Professor Jonathan Jackson

Professor Jonathan Jackson

Professor in Research Methodology and Head of Department of Methodology

Department of Methodology

+44 (0)20 7955 7652
Room No
COL 8.05
Office Hours
Wednesdays 10:00 - 11:00 and Fridays 11:00 - 12:00
Key Expertise
Criminology; Survey methods; Psychology and Law

About me

Jonathan Jackson is Professor of Research Methodology and Head of the Department of Methodology. He is an Honorary Professor of Criminology at the University of Sydney Law School and an Affiliated Scholar in the Justice Collaboratory of Yale Law School.

He has held visiting appointments in criminology at Oxford, Sydney, Griffith and Cambridge, in psychology at New York University and John Jay College of Criminal Justice, in law at Yale, and in public policy at Harvard (Kennedy School).

Jon is an editor of the British Journal of Criminology and an academic editor of PLOSone.

Working at the intersection of psychology and law, his research focuses on procedural justice (the importance of fair process in interactions between power-holders and subordinates), distributive justice (the allocation of finite resources that determine who gets the benefits and burdens of social control)and legitimacy (perceptions of the right to power) in the context of the criminal justice system. He is interested in clarifying the meaning and measurement of these concepts; understanding the causal mechanisms that transmit the effects of procedural justice, distributive justice and legitimacy on various behavioural and attitudinal outcomes; testing how well procedural justice theory travels across diverse social, political and legal contexts using methodologically equivalent research designs; bringing perceptions of structural racism into procedural justice theory; and examining the importance of ‘bounded authority’, i.e. respecting the limits of one’s rightful authority.

He has led several high-profile projects into public trust and institutional legitimacy in the field of criminal justice, most of which have been funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) and the European Commission’s FP7 programme. For instance, he led the design of a 45-question module in Round 5 of the European Social Survey that tested procedural justice theory in 28 countries.

He is currently working on an ESRC-funded project (with Clifford Stott at Keeleand Ben Bradford at UCL) that aims to systematically test and advance theoretical understanding of some core causal claims of procedural justice theory. He is developing a series of laboratory experiments that utilise virtual reality simulations of police-citizen drone encounters. The project also has a parallel programme of ethnographic research to gather direct observation and other empirical evidence on the policing of marginalised communities, defined as groups where relations with police are problematic. 

He has co-authored or co-edited three books: 'Routledge Handbook of Criminal Justice Ethics' (with Jonathan Jacobs), 'Just Authority? Trust in the Police in England and Wales' (with Ben Bradford, Betsy Stanko and Katrin Hohl), and 'Social Order and the Fear of Crime in Contemporary Times' (with Steve Farrall and Emily Gray).

For information about his research, see Jon's Google Scholar profile and CV.

Expertise Details

Criminology; Survey methods; Psychology and law


Criminology book chapters

Gur, N. and Jackson, J. (forthcoming, 2020). ‘Procedure-content Interaction in Attitudes to Law and in the Value of the Rule of Law: An Empirical and Philosophical Collaboration’, invited chapter for Meyerson, D., Mackenzie, C and MacDermott, T. (eds.) Procedural Justice and Relational Theory: Philosophical, Empirical and Legal Perspectives. Oxon: Routledge.

Sturgis, P., Brunton-Smith, I. and Jackson, J. (2020). ‘Regression-based Response Probing for Assessing the Validity of Survey Questions’, in Beatty, P., Willis, G. and Padilla, J-L (eds.) Advances in Questionnaire Design, Development, Evaluation and Testing. Wiley, pp. 571-591.

Jackson, J. and Posch, K. (2019). ‘New Directions for Research into Fairness and Legal Authority: A Focus on Causal Mechanisms‘, in E Allan Lind (ed.) Social Psychology and Justice (Frontiers of Social Psychology Series). New York: Routledge.

Bradford, B., Jackson, J. and Hough, M. (2018). ‘Ethnicity, Legitimacy and Modes of Incorporation: Early Findings from the European Social Survey’, in Sebastian Roche and Dietrich Oberwittler (eds). Police-citizen Relations: A Comparative Investigation of Sources and Impediments of Legitimacy around the World. Oxon: Routledge, pp. 46-72  

Jackson, J. and Bradford, B. (2018). ‘Review of “Mirage of Police Reform: Procedural Justice and Police Legitimacy”’, Police Practice and Research, 19, 2, 204-206, doi:10.1080/15614263.2018.1418169.

Bradford, B., Jackson, J. and Hough, M. (2018). ‘Ethnicity, Group Position and Police Legitimacy: Early Findings from the European Social Survey’, in Roche, S. and Oberwittler, D. (eds.) Police-citizen Relations Across the World: Comparing Sources and Contexts of Trust and Legitimacy. Oxon: Routledge, pp. 46-72.

Jackson, J., Milani, J. and Bradford, B. (2018). ‘Empirical Legitimacy and Normative Compliance with the Law’, entry in A. Farazmand (ed.), Global Encyclopedia of Public Administration, Public Policy and Governance. New York: Springer.

Bradford, B., Jackson, J. and Milani, J.  (2018). ‘Police Legitimacy’, entry in J. C. Barnes and D. R. Forde (eds.), Wiley Encyclopedia of Research Methods and Statistical Techniques in Criminology and Criminal Justice. Wiley.

Milani, J., Bradford, B. and Jackson, J. (2018). ‘Police Violence’, entry in H. N. Pontell (ed.), Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice. Oxford University Press.

Jackson, J., Bradford, B., Brunton-Smith, I. and Gray, E. (2018). ‘In the Eye of the (Motivated) Beholder: A Motivated Cognition Perspective on Disorder Perceptions’, in Lee, M. and Mythen, G. (eds.) Routledge International Handbook on Fear of Crime. Oxon: Routledge.        

Bradford, B., Jackson, J. and Hough, M.  (2018). ‘Trust in Justice, in Uslaner, E. (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Social and Political Trust. Oxford: Oxford University Press.         

Hough, M., Jackson, J. and Bradford, B. (2017). ‘Policing, Procedural Justice and Prevention’, in Sidebottom, A. and Tilley, N. (eds.) Routledge Handbook of Crime Prevention and Community Safety (second edition). Oxon: Routledge, pp. 274-293.

Bradford, B. and Jackson, J. (2016). ‘Enabling and Constraining Police Power’, in Routledge Handbook of Criminal Justice Ethics, eds. Jonathan Jacobs and Jonathan Jackson. Oxon: Routledge, pp. 219-237.              

Jackson, J. and Kuha, J. (2016). ‘How Theory Guides Measurement’, in Bynum, T. S. and Huebner, B. M. (eds.) Handbook on Measurement Issues in Criminology and Criminal Justice. John Wylie, pp. 377-415. 

Jackson, J. and Gau, J. (2015). ‘Carving up Concepts?’, in Shockley, E., Neal, T. M. S., PytlikZillig, L. and Bornstein, B. (eds.) Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Trust: Towards Theoretical and Methodological Integration. New York: Springer, pp. 49-69. 

Jackson, J. (2015). On the Dual Motivational Force of Legitimate Authority’, in Bornstein, B. H. and Tomkins, A. J. (eds.) Cooperation and Compliance with Authority: The Role of Institutional Trust. 62nd Nebraska Symposium on Motivation.New York: Springer, pp. 145-166.       

Bradford, B., Jackson, J. and Hough, M. (2014). ‘Police Legitimacy in Action’, in Reisig, M. & Kane, R. (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Police and Policing. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 551-570.              

Tyler, T. R. and Jackson, J. (2013). ‘Future Challenges in the Study of Legitimacy and Criminal Justice’, in Tankebe, J. and Liebling, A. (eds.) Legitimacy and Criminal Justice: An International Exploration. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 83-104.            

Hough, M., Jackson, J. and Bradford, B. (2013). ‘Legitimacy, Trust and Compliance’, in Tankebe, J. and Liebling, A. (eds.) Legitimacy and Criminal Justice: An InternationalExploration. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 326-352.  

Hough, M., Jackson, J. and Bradford, B. (2013). ‘The Governance of Criminal Justice, Legitimacy and Trust’, in Body-Gendrot, S., Lévy, R., Hough, M. Snacken, S. and Kerezsi, K. (eds.) The Routledge Handbook of European Criminology. Oxon: Routledge, pp. 243-265.   

Criminology papers

Oliveira, T. R., Jackson, J., Murphy, K. and Bradford, B. (forthcoming). ‘Are Trustworthiness and Legitimacy “Hard to Win, Easy to Lose”? A Longitudinal Test of the Asymmetry Thesis of Police-Citizen Contact’, Journal of Quantitative Criminology. Link to pre-print.

Brimbal, L., Bradford, B., Jackson, J., Hartwig, M. and Joseph, E. (forthcoming). ‘On the Importance of a Procedurally Fair Organizational Climate for Openness to Change in Law Enforcement’, Law & Human Behavior. Link to pre-print.

Jackson, J., Brunton-Smith, I., Bradford, B., Rodriguez-Oliveira, T., Posch, K. and Sturgis, P. (2020). ‘Police Legitimacy and the Norm to Cooperate: Using a Mixed Effects Location-Scale Model to Estimate Social Norms at a Small Spatial Scale’, Journal of Quantitative Criminology,

Posch, K., Jackson, J., Bradford, B. and MacQueen, S. (2020). ‘”Truly Free Consent”? Clarifying the Nature of Police Legitimacy using Causal Mediation Analysis’, Journal of Experimental Criminology,

Bradford, B., Yesberg, J., Jackson, J. and Dawson, P. (2020). ‘Live Facial Recognition: Trust and Legitimacy as Predictors of Public Support for Police Use of New Technology’, British Journal of Criminology,

Lee, M., Jackson, J., and Ellis, J. R. (2020). ‘Functional and Dysfunctional Fear of Crime in Inner Sydney: Findings from the Quantitative Component of a Mixed-Methods Study’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 53, 3, 311-332,

Jackson, J. and Bradford, B. (2019). ‘Blurring the Distinction between Empirical and Normative Legitimacy? A Methodological Commentary on “Police Legitimacy and Citizen Cooperation in China”’, Asian Journal of Criminology, 14, 4, 265-289,

Bradford, B., Topping, J., Martin, R. and Jackson, J. (2019). ‘Can Diversity Promote Trust? Neighbourhood Context and Trust in the Police in Northern Ireland’, Policing & Society, 29, 9, 1022-1041, doi: 10.1080/10439463.2018.1479409

Jackson, J. (2018). ‘Norms, Normativity and the Legitimacy of Legal Authorities: International Perspectives’, Annual Review of Law and Social Science, 14, 145-165.

Bradford, B., Topping, J., Martin, R. and Jackson, J. (2018). ‘Can Diversity Promote Trust? Neighbourhood Context and Trust in the Police in Northern Ireland’, Policing & Society, advance access, doi: 10.1080/10439463.2018.1479409.

Bradford, B. and Jackson, J. (2018). ‘Police Legitimacy among Immigrants in Europe: Institutional Frames and Group Position’, European Journal of Criminology, 15, 5, 567-588, doi: org/10.1177/1477370817749496.

Trinkner, R., Jackson, J. and Tyler, T. R. (2018). ‘Bounded Authority: Expanding “Appropriate” Police Behavior Beyond Procedural Justice’, Law & Human Behavior, 42, 3, 280-293, doi: org/10.1037/lhb0000285.

Gerber, M. M., Gonzalez, R., Carvacho, H., Jimenez-Moya, G., Moray, C. and Jackson, J. (2018). ‘On the Justification of Intergroup Violence: The Roles of Procedural Justice, Police Legitimacy and Group Identity in Attitudes towards Violence among Indigenous People’, Psychology of Violence, 8, 3, 379-389, doi: org/10.1037/vio0000177.

Huq, A., Jackson, J. and Trinkner, R. (2017). ‘Legitimating Practices: Revisiting the Predicates of Police Legitimacy’, British Journal of Criminology, 57, 5, 1101-1122, doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw037.

Bradford, B., Sargeant, E., Murphy, T. and Jackson, J. (2017). ‘A Leap of Faith? Trust in the Police Among Migrants in England and Wales’, British Journal of Criminology, 57, 2, 381-401, doi:10.1093/bjc/azv126.

Bradford, B., Milani, J. and Jackson, J. (2017). ‘Identity, Legitimacy and “Making Sense” of Police Use of Force’, Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, 40, 3, 614-627, doi: 10.1108/PIJPSM-06-2016-0085.

Gerber, M. and Jackson, J. (2017). ‘Justifying Violence: Legitimacy, Ideology and Public Support for Police Use of Force’, Psychology, Crime and Law, 23, 1, 79-95, doi: 10.1080/1068316X.2016.1220556.

Murphy, T., Bradford, B. and Jackson, J. (2016). ‘Motivating Compliance Behavior Among Offenders: Procedural Justice or Deterrence?’, Criminal Justice & Behavior, 43, 1, 102-118, doi: 10.1177/0093854815611166.

Jackson, J. and Gouseti, I. (2016). ‘Threatened by Violence: Affective and Cognitive Reactions to Violent Victimization’, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 31, 18, 2987–3016, doi: 10.1177/0886260515584336.

Tyler, T. R., Jackson, J. and Mentovich, A. (2015). ‘On the Consequences of Being a Target of Suspicion: Potential Pitfalls of Proactive Police Contact’, Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, 12, 4, 602-636, doi: 10.1111/jels.12086.

Jackson, J. (2015). ‘Cognitive Closure and Risk Sensitivity in the Fear of Crime’, Legal and Criminological Psychology, 20, 2, 222-240, doi: 10.1111/lcrp.12031.

Côté-Lussier, C., Jackson, J., Kestens, Y. and Barnett, T. A. (2015) ‘A Child’s View: Social and Physical Environmental Features Differentially Predict Parent and Child Perceived Neighborhood Safety’, Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 92, 1, 10-23, doi: 10.1007/s11524-014-9917-0.

Jackson, J., Asif, M., Bradford, B. and Zakar, M. Z. (2014). ‘Corruption and Police Legitimacy in Lahore, Pakistan’, British Journal of Criminology, 54, 6, 1067-1088, doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu069.

Jackson, J. and Kuha, J. (2014). ‘Worry about Crime in a Cross-National Context: A Model-Supported Method of Measurement Using European Social Survey Data’, Survey Research Methods, 8, 2, 109-126, doi: 10.18148/srm/2014.v8i2.5457.

Bradford, B., Murphy, K. and Jackson, J. (2014). ‘Officers as Mirrors: Policing, Procedural Justice and the (Re)production of Social Identity’, British Journal of Criminology, 54, 4, 527-500, doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu021.

Brunton-Smith, I., Jackson, J. and Sutherland. A. (2014). ‘Bridging Structure and Perception: On the Neighbourhood Ecology of Beliefs and Worries about Violent Crime’, 54, 4, 503-526, British Journal of Criminology, doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu020.

Bradford, B., Huq A., Jackson, J. and Roberts, B. (2014). ‘What Price Fairness When Security is at Stake? Police Legitimacy in South Africa’, Regulation and Governance, 8, 2, 246–268, doi: 10.1111/rego.12012.

Kuha, J. and Jackson, J. (2014). ‘The Item Count Method for Sensitive Survey Questions: Modelling Criminal Behaviour’, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series C (Applied Statistics), 63, 2, 321-342, doi: 10.1111/rssc.12018.

Tyler, T. R. and Jackson, J. (2014). ‘Popular Legitimacy and the Exercise of Legal Authority: Motivating Compliance, Cooperation and Engagement’, Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 20, 1, 78-95, doi: 10.1037/a0034514.

Sutherland, A., Brunton-Smith, I. and Jackson, J. (2013). ‘Collective Efficacy, Deprivation and Violence in London’, British Journal of Criminology, 53, 6, 1050-1074, doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt050.

Jackson, J., Huq, A., Bradford, B. and Tyler, T. R. (2013). ‘Monopolizing Force? Police Legitimacy and Public Attitudes towards the Acceptability of Violence’, Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 19, 4, 479-497, doi: 10.1037/a0033852.

Gerber, M. M. and Jackson, J. (2013). ‘Retribution as Revenge and Retribution as Just Deserts’, Social Justice Research, 26, 1, 61-80, doi: 10.1007/s11211-012-0174-7.

Jackson, J., Bradford, B., Hough, M., Myhill, A., Quinton, P., and Tyler, T. R. (2012). ‘Why do People Comply with the Law? Legitimacy and the Influence of Legal Institutions’, British Journal of Criminology, 52, 6, 1051-1071, doi: 10.1093/bjc/azs032.

Roberts, J. V., Hough, M., Jackson, J. and Gerber, M. M. (2012). ‘Public Opinion towards the Lay Magistracy and the Sentencing Council Guidelines: The Effects of Information on Attitudes’, British Journal of Criminology, 52, 6, 1072-1091, doi: 10.1093/bjc/azs024.

Other papers

  • Allum, N., Allansdottir, A., Einsiedel, E., Gaskell, G., Hampel, J., Jackson, J., Moldovan, A., Priest, S., Stares, S. and Stoneman, P. (2017). ‘Religion and the Public Ethics of Stem-cell Research: Attitudes in Europe, Canada and the United States,’ PLOSone,
  • Singh, I., Bard, I. and Jackson, J. (2014). ‘Robust Resilience and Substantial Interest: A Survey of Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement among University Students in the UK and Ireland’, PLOSone, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105969
  • Sturgis, P., Brunton-Smith, I., Kuha, J. and Jackson, J. (2014). ‘Ethnic Diversity, Segregation and the Social Cohesion of Neighbourhoods in London’, Ethnic & Racial Studies, 37, 8, 1286-1309doi: 10.1080/01419870.2013.831932.
  • Gaskell, G., Allansdottir, A., Allum, N., Castro, P., Esmer, Y., Fischler, C., Jackson, J., Kronberger, N., Hampel, J., Mejlgaard, N., Quintanilha, A., Rammer, A., Revuelta, G., Stares, S., Torgersen, H. and Wagner, W. (2011). 'The 2010 Eurobarometer on the Life Sciences', Nature Biotechnology, 29, 2, 113-114, doi:10.1038/nbt.1771.                
  • Mulford, M., Jackson, J. and Svedsater, H. (2008). ‘Encouraging Cooperation: Revisiting Group Identity and Cooperative Norm Effects in Prisoners’ Dilemma Games’, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38, 12, 2964-2989, doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2008.00421.x.              
  • Callender, C. and Jackson, J. (2008). ‘Does the Fear of Debt Constrain Choice of University and Subject of Study?’, Studies in Higher Education, 33, 4, 405-429, doi: 10.1080/03075070802211802.
  • Gaskell, G., Einsiedel, E., Hallman, W., Hornig Priest, S., Jackson, J. and Olsthoorn, J. (2005). 'Social Values and the Governance of Science', Science, 310, 1908-1909, doi: 10.1126/science.1119444.
  • Callender, C. and Jackson, J. (2005). ‘Does the Fear of Debt Deter Students from Higher Education?’, Journal of Social Policy, 34, 4, 509-540,
  • Gaskell, G., Ten Eyck, T., Jackson, J. and Veltri, G. (2005). 'Imagining Nanotechnology: Cultural Support for Innovation in Europe and the United States', Public Understanding of Science, 14, 1, 81-90, doi:10.1177/0963662505048949.
  • Gaskell, G., Ten Eyck, T., Jackson, J. and Veltri, G. (2004). 'Public Attitudes to Nanotech in Europe and the United States', Nature Materials, 3, 8, 496, doi: 10.1038/nmat1181