Digital Divide references

Last updated 7th June 2022
** Updated 7th June 2022
* Updated 29th December 2020

Abu-Shanab, E. and Al-Jamal, N. (2015) ‘Exploring the Gender Digital Divide in Jordan’, Gender, Technology and Development, 19(1), 91–113.

 Antonio, A. and Tuffley, D. (2014) ‘The Gender Digital Divide in Developing Countries,’ Future Internet, 6(4), p.678.

Attewell, P. (2001) 'The First and the Second Digital Divides', Sociology of Education, 74, 252-259.

Barrantes, R. (2007) ‘Analysis of ICT Demand: What is Digital Poverty and how to Measure it?’ in H. Galperin and J.Marisca (eds) Digital poverty: Latin American and Caribbean perspectives, l, 29–54. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre, Practical Action Publishing.

Barzilai-Nahon, K. (2006) ‘Gaps and Bits: Conceptualizing Measurements for Digital Divide/s.’ The Information Society 22, 269-278.

Bennett, S., Maton, K., & Kervin, L. (2008) ‘The ‘Digital Natives’ Debate: A Critical Review of the Evidence’, British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(5), 775-786.

Blank, G. and Groselj, D/ (2014) ‘Dimensions of Internet Use: Amount, Variety, and Types’, Information, Communication & Society 17(4), 417–435.

Bonfadelli, H. (2002) 'The Internet and Knowledge Gaps – A Theoretical and Empirical Investigation, European Journal of Communication, 17(1), 65-84.

Barzilai-Nahon, K. (2006) ‘Gaps and Bits: Conceptualizing Measurements for Digital Divide/s’, The Information Society 22, 269–78

Brandtzæg, P.B., Heim, J. and Karahasanovic, A. (2011) ‘Understanding the New Digital Divide—A Typology of Internet users in Europe,’ International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 69, 123–138.

Brown, A., Lopez, G., and Lopez, M. Hugo (2016) Digital Divides Narrows for Latinos as more Spanish Speakers and Immigrants Go Online. Pew Research Center, [online]. Available at: panish-speakers-and-immigrants-go-online/

Bure, C. (2005) ‘Digital Inclusion without Social Inclusion: The Consumption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) within Homeless Subculture in Scotland’, The Journal of Community Informatics, 1(2), 116–133.

Campos-Castillo, C. (2015) ‘Revisiting the First-level Digital Divide in the United States: Gender and Race/ethnicity Patterns, 2007–2012,’ Social science computer review, 33(4), pp. 423-439.

Charlesworth, D. (2011) ‘Bridging Digital and Gender Divides: A Preliminary Study applying Uses and Gratification Theory to Dot Diva's Recruiting Strategies,’ Issues in information systems, 12(1), 256-263.

Choemprayong, S. (2006) ‘Closing Digital Divides: The United States’ Policies. Libri, 56, 201-212.

Clark, L.S., Demont-Heinrich, C. and Webber, S.A. (2004) 'Ethnographic Interviews on the Digital Divide'. New Media & Society 6(4), 529–47.

Clark, L.S., Demont-Heinrich, C. & Webber, S. (2005) ‘Parents, ICTs, and Children’s Prospects for Success: Interviews along the Digital Access Rainbow’, Critical Studies in Media Communication, 22(5), 409–426.

Clayton, J. and Macdonald, S. (2013) 'The Limits of Technology', Information, Communication & Society, 16(6,) 945-966.

Clement, A. and Shade, L. (2002) 'The Access Rainbow: Conceptualising Universal Access to the Information/Communication Infrastructure', in Gurstein, M (Ed.) Community informatics, Idea Publishing, Hershey, PA, pp.32-51.

Cleary, P. F., Pierce, G., & Trauth, E. M. (2006) 'Closing the Digital Divide: Understanding Racial, Ethnic, Social Class, Gender and Geographic Disparities in Internet Use among School Age Children in the United States' Information Society, 4, 354–373.

Colombo, F. and Aroldi, P. (2015) ‘New Elders, Old Divides: ICTs, Inequalities and Well Being amongst Young Elderly Italians’, Communicar, No. 45.

Compaine, B. (2001) ‘Declare the War Won’, in Compaine, B. (Ed.) The Digital Divide: Facing a Crisis of Creating a Myth, MIT Press, Camb., pp.315-35

Cooper, J. (2006) ‘The Digital Divide: The Special Case of Gender’, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 22, 320–334.

Correa, T., (2010) 'The Participation Divide among ‘‘Online Experts.’’' Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 16 (1), 71–92.

*Correa, T. (2016) ‘Digital Skills and Social Media Use: How Internet Skills are related to Different Types of Facebook use among ‘Digital Natives’’, Information, Communication & Society, 19(8), 1095–1107.

*Correa, T., Pavez, I., and Contreras, J. (2017) ‘Beyond Access: A Relational and Resource-based Model of Household Internet Adoption in Isolated Communities’, Telecommunications Policy, 41(9), 757–768.

*Correa , T., Pavez, I. and Contreras, J. (2020) ‘Digital Inclusion through Mobile Phones?: A Comparison between Mobile-only and Computer Users in Internet Access, Skills and Use’, Information, Communication & Society, 23(7), 1074-1091.

Cotten, S., Hale, T., Moroney, M., O’Neal, L. & Borch, C. (2011) ‘Using Affordable Technology to Decrease Digital Inequality’, Information, Communication & Society, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 424–444.

Couldry, N. (2007) 'Communicative Entitlements and Democracy: The Future of the Digital Divide Debate', in Mansell, R, Avgeroo, C., Quah, D. and Silverstone, R. (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Information and Communication Technologies, OUP, Oxford.

Cresci, M.K., Yarandi, H.N. and Morrell, R.W. (2010) The digital divide and urban older adults. Computers, Informatics, Nursing 28(2): 88–94.

DiMaggio, P. and Hargittai, E. (2001) From the ‘Digital Divide’ to ‘Digital Inequality’: Studying Internet Use as Penetration Increases. Available at:

DiMaggio, P., Hargittai, E., Neuman, W. and Robinson, J. (2001) ‘Social Implications of the Internet’, Annual Review of Sociology, No.27, pp.306-36.

DiMaggio, P., Hargittai, E., Celeste, C. and Shafer, S. (2004) 'Digital Inequality: From Unequal Access to Differentiated Use', in Neckerman. K. (Ed.) Social Inequality, Russel Sage Foundation, New York, 2004, pp. 355-400.

Dolničar, V. (2011) ‘Measuring the Dynamics of Cross-national Digital Divides’, in Haddon, L. (Ed.) The Contemporary Internet: National and Cross-National European Studies, Peter Lang, Frankfurt, pp.190-205.

Dolničar, V., Christou, C., Gannon, R., Haddon, L, Louca, S., Puga, P. and Vieira, J. (2011) ‘Cross-national Broadband Digital Divides’, in Haddon, L. (Ed.) The Contemporary Internet: National and Cross-National European Studies, Peter Lang, Frankfurt, pp.121-138.

*Dutton, W. and Blank, G. (2011) ‘Next Generation Users: The Internet in Britain. OxIS Survey: 2011’, Oxford: Oxford Internet Institute.

*Dutton, W. and Blank, G. (2013) ‘Cultures of the Internet: The Internet in Britain. Oxford Internet Survey 2013 Report’, Oxford: Oxford Internet Institute.

*Dutton, W. and Blank, G. (2015) ‘Cultures on the Internet’, InterMedia, Winter 2014/15, 42(4/5), 55–57.

*Dutton, W. and Blank, G. (2015) ‘Cultural Stratification on the Internet: Five Clusters of Values and Beliefs among Users in Britain, in L. Robinson, & S. Cotten (Eds.), New Media Cultures: Communication and Information Technologies Annual, Vol. 11. Emerald Studies in Media and Communication. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing, pp. 3–28.

*Dutton, W. and Reisdorf, B. (2019) ‘Cultural Divides and Digital Inequalities: Attitudes Shaping Internet and Social Media divides’, Information, Communication & Society, 22(1), 18-38.

Dutton, W. H., Shepherd, A. & di Gennaro, C. (2007) ‘Digital Divides and Choices Reconfiguring Access’, in Information and Communication Technologies in Society: e-Living in a Digital Europe, eds B. Anderson, M. Brynin, J. Gershuny & Y. Raban, Routledge, London, pp. 31–45.

Dutton, W.H., Gillet, S. E., McKnight L. W. and Peltu, M. (2004) ‘Bridging Broadband Internet Divides: Reconfiguring Access to Enhance Communicative Power', Journal of Information Technologies, 19, 28-38.

Eastin, M (2005) 'Internet Self-efficacy and the Psychology of the Digital Divide', Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 8, 62–75.

Epstein, D, Nisbet, E. and Gillespie, T. (2011) ‚ Who's Responsible for the Digital Divide? Public Perceptions and Policy Implications, The Information Society, 27, 92–104.

Eynon, R. and Geniets, A (2016) ‘The Digital Skills Paradox: How do Digitally Excluded Youth develop Skills to Use the Internet?’ Learning, Media and Technology, 41(3), 463–479.

Eynon, R. and Helsper, E. (2011) ‘UK Adults Learning Online: Digital Choice and/or Digital Exclusion?’, New Media and Society, 13(4), 534–551.

Facer, K., & Furlong, R. (2001). 'Beyond the Myth of the 'Cyberkid': Young People at the Margins of the Information Revolution.' Journal of Youth Studies, 4(4), 451-469.

*Fernández-Ardèvol, M., Sawchuk, K. and Grenier, L. (2017) Maintaining connections: octo- and nonagenarians on digital ‘Use and non-use’. Nordicom Review 38: 39–51. DOI: 10.1515/


Foley, P. (2004) ‘Does the Internet Help to overcome Social Exclusion?’ Electronic Journal of e-Government, 2(2), 139–146.

Fong, M. W. L. (2009) ‘Digital Divide Between Urban and Rural Regions in China’, Ejisdc the Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries, 36, 1-12.

Friemel, T.N. (2016) ‘The Digital Divide has Grown Old: Determinants of a Digital Divide among Seniors’, New Media & Society, 18(2), 313-331.

Frissen, V. (2003) ‘The Myth of the Digital Divide’, in Cammaerts, B., Van Audenhove, L., Nulens, G. and Pauwels, C. (eds) Beyond the Digital Divide: Reducing Exclusion, Fostering Inclusion, VUB, Brussels University Press, Brussels, pp.17-34.

Fuchs, C. and Horak, E. (2008) ‘Africa and the DigitalDivide,’ Telematics and informatics, 25(2), pp. 99-116.

Gilleard, C. and Higgs, P. (2008) ‘Internet Use and the Digital Divide in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing’, European Journal of Ageing, 5, 233–239

Gilleard, C., Jones, I. and Higgs, P. (2015) ‘Connectivity in Later Life: The Declining Age Divide in Mobile Cell Phone Ownership’, Sociological Research Online, 20(2), 3

Godoy, S., & Galvez, M. (2011) ‘The Corresponding Digital Divide: Barriers and Facilitators of the Use of ICTs in Middle and Lower-middle Class Parents in Chile’, Revista CTS, 18(6), 199–219.

Goedhart, N., Broerse, J., Kattouw, R. and Dedding, C. (2019) ‘”Just Having a Computer doesn’t make Sense”: The Digital Divide from the Perspective of Mothers with a Low Socioeconomic Position’, New Media & Society, 21(11-12), 2347-2365.

Gonzales, A. (2016) ‘The contemporary US Digital ivide: From initial Access to Technology Maintenance.’ Information, Communication & Society 19 (2), 234-248.

Graham, S. (2002) ‘Bridging Urban Digital Divides? Urban Polarisation and Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs)’, Urban studies, 39(1), 33-56.

*Gray, T., Gainous, J., & Wagner, K. (2017) ‘Gender and the Digital Divide in Latin America’, Social Science Quarterly, 98(1), 326–340.

*Grošelj, D., Reisdorf, B.C. and Petrovčič, A. (2019) Obtaining indirect internet access: an examination how reasons for internet non-use relate to proxy internet use. Telecommunications Policy 43: 213–224.

Gunkel, D. (2003) ‘Second Thoughts: Toward a Critique of the Digital Divide', New Media and Society, 5(4), 499-522.

Gutierrez, L. and Gamboa, L. (2012) ‘Determinants of ICT Usage among Low-income Groups in Colombia, Mexico and Peru’, The Information Society, 26(5), 346-363.

Guttman, N., Lev, E., Segev, E., et al. (2018) ‘”I never thought I could get Health Information from the Internet!”: Unexpected Uses of an Internet Website designed to enable Ethiopian Immigrants with Low/No Literacy Skills  to browse Health Information’, New Media & Society, 20(7), 2272–2295.

Haddon, L. (2000) ‘Social Exclusion and Information and Communication Technologies: Lessons from Studies of Single Parents and the Young Elderly’, New Media and Society, 2(4), 387-406.

Haddon, L. (2004) Information and Communication Technologies in Everyday Life: A Concise Introduction and Research Guide, Berg, Oxford

Halford, S. and Savage, M. (2010) 'Reconceptualizing digital social inequality', Information, Communication & Society,13 (7), October 2010, pp. 937–955

Hargittai E (2002) 'Second-level digital divide: Differences in people’s online skills.' First Monday 7(4). Available at:

Hargittai, E., (2007). 'Whose Space?' Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 13(1), 14.

Hargittai, E. (2008) 'The Digital Reproduction of Inequality', in Grusky, D (Ed.) Social Stratification, Westview Press, Boulder, pp. 936-944.

Hargittai, E. (2010) ‘Digital Na(t)ives? Variations in Internet Skills and Uses among Members of the New Generation’, Sociological Enquirer, 80(1), 92-113.

Hargittai, E. and Dobransky, K. (2017) ‘Old Dogs, new Clicks: Digital Inequality in Skills and Uses among Older Adults’, Canadian Journal of Communication, 42, 195–212.

Hargittai, E. and Hinnant, A. (2008) 'Digital Inequality: Differences in Young Adults' Use of the Internet', Communication Research, 35(5), 602-621.

Hargittai, E., Walejko, G., (2008) 'The Participation Divide', Information, Communication and Society, 11(2), 239–256.

Hargittai, E., Piper, A. and Morris, M. (2018) ‘From Internet Access to Internet Skills: Digital Inequality among Older Adults’, Universal Access in the Information Society. Epub ahead of print, 3 May.

Helsper, E. J. (2008) Digital Inclusion: An Analysis of Social Disadvantage and the Information Society, Department for Communities and Local Government, London.

Helsper, E. (2009) ‘The Ageing Internet: Digital Choice and Exclusion among the Elderly’, Working With Older People, 13(4), 28-33.

Helsper, E. (2010) ‘’Gendered Internet use across Generations and Life Stages’, Communication Research 37(3), 352–374.

Helsper E. (2012) ‘A Corresponding Fields Model for the Links between Social and Digital Exclusion’, Communication Theory, 22(4), 403–426.

Helsper, E. and Eynon, R. (2013) ‘Distinct Skill Pathways to Digital Engagement’, European Journal of Communication. 28(6): 696–713.

Helsper, E. and Reisdorf, B. (2017) ‘The emergence of a ‘digital underclass’ in Great Britain and Sweden: changing reasons for digital exclusion,’ New Media & Society 19(8), 1253–1270.

Helsper, E. and van Deursen, A. (2017) ‘Do the rich get digitally richer? Quantity and quality of support for digital engagement’, Information, Communication & Society 20(5), 700–714.

Helsper, E, van Deursen, A. and Eynon, R. (2015) Tangible Outcomes of internet use. from

digital skills to tangible outcomes project report. Available at: lse/research/DiSTO

Helsper, E., van Deursen, A. and Eynon, R. (2016) Measuring types of internet use. from digital skills to tangible outcomes project report. Available at:

Hassani, S.N., (2006) 'Locating Digital Divides at Home, Work and Everywhere Else'. Poetics 34 (4–5), 250–272.

Helsper, E. J., & Eynon, R. (2010). 'Digital Natives: Where is the Evidence?' British Educational Research Journal, 36(3), 503 - 520.

Helsper, E. J., & Galacz, A. (2009). 'Understanding the Links between Social and Digital Inclusion in Europe'. In G. Cardoso, A. Cheong & J. Cole (Eds.), The World Wide Internet: Changing Societies, Economies and Cultures (pp. 146-178). Taipa: University of Macau Press.

Helpser, E. and Reisdorf, B. (2017) ‘The emergence of a “digital underclass” in Great Britain and Sweden: Changing reasons for digital exclusion’, New Media & Society, 9(8), 1253–1270.

Herring, S. C. (2008). 'Questioning the Generational Divide: Technological Exoticism and Adult Construction of Online Youth Identity'. in D. Buckingham (Ed.), Youth, identity, and digital media (pp. 71–92). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Hollingworth, S., Mansaray, A., Allen, K., & Rose, A. (2011) ‘Parents’ Perspectives on Technology and Children’s Learning in the Home: Social Class and the Role of the Habitus’, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 27(4), 347-360

Horrigan, J., Rainie, L., Allen, K., Madden, M. and O’Grady, E (2003) The Ever-Shifting Internet Population: A New Look of Internet Access and the Digital Divide, Pew Internet and American Life Project, April, 16th.

Huang, J., & Russell, S. (2006) ‘The digital divide and academic achievement’, The Electronic Library, 24(2), 160-173.

James, J. (2008) ‘Digital divide complacency: Misconceptions and dangers’, The Information Society, Vol.24, No.1, pp.54–61.

Judge, S., et al. (2006). ‘Closing the digital divide: Update from the early childhood longitudinal study’, The Journal of Educational Research 100(1), 52-60.

Jung, J, Qui, J. and Kim, Y. (2001) 'Internet Connectedness and Inequality: Beyond the Divide', Communication Research, 28(4), 507-35.

Katz, J. and Aspden, P. (1998) ‘Internet Dropouts in the USA. The Invisible Group’, Telecommunications Policy, 22(4/5), 327-39.

Katz, J. and Rice, R (2002) Social Consequences of Internet Use: Access, Involvement and Interaction, MIT press, Boston.

Katz, J. Rice, R. and Aspden, P. (2001) ‘The Internet, 1995-2000. Access, Civic Involvement and Social Interaction’, American Behavioral Scientist, 45(3), 405-17.

*Katz, V. S. (2017) ‘What it means to be ‘Under-connected’ in Lower-income Families’, Journal of Children and Media, 11(2), 241–244.

Kiel, J. M. (2005) ‘The digital divide: Internet and e-mail use by the elderly’, Informatics for Health and Social Care, 30 (1), 19–23.

Kingsely, P. and Anderson, T. (1998) ‘Facing Life without the Internet’, Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy, 8(4), 303-12.

Kvasny, L. (2006) 'The Cultural (Re)production of Digital Inequality'. Information, Communication and Society 9(2), 160–81.

Kvasny, L. and Keil, M. (2006) ‘The challenges of redressing the digital divide: a tale of two US cities,’ Information systems journal, 16(1), 22-53.

Lee, L. (2008) ‘The Impact of Young People’s Internet Use on Class Boundaries and Life Trajectories’, Sociology, 42(1), 137–153.

Lee, S. (2016) ‘Smart Divide: Paradigm Shift in Digital Divide in South Korea’, Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, Vol.48(3), pp.260-268

Lenhart, A., and Horrigan, J. (2003) ‘Re-visualizing the Digital Divide as a Digital Spectrum’, IT & Society 1(5), 23–39.

Lim, S. S. (2009) Young People and the Digital Divide – An Ethnographic Stud( of Media-have-less Youths. Paper for ‘Keywords in Communication: 2009 Annual Conference of the International Communication Association’, Chicago. 21-25 May.

Ling, R. (2008) ‘Should we be concerned that the elderly don’t text?’ The Information Society 24(5), 334–41.

Livingstone, S. and Helsper, E. (2007) 'Gradations in Digital Inclusion: Children, Young People and the Digital Divide', New Media and Society, 9 (4), 671-96.

Loges, W. and Jung, J. (2001) 'Exploring the Digital Divide: Internet Connectedness and Age', Communication Research, 28 (4), 536-62

Mansell, R. (2002) 'From Digital Divide to Digital Entitlements in Knowledge Societies', Current Sociology, 50 (3), 407-26.

Mason, S. M. and Hacker, K. (2003) 'Applying Communication Theory to Digital Divide Research', IT&Society, 1(5), 40-55.

Mesch, G., Talmud, I. and Kolobov, T. (2013) ‘Explaining digital inequalities in Israel: juxtaposing the conflict and cultural perspectives’, in Ragnedda, M. and Muschert, G.W., (eds.) The digital divide: the internet and social inequality in international perspective. London; New York: Routledge, pp. 222-236.

Mihelj, S., Leguina, A. and Downey, J. (2019) ‘Culture is digital: Cultural

participation, diversity and the digital divide’, New Media & Society, 21(7), 1465-1485.

Mossberger, K., Tolbert, J. J. and Stansbury, M. (2003) Virtual Inequality: Beyond the Digital Divide, Georgetown University Press, Washington, DC.

Murdock, G. and Golding, P. (2004) 'Dismantling the Digital Divide: Rethinking the Dynamics of Particiaption and Exclusion', in Calabrese, A. and Sparks, C. (eds) Towards the Political Economy of Culture: Capitalism and Communication in the Twenty-First Century, Rowman & Littlefield, Lantham, MD, pp.244-60.

Napoli, P. and Obar J. (2014) ‘The emerging mobile Internet underclass: a critique of mobile internet access’, The Information Society 30(5), 323–334.

Napoli, P. and Obar, J. (2017) ‘Second class netizens’, in Lind RA (ed.) Race and Gender in Electronic Media: Content, Context, Culture, New York: Routledge, pp. 293–311.

National Telecommunications and Information Administration (1995) Falling Through the Net: A Survey of the ‘Haves’ and ‘Have-Nots’ in Rural and Urban America, U.S. Government Printing Office, New York.

*Newlands, G., Lutz, C. and Hoffmann, C.P. (2018) Sharing by proxy: invisible users in the sharing economy. First Monday 23(11): 1–14.

Nguyen, A. (2012) ‘The Digital Divide Versus the ‘Digital Delay’: Implications from a Forecasting Model of Online News Adoption and Use’, International Journal of Media and Cultural Politics, 8(2-3), 251–268

Nishida, T., Pick, J.B. and Sarkar, A.  (2014) ‘Japan's prefectural digital divide: A multivariate and spatial analysis’, Telecommunications Policy, 38, 992–1010.

Norris, P. (2001) Digital Divide: Civic Engagement, Information Poverty, and the Internet Worldwide, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2001.

**Olsson, T., Samuelsson, U. and Viscovi, D. (2019) ‘At risk of exclusion? Degrees of ICT access and literacy among senior citizens’, Information, Communication & Society 22(1): 55–72.

Parayil, G. (2005) Digital Divide and Increasing Returns: Contradictions of Informational Capitalism', The Information Society,  21 (1), 41–51.

Pare, J. (2004) ‘The Digital Divide: Why the ‘the’ is misleading’, in Murray, M. and Klang, M. (eds), Human Rights in the Digital Age, Cavendish Publishing, London, pp. 85-97.

*Pavez, I., Correa, T. and Contreras, J. (2017) ‘Meanings of (Dis)connection: Exploring Non-users in isolated Rural Communities with Internet Access Infrastructure’, Poetics, 63, 11–21.

Peter, J. & Valkenburg, P. (2006). Adolescents’ internet use: Testing the ‘‘disappearing digital divide’’ versus the ‘‘emerging digital differentiation’’ approach. Poetics, 34, 293-305.

Prensky, M. (2001). 'Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants'. On The Horizon - The Strategic Planning Resource for Education Professionals, 9(5), 1-6.

Puga, P. (2011) ‘eGovernment and the digital divide’, in Haddon, L. (Ed.) The Contemporary Internet: National and Cross-National European Studies, Peter Lang, Frankfurt, pp.139-154.

**Quan-Haase, A., Williams, C., Kicevski,M., et al. (2018) ‘Dividing the grey divide: deconstructing myths about older adults’ online activities, skills, and attitudes’, American Behavioral Scientist 62(9): 1207–1228.

Rao, S. S. (2005) ‘Bridging digital divide: Efforts in India’, Telematics and Informatics, 22(4), 361–375.

Rainie L, Madden M, Boyce A, Lenhart A and Allen K (2003) The Ever-shifting Internet Population: A New Look at Internet Access and the Digital Divide. Washington, DC: Pew Internet and American Life Project.

Reisdorf, B. (2010) 'Non-adoption of the internet in Great Britain and Sweden: A Cross National Comparison', Information, Communication and Society, 14(3), 400-20.

Reisdorf, B. and Groselj, D. (2017) ‘Internet (non-) use types and motivational access: Implications for digital inequalities research’, New Media and Society, 19(8), 1157-1176.

Reisdorf BC, Axelsson AS and Maurin H (2012) Living offline—a qualitative study of internet non-use in Great Britain and Sweden (Selected Papers of Internet Research, 2). Available at:

Robinson, L, (2009). 'A Taste for the Necessary', Information, Communication and Society, 12(4), 488.

Robinson, L., Cotton, S., Ono, H., Quan-Haase, A, Mesch, G., Chen, W., Schulz, J., Hale, T. and Stern, M. (2015) ‘Digital inequalities and why they matter.’ Information, Communication & Society 18 (5): 569-582.

Rogers, E. (2001) ‘The Digital Divide’, Convergence, Vol.7, No.4, pp.96-111.

Sassi, S. (2005). 'Cultural differentiation or social segregation? Four approaches to the digital divide'. New Media & Society, 7(5), 684-700.

Schofield Clark L., Demont-Heinrich C. & Webber S. (2005) ‘Parents, ICTs, and Children’s Prospects for Success: Interviews along the Digital ‘Access Rainbow’. Critical Studies in Media Communication 22, 409–426.

Schreeder, A., van Deursen, A. and van Dijk, J. (2017) ‘Determinants of Internet skills, uses and outcomes: a systematic review of the second- and third-level digital divide’, Telematics and Informatics 34(8), 1607–1624.

Schradie, J. (2001) ‘The Digital Production Gap: The Digital Divide and Web 2.0 Collide’, Poetics 39, 145–168

Selwyn, N. (2003) ‘Apart from Technology: Understanding Peoples’ Non-use of Information and Communication Technologies in Everyday Life’, Technology in Society 25(1): 99–116.

Selwyn, N. (2004) ‘Reconsidering Political and Popular Understandings of the Digital Divide’, New Media and Socie,ty, 6(3), 341-62.

Selwyn N (2006) 'Digital Division or Digital Decision? A Study of Non-users and Low-users of Computers’, Poetics 34(4–5), 273–292.

Selwyn, N. and Facer K (2007) Beyond the Digital Divide. Bristol: NESTA Futurelab.

Selwyn, N. &Facer, K. (2009) ‘Beyond Digital Divide: Towards an Agenda of Change’, in E. Ferro, Y. K. Dwivedi, J. R. Gil-Garcia & M. D. Williams (eds) Handbook of Research on Overcoming Digital Divides: Constructing an Equitable and Competitive Information Society, Information Science Reference, Hershey, PA, pp. 1–20.

Sparks, C. (2013) ‘What is the “Digital Divide” and why is it Important?’ Javnost - The Public, 20(2), 27-46.

Stern, S. (2008) ‘Questioning the Generational Divide: Technological Exoticism and Adult Constructions of Online Youth Identity’, in Buckingham, D. (ed) Youth, Identity and Digital Media, Cambridge, MIT Press, pp.95-118.

Stern, M., Adams, A. and Elsasser, S. (2009) How levels of Internet proficiency affect usefulness of access across rural, suburban, and urban communities. Sociological Inquiry 79(4), 391–417.

Stevenson, S. (2009) 'Digital Divide: A Discursive Move away from the Real Inequities'. The Information Society 25(1),1–22.

*Tsetsi, E., and Rains, S. (2017) ‘Smartphone Internet Access and Use: Extending the Digital Divide and Usage Gap’, Mobile Media & Communication, 5(3), 239–255.

Thiessen, V., & Dianne Looker, E. (2007) ‘Digital divides and capital conversion: The optimal use of information and communication technology for youth reading achievement’, Information, Community and Society, 10(2), 159-180.

Thomas, G. and Wyatt, S. (2000) ‘Access is not the only Problem: Using and Controlling the Internet’, in Wyatt, S., Henwood, F., Miller, N. and Senker, P. (eds) Technology and In/equality, Questioning the Information Society, Routledge, London, pp.21-45.

Tolbert, J. and Mossberger, K. (2006) 'New Inequality Frontier: Broadband Internet Access', EPI Working Paper 275. Economic Policy Institute

Tripp, L. (2011) “‘The computer is not for you to be looking around, it is for schoolwork’: Challenges for digital inclusion as Latino immigrant families negotiate children’s access to the internet”, New Media and Society, 13(4), 552–567.

Tsatsou, P. (2011). 'Digital Divides Revisited: What is New about Divides and their Research?' Media, Culture & Society, 33(2), 317–31.

Tsatsou, P (2012) ‘The Role of Social Culture in Internet Adoption in Greece: Unpacking “I Don't Want to Use the Internet” and Frequency of Use', The Information Society: An International Journal, 28(3), 174-188.

Van Deursen A. and Helsper E. (2015) ‘The third-level digital divide: who benefits most

from being online?’ in Robinson L, Cotton S, Schulz J, et al. (eds) Communication and Information Technologies Annual. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp. 29–52.

 an Deursen, A. and Helsper, E. (2018) ‘Collateral benefits of Internet use: Explaining the diverse outcomes of engaging with the Internet’, New Media & Society, 20(7) 2333–2351.

Van Deursen, A. and van Dijk, J. (2011) ‘Internet skills and the digital divide’, New Media and Society, 13(6), 893–911.

Van Deursen, A. and van Dijk, J. (2014) 'The Digital Divide Shifts to Differences in Usage', New Media & Society, 16(3), 507–526.

Van Deursen, A. and van Dijk, J. (2019) ‘The first-level digital divide shifts from inequalities in physical access to inequalities in material access’, New Media & Society, 21(2), 354–375.

Van Deursen A. and Van Dijk J. (2015) ‘Toward a multifaceted model of Internet access for understanding digital divides: an empirical investigation’, The Information Society 31(5), 379–391.

Van Deursen, A., Helsper, E., Eynon, R. and van Dijk, J. (2017) ‘The Compoundness and Sequentiality of Digital Inequality.’ International Journal of Communication 11: 452-473.

Van Dijk, J. (1999) The Network Society: Social aspects of New Media, Sage, London.

Van Dijk, J. A. and G. M. (2005). The Deepening Divide: Inequality in the Information Society. Thousand Oaks, CA, USA.: Sage.

Van Dijk, J. (2006) 'Digital Divide Research, Achievements and Shortcomings', Poetics, 34 (4-5), 221-35.

Van Dijk, J. and Hacker, K. (2003) 'The Digital Divide as a Complex and Dynamic Phenomenon’, The Information Society,  19, 315–326.

Vehovar, V., Sicherl P., Hüsing T. and Dolnicar, V. (2006) 'Methodological Challenges of Digital Divide Measurements', The Information Society, 22 (5), 279-290.

Verdegem, P., and Verhoest, P. (2009). Profiling the Non-user: Rethinking Policy Initiatives Stimulating ICT Acceptance. Telecommunications Policy, 33 (10–11_, 642–52.

Vidyasagar, D. (2006) ‘Digital divide and digital dividend in the age of information technology’, Journal of Perinatology, 26(5), 313–315.

Warschauer, M. (2003) Technology and Social Inclusion: Rethinking the Digital Divide, MIT Press, Cambridge.

Warschauer, M. (2009). Demystifying the Digital Divide. Elsevier, (August), 191–197.

Wasserman, I and Richmond-Abbott, M (2005) 'Gender and the Internet: Causes of Variation in Access, Level, and Scope of Use'. Social Science Quarterly, Vol.86, pp.252–270.

Wei, L. and Hindman, D. (2011) 'Does the Digital Divide Matter more? Comparing the Effects of New Media and Old Media Use on the Education-Based Knowledge Gap'. Mass Communication and Society, 14(2), 216–235.

Whitacre, B., & Mills, B. (2007) ‘Infrastructure and the rural-urban divide in high-speed residential internet access’, International Regional Science Review, 30(3), 249-273.

Willis, S., & Tranter, B. (2006) ‘Beyond the ‘digital divide’. Internet diffusion and inequality in Australia’, Journal of Sociology, 42(1), 43-59.

Witte., J. and Mannon, S. (2007) The Internet and Social Inequalities. New York: Routledge.

Wong, Y. C., Law, C. K., Fung, J. Y. C., & Lee, V. W. P. (2010) ‘Digital divide and social inclusion: policy challenge for social development in Hong Kong and South Korea’. Journal of Asian Public Policy, 3(1), 37-52.

Wyatt, S. Thomas, G. and Terranova, T. (2002), ‘They Came, they Surfed, they Went Back to the Beach: Conceptualising Use and Non-Use of the Internet’, in Woolgar, S. (Ed.) Virtual Society? Technology, Cyperbole and Reality, Oxford, University Press, Oxford, pp.23-40.

Wyatt, S., Henwood, F., Hart, A. and Smith, J. (2005) ‘The digital divide, health information and everyday life’, New Media and Society, 7 (2), 199-218.

Zeng, F. (2011) ‘College students’ perception of the second-level digital divide: An empirical analysis’, Asian social science, 7(6), pp. 42-50.

Zillien, N. and Hargittai, E. (2009) 'Digital Distinction: Status-Specific Internet uses'. Social Science Quarterly, 90(2), 274–291.

Zillien, N. & Marr, M. (2013) "’The Digital Divide in Europe’, in Ragnedda, M. and

Muschert, G.W. (Eds.), The Digital Divide: The internet and social inequality in international perspective, Routledge, London.