Professor Andrew Murray

Professor Andrew Murray

Professor of Law

LSE Law School

Room No
Cheng Kin Ku Building 6.07
Key Expertise
Internet and New Media Law; AI and the Law

About me

Andrew Murray is Professor of Law with particular reference to New Media and Technology Law, Director of the LSE Law, Society and Technology Group, and a Fellow of the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (FRSA). Andrew studied law at Edinburgh University, from where he graduated (LL.B. Hons) in 1994. He then spent some time as a research assistant in the Department of Private Law, University of Edinburgh before taking up a lectureship in law at the University of Stirling in 1996. He joined the LSE in September 2000. As well as holding memberships of: The Society of Computers and Law (SCL); The Higher Education Academy (HEA) and The David Hume Institute, Andrew was from 2001-2004 an Executive Member of the British and Irish Law, Education and Technology Association (BILETA); and was from 2002-2008 a recognised 'Independent Expert' of the Nominet UK Dispute Resolution Procedure and from 2007-2012 a Fellow of the Honourable Society of Gray’s Inn. He is a visiting professor at the Amsterdam Law and Technology Institute and was a visiting professor in the Ecole de Droit, Sciences Po, Paris in Spring 2015 and at the Paris School of International Affairs in Spring 2017. In 2018/19 he was the specialist advisor to the House of Lords Communications Committee inquiry “Regulating in a Digital World”. He gave the 2020 TMC Asser Lecture on the subject of “Law and human agency in the Time of Artificial Intelligence”. More recently he has advised the Government of Saudi Arabia on the new Saudi Ecommerce Law, was a Judge/Reviewer for the 2024 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize and has acted as a reviewer for the German Federal Government’s “Clusters of Excellence” programme.

Administative support:


Research interests

Andrew’s principal research interests are in regulatory design within digital systems and spaces, particularly the role of non-State actors, the protection and promotion of Human Rights within the digital environment and the promotion of proprietary interests in the digital sphere, encompassing both intellectual property rights and traditional property models. He is interested in the regulation of new and emergent technologies such as Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning and digital asset classes. He is the author of the leading textbook Information Technology Law, the Law and Society. 

External activities

Andrew is an Expert panellist for the ICC International Centre of Expertise (to decide Limited Public Interest objections raised under the ICANN New gTLD Dispute Resolution Procedure). From 2018 to 2020 he was a specialist advisor to The Ministry of Commerce and Investment of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on the project to introduce a New Ecommerce Law for Saudi Arabia. The Law and the enabling Regulations which Andrew also helped draft may be found are here. In 2018/19 he was the specialist advisor to the House of Lords Communications Committee inquiry “Regulating in a Digital World”. The final Report may be found here. He was a member of the IMPRESS Advisory Network and was between 2018 and 2020 a Member of the Law Society LawTech Regulatory Action Taskforce. In 2017/18 he was a Commissioner for the LSE Truth, Trust and Technology Commission. The Final Report of the Commission may be found here.



Public Engagement


Information Technology Law : The Law and Society 5th ed. (Oxford, 2023)

The fifth edition of this ground-breaking textbook develops its unique examination of the legal processes and their relationship to the modern 'information society'. Charting the development of the rapid digitization of society and its impact on established legal principles, it examines the challenges faced with enthusiasm and clarity. Following a clearly-defined part structure, the text begins by defining the information society and discussing how it may be regulated, before moving on to explore issues of internet governance, privacy and surveillance, intellectual property and rights, and commerce within the digital sphere.

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EU Regulation of E-Commerce A Commentary (Second Edition) (Edward Elgar, 2022) co-edited with Arno R. Lodder (Professor, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the Netherlands)

Significantly revised and expanded, this important book addresses the key pieces of EU legislation in the field of e-commerce, including on consumer rights, copyright, electronic identification, open internet access, electronic payments, competition law and digital content. This unique work provides an updated account of the essential pieces of EU legislation on e-commerce. Legal practitioners will benefit from the clear structure and close examination of key provisions. The book will also appeal to legal scholars and advanced students, who will appreciate the concise overview and thoughtful analysis on future developments in the field.

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Almost Human: Law and Human Agency in the Time of Artificial Intelligence (T.M.C. Asser Press, 2021)

This book examines the threats posed to human agency by the expanded adoption of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning and asks whether the foundations of datafication and its challenge to human agency are a threat to the rule of law.

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Information Technology Law : The Law and Society 4th ed. (Oxford, 2019)

The fourth edition of this leading textbook provides comprehensive coverage of all aspects of the law as it relates to the modern online environment, including governance, digital content and intellectual property, criminal activity and e-commerce in the information society, and privacy and data protection. It discusses the unique challenges of the information society, with reference to network neutrality, digital speech and the fake news challenge, virtual currencies including cryptocurrency , and the future challenges presented by user generated content, smart contracts and blockchain.

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This book is also available as an audiobook from the following sites: 



Rethinking the Jurisprudence of Cyberspace (Edward Elgar, 2018) co-authored with Chris Reed (Professor of Electronic Commerce Law, Queen Mary University of London)

Cyberspace is a difficult area for lawyers and lawmakers. With no physical constraining borders, the question of who is the legitimate lawmaker for cyberspace is complex. Rethinking the Jurisprudence of Cyberspace examines how laws can gain legitimacy in cyberspace and identifies the limits of the law’s authority in this space.

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EU Regulation of E-Commerce: A Commentary
(Edward Elgar 2017) co-edited with Arno R. Lodder (Professor, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the Netherlands)

For the last twenty years the European Union has been extremely active in the field of e-commerce. This important new book addresses the key pieces of EU legislation in the field of e-commerce, including the E-commerce Directive, the Services Directive, the Consumer Directive, the General Data Protection Regulation, and the eID Regulation. The latest in the Elgar Commentaries series, EU Regulation of E-Commerce is the first book to apply this well-established format to a dynamic and increasingly significant area of law.

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Information Technology Law : The Law and Society 3rd ed.
(Oxford, 2013); new edition forthcoming in July 2019

The third edition of Information Technology Lawdevelops the discussions of the unique challenges the information society brings to the study of law, with reference to contemporary developments such as state surveillance programmes, and laws, post Snowden; the 2016 General Data Protection Regulation, the "Right to be Forgotten", and the Max Schrems decision; developments in net neutrality regulation; and the development of crypocurrencies (such as BitCoin). 

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The Regulation of Cyberspace: Control in the Online Environment (London: Routledge-Cavendish,  2006)

In The Regulation of Cyberspace, Andrew Murray examines the development and design of regulatory structures in the online environment. The book models how all forms of control, including design controls, and market controls, as well as traditional command and control regulation, are applied within the complex and flexible environment of Cyberspace. Drawing on the work of Cyber-regulatory theorists such as Yochai Benkler, Andrew Shapiro and Lawrence Lessig, Murray suggests a model for Cyberspace regulation which acknowledges its complexity. He further suggests how this model can be utilised by regulators to provide a more comprehensive regulatory structure for Cyberspace.

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Human Rights in the Digital Age (London: Glasshouse, January 2005); co-edited with M. Klang

The digital age began in 1939 with the construction of the first digital computer. In the 65 years that have followed, the influence of digitisation on our everyday lives has grown steadily and today digital technology has a greater influence on our lives than at any time since its development. This book examines the role played by digital technology in both the exercise and suppression of human rights. The global digital environment has allowed us to reinterpret the concept of universal human rights. Discourse on human rights need no longer be limited by national or cultural boundaries and individuals have the ability to create new forms in which to exercise their rights or even to bypass national limitations to rights. The defence of such rights is meanwhile under constant assault by the newfound ability of states to both suppress and control individual rights through the application of these same digital technologies.
     This book gathers together an international group of experts working within this rapidly developing area of law and technology and focuses their attention on the specific interaction between human rights and digital technology. This is the first work to explore the challenges brought about by digital technology to fundamental freedoms such as privacy, freedom of expression, access, assembly and dignity. It is essential reading for anyone who fears digital technology will lead to the ‘Big Brother’ state.

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<p><a href="">'A Principled Approach to Net Neutrality'</a> <i>SCRIPT-ed,</i><span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;(2016)</span>Vol.13.(2) pp.118-143 (with Lucie Audibert)</p><p><a href="">'Comparing Surveillance Powers: UK, US, and France'</a> <i>LSE Law Policy Briefing Papers: SPECIAL ISSUE: The Investigatory Powers Bill </i>(14/2015)</p><p><a href="">'Ensuring the Rule of Law'</a><i> LSE Law Policy Briefing Papers: SPECIAL ISSUE: The Investigatory Powers Bill </i>(12/2015) (with Bernard Keenan)</p><p><a href="">'The value of analogue educational tools in a digital educational environment'</a> <i>European Journal of Law and Technology </i>(2015) 6 (1) pp.1-16</p><p>'Cyberspace Regulation' in D Levi-Faur(ed), <i><a href="">Handbook On The Politics Of Regulation</a></i> (Edward Elgar, 2011)</p><p><a href="">'Transparency, Scrutiny and Responsiveness: Fashioning a Private Space within the Information Society' </a>&nbsp;(2011) 82<i> The Political Quarterly</i> 509</p><p><a href="">'Nodes and Gravity in Virtual Space'</a> (2011) 5<i> Legisprudence</i> 195</p><p><a href="">'Volume Litigation: More Harmful than Helpful?'</a> <i>Computers and Law </i>2009, 20(6), 43-45</p><p><a href="">'Symbiotic Regulation'&nbsp;</a> <i>The John Marshall Journal of Computer &amp; Information Law </i>(2008) 26 (2) pp.207-228</p><p><a href="">'The Reclassification of Extreme Pornographic Images'</a> (2009) 72 <i>Modern Law Review</i>, 73-90</p><p>'Conceptualising the Post-Regulatory (Cyber)state.', 287-315 in Brownsword R. &amp; Yeung K. (eds) <i><a href="">Regulating Technologies : Legal Futures, Regulatory Frames and Technological Fixes</a></i> (Hart, Oxford, 2008)</p><p>‘Contracting Electronically in the Shadow of the E-Commerce Directive’ in Edwards (ed), <i><a href="">The New Legal Framework for E-Commerce</a> </i>(Oxford: Hart, December 2005)</p><p>‘Should States Have a Right to Informational Privacy?’ in Klang &amp; Murray (eds.), <i><a href="">Human Rights in the Digital Age</a></i> (London: Glasshouse, January 2005)</p><p>'La Regulacion de Los Contratos Electronicos: Una Comparación Entre La Posicion Europea y Norteamericana' [2004] 2 <i>Foro de Derecho Mercantil Revista Internacional </i>75-97 (Reprinted [2005] 1<i> Revista de Derecho de la Empresa</i>119-140)</p><p><a href="10.1111/1467-6478.00253">‘Regulation and Rights in Networked Space’</a> (2003) 30 <i>Journal of Law and Society</i> 187-216.2</p><p><a href="">‘Controlling the New Media: Hybrid Responses to New Forms of Power’</a> (2002) 65 <i>Modern Law Review</i> 491-516 (with Colin Scott)</p><p><a href="">‘The Use of Trade Marks as Meta Tags: Defining the Boundaries’</a> (2000) 8 <i>International Journal of Law and Information Technology</i> 263-284.</p><div id="child6" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Arial; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; margin-left: 34px;">&nbsp;</div>