a Research Associate at the NBER and a Research Fellow at CEPR. Currently, she is the co-editor of American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics and serves at the editorial board of American Economic Review. She also serves at the economic advisory panels of the NY Federal Reserve and the Bank of International Settlements. Previously, she served as the Duisenberg fellow at ECB, Houblon-Norman Fellow of Bank of England, CFR International Affairs Fellow, and as the Senior Policy Advisor at the International Monetary Fund. She is the first Turkish social scientist who has received the Marie Curie IRG prize for research on European financial integration. Her research focuses on capital flows, macroeconomic fluctuations, and financial frictions. Currently, she works on the impact of COVID pandemic on supply chain bottlenecks, business failures and inflation, using big data from the globe.

Political Economy

Authors: Tim Besley (LSE) and Torsten Persson (Stockholm University) 

Respondents: Margaret Levi (Stanford University) and Leonard Wantchekon (Princeton University) 

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Tim Besley

Tim Besley is School Professor of Economics and Political Science and W. Arthur Lewis Professor of Development Economics at the LSE. From September 2006 to August 2009, he served as an external member of the Bank of England Monetary Policy Committee and since 2015 has been a member of the UK’s National Infrastructure Commission. He is a Fellow of the Econometric Society, the British Academy, and the European Economic Association. He is also a foreign honorary member of the American Economic Association and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He has served as President of the International Economic Association, European Economic Association, Econometric Society and Royal Economic Society. In 2022 was a joint recipient of the 2022 FBBVA Frontiers of Knowledge award in Economics, Finance and Management for his work in political economy. He was knighted in 2018 for services to economics and public policy.

Torsten Persson

Torsten Persson is Swedish Research Council Distinguished Professor of Economics at Stockholm University, and a former Director at the Institute for International Economic Studies. He is also Centennial Professor at the LSE and has held visiting positions at leading universities in Harvard, Princeton, and Berkeley. He is a member of six Academies, including the Royal Swedish Academy of Science, the British Academy, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He was the 2008 President of the Econometric Society, and was President of the European Economic Association in 2003. His scientific distinctions include the 1997 Yrjö Jahnsson Medal (given biannually to “the best young economist in Europe”), the 2018 CES Distinguished Fellowship (given annually to a world leading economist), and Honorary Doctorates at Aalto University and the University of Mannheim.

Margaret Levi

Margaret Levi is Professor of Political Science and Senior Fellow, Center for Democracy, Development and Rule of Law (CDDRL), Stanford University. She is faculty fellow and former Director, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioural Sciences (CASBS), Senior Fellow at the Woods Institute for the Environment, and co-director of the Ethics, Society and Technology Hub. She is winner of the Skytte Prize and Falling Walls Breakthrough. She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, British Academy, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Philosophical Society, American Association of Political and Social Sciences, and former president of the American Political Science Association. Levi is author or co-author of numerous articles and seven books, including: Of Rule and Revenue; In the Interest of Others; and the co-edited Creating a New Moral Political Economy for Daedalus. She is co-general editor of the Annual Review of Political Science.

Leonard Wantcheckon

Leonard Wantchekon is the James Madison Professor of Political Economy, Professor of Politics, and International Affairs at Princeton University. He is the Founder and President of the African School of Economics and the Pan African ScientificResearchCouncil.His researchcentersonpolitical economy,development economics and economic history with regional focus on Africa and on substantive topics such as democracy and development, education and social mobility, and the long-term social impact of slavery and colonial rule. Finally, Wantchekon is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Econometric Society, the Bureau for Research and Economic Analysis of Development (BREAD) and Research Affiliate at the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). He served as Vice President of the American Political Science Association and on the Executive Committee of the International Economic Association.


Author: Dani Rodrik (Harvard University)

Respondents: Pierre-Olivier Gourinchas (IMF) and Jean Pisani-Ferry (Bruegel / Peterson Institute for International Economics) 

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Dani Rodrik

Dani Rodrik is the Ford Foundation Professor of International Political Economy at Harvard's John F. Kennedy School of Government. He is currently President of the International Economic Association, and co-director of Economics for Inclusive Prosperity. His newest books areCombating Inequality: Rethinking Government's Role(2021, editedwith Olivier Blanchard) and Straight Talk on Trade: Ideas for a Sane World Economy (2017). His research focuses on globalization, economic growth and development, and political economy. He is the recipient of numerous awards, including the inaugural Albert O. Hirschman Prize of the Social Science Research Council and the Princess of Asturias Award for Social Sciences. He was included in Prospect magazine's World's Top 50 Thinkers list (2019) and in Politico magazine's 50 list (2017).

Pierre-Olivier Gourinchas

Pierre-Olivier Gourinchas is the Economic Counsellor and the Director of Research of the IMF. He is on leave from the University of California at Berkeley where he is the S.K. and Angela Chan Professor of Global Management in the Department of Economics and at the Haas School of Business. He is the laureate of the 2007 Bernàcer Prize for best European economist working in macroeconomics and finance under the age of 40, and of the 2008 Prix du Meilleur Jeune Economiste for best French economist under the age of 40. He attended Ecole Polytechnique and received his PhD in Economics in 1996 from MIT.

Jean Pisani-Ferry

Jean Pisani-Ferry is a Senior Fellow at Bruegel, the European think tank, and a Non- Resident Senior Fellow at the Peterson Institute (Washington DC). He serves as non- executive chair of I4CE, the French institute for climate economics. He served from 2013 to 2016 as Commissioner-General of France Stratégie, the ideas lab of the French government.

State Capacity

Authors: Adnan Khan (LSE), Dan Honig (UCL), and Joana Naritomi (LSE) 

Respondents: Matt Andrews (Harvard University) and Ernesto Dal Bo (University of California, Berkley) 

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Adnan Khan

Adnan Khan is Professor in the School of Public Policy (SPP) at LSE. He is currently seconded as the Chief Economist and Director for Economics and Evaluation Directorate in the Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office (FCDO). He served as Research and Policy Director at the International Growth Centre (IGC) at the LSE and has also been an Academic Director at the SPP. His research has focused on bureaucracies, public finance, entrepreneurship, and social protection. He has taught courses at the LSE and Harvard Kennedy School on development economics, public organisations, and political economy. He has worked on state fragility through the LSE-Oxford Commission on State Fragility, Growth and Development, and the subsequent Reducing Fragilities Initiative. He has spent more than a decade in different policy roles in various governments.

Dan Honig

Dan Honig is Associate Professor of Public Policy at University College London's School of Public Policy, and (beginning September 2023) Georgetown McCourt. His research focuses on the relationship between management practice, organizational structure, and performance in delivering welfare-improving services. He is currently completing a book manuscript for Oxford University Press entitled Mission Driven Bureaucrats retain, and cultivate mission oriented public servants worldwide. Beginning in September 2023 he will be PI on Relational State Capacity, an ERC-awarded five year exploration of state capacity. The project explores how public welfare improvement often involves not just technical, but also social, infrastructure and how ‘capacity’ is in part a function of the, focused on how best to attract, relationship (and relational contract) between citizens and state agents.


Joana Naritomi is an Associate Professor at the LSE, International Development Department, and the Academic Director of the LSE School of Public Policy. She is a Research Affiliate in BREAD, the CEPR Public Economics and Development Economics programmes, STICERD Public Economics, Institute for Fiscal Studies, International Growth Centre, and a JPAL-LAC Invited Researcher. She has a PhD in Political Economy and Government (Economics ) from Harvard University, and her main research interests are Public Economics, Development Economics and Political Economy. She has papers published in the American Economic Reviewand theJournal of Economic History. Her work has appeared in TheNew York Times, The Economist, and Folha de São Paulo.

Matt Andrews

Matt Andrews is the Edward S. Mason Senior Lecturer in International Development at Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government. He has worked in over 50 countries across the globe as a civil servant, international development expert, researcher, teacher, advisor and coach. He has written three books and over 60 other publications on the topics of development and management. He is also the faculty director of the Building State Capability program at Harvard, which is home to a policy and management method designed to help governments address complex policy challenges. Called problem driven iterative adaptation (PDIA), this method emerged through over a decade of applied action research work and is now used by practitioners across the globe.

Ernesto Dal Bo

Ernesto Dal Bó is the Phillips Girgich Professor of Business and Public Policy at the Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley. He served as chair of the Business and Public Policy Group at Berkeley-Haas from 2016 to 2022. He has worked on a wide range of political economy issues, including political and bureaucratic selection, state formation, the development of state capabilities, social conflict, and political influence. He is a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research.

Trade Policy

Author: Dave Donaldson (MIT)

Respondents: Tony Venables CBE (University of Manchester) and Thomas Sampson (LSE) 

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Dave Donaldson

Dave Donaldson is Professor of Economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He teaches and carries out research on trade, both international and intranational, with applications in the fields of International Economics, Development Economics, Economic History, Environmental Economics, Urban Economics, and Agricultural Economics. He has studied, among other topics: the welfare and inequality effects of market integration, the impact of improvements in transportation infrastructure, and how trade can mitigate and exacerbate the effects of climate change. This work was awarded the 2017 John Bates Clark Medal as well as an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellowship and several grants from the National Science Foundation. He currently serves as a co-editor at Econometrica and previously at American Economic Journal: Applied Economics. He is a Fellow of the Econometric Society and a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Tony Vernables

Tony Venables CBE is Professor of Economics at The Productivity Institute, University of Manchester, and senior Research Fellow in the Department of Economics, University of Oxford. He is a Fellow of the British Academy, the Econometric Society and the Regional Science Association. Former positions include Chief Economist at the UK Department for International Development, professor at Oxford University and at the LSE, and research manager of the trade research group in the World Bank. He has published extensively in the areas of international trade, spatial economics, and natural resources, including work on trade and imperfect competition, economic integration, multinational firms, and economic geography.

Thomas Sampson

Thomas Sampson is an Associate Professor of Economics at the LSE. His research studies the impact of globalisation on workers, firms and productivity and how international trade affects growth and development. Thomas is also an Associate in the Trade programme at the Centre for Economic Performance where he has played a leading role in the centre's analysis of the implications of Brexit for the UK economy. Thomas has a PhD in economics from Harvard University and previously worked as an Overseas Development Institute Fellow at the Bank of Papua New Guinea.

Welfare State

Author: Nicholas Barr (LSE)

Respondents: Paul Johnson (Institute for Fiscal Studies) and Santiago Levy (Brookings Institution) 

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Nicholas Barr

Nicholas Barr is Professor of Public Economics at the European Institute, LSE. The heart of his work is an exploration of how market failures can both explain and justify the existence of welfare states. He is a member of the Editorial Board of the International Social Security Review and an Associate Editor of CESifo Economic Studies, the Australian Economic Review and the Journal of the Economics of Ageing. He worked at the World Bank from 1990-1992 on the design of income transfers and health finance in Central and Eastern Europe and Russia, and from 1995-1996 as one of the authors of the World Bank's World Development Report 1996: From Plan to Market. He has been a Visiting Scholar at the Fiscal Affairs Department at the International Monetary Fund, a member of the World Economic Forum Global Agenda Councils on Demographic Shifts and on Ageing Society and a member of the governing bodies of HelpAge International and the Pensions Policy Institute. A range of academic and policy writing can be found here.

Paul Johnson

Paul Johnson is the Director of the Institute for Fiscal Studies. He is a columnist for The Times, and is a regular contributor to other broadcast and print media. He is currently a member of the UK Climate Change Committee, and of the Financial Services Culture Board. He is a visiting professor in the University College London Policy Lab and at the UCL Department of Economics. Previous roles have included time as chief economist at the Department for Education and as director of public spending at HM Treasury, where he also served as deputy head of the government economic service. He was appointed CBE in the 2018 birthday honours.

Santiago Levy

Santiago Levy is currently a Senior Fellow at The Brookings Institution and member of the board of various development organizations. Before that, he was Vice-president at the Inter- American Development Bank, General Director of Mexico’s Social Security Institute, deputy minister at Mexico’s Ministry of Finance, and President of Mexico’s Federal Competition Commission. He was president of the Latin American and Caribbean Economic Association, Associate Professor of Economics and director of the Institute for Economic Development at Boston University, Visiting Researcher at Cambridge University and Professor of Economics at the Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México. At the Ministry of Finance, he was the main architect of Progresa-Oportunidades. At the Social Security Institute, he promoted legal changes to reform pensions and extend coverage to rural workers. He has published on social policy, informality, education, tax policy, trade and competition policy, and policies for poverty alleviation. He has received First Place, National Research Prize in Economics (Banco Nacional de México); First Place, Latin American Economics Prize (El Trimestre Económico); and Distinguished Alumni Award, Boston University. His current work focuses on the challenges of socially inclusive growth in Latin America.