The Global Political and Corporate Governance Initiative aims to contribute with targeted research and policy advice to two key pillars of good governance: political governance and corporate governance. These are covered by two distinct though interrelated projects that IGA is undertaking, with the engagement of academia, government, civil society, international financial institutions and the private sector.
Good corporate governance is a cornerstone for a growth-friendly, accountability-focused, and socially acceptable business environment. Yet in today’s globally integrated economies good corporate governance is challenged on two main accounts:
- First, information on beneficial ownership, i.e., who are the ultimate owners of a particular entity, is incomplete even in advanced economies, and often deplorably poor in emerging and developing economies. Without such information it is very difficult to determine whether transactions between companies or between companies and their lenders are taking place in a fair manner. When ultimate owners are not known, accountability is more difficult to exercise and corruption easier to hide. This is still a serious issue in advanced economies, and even more so in in emerging and developing economies. Improving corporate governance becomes an essential part of reforming political governance particularly in the latter countries.
- Second, in today’s globally connected economies, there is a mismatch between the cross-border/transnational nature of large corporates, and their corporate accountability, which is is still largely nation- based. Transparency about beneficial ownership in today’s globally connected world requires cooperation and information sharing among countries.
A major breakthrough in this area is a new transparency action by the UK. Launched in 2013 under Secretary of State for Business Sir Vince Cable (now Professor in Practice at LSE IGA co-lead of this project) and formally announced in April 2016, the initiative forces unlisted firms and companies registered in the UK to publicly disclose beneficial ownership. It establishes a new central public register on who owns and controls companies in the UK. The central register of companies' beneficial owners are made available through the government agency Companies House, with a first set of data released on July 1, 2016. This project aims to conduct research on the new emerging data and communicate it to the wider public.
This is critical because this new database is naturally a large raw metadata and only appropriate research will the new data be truly understandable, unlocking its huge potential. The main focus of this project is the UK, yet we expect that the new information will shed light on, and have a major impact on, corporate ownership structures outside the UK. Through information sharing with, and feedback from these countries, ownership and governance in the UK will also improve.
The Institute for Global Affairs (IGA) at the London School of Economics (LSE) leads the project “Who Owns What” (WOW). The WOW project’s ambition is to enhance evidence-based understanding of corporate structures for policy makers and the society in today’s interconnected world through exploiting the new dataset based on the UK (and its potential extensions to many more countries).
Project WOW innovatively brings together top academics from the LSE with a unique set of stakeholders with interest in promoting corporate transparency and accountability worldwide. We have created a multi-stakeholder platform of LSE faculty, civil society/NGOs (Global Witness, OpenCorporates, One and Transparency International), representatives of the UK government, international financial institutions (IFIs).
The project’s has five specific objectives:
- Research the new data with the objective to improve corporate governance and transparency. This is an important goal overall as argued above; however in the post-Brexit context its importance has increased to ensure an open and transparent business environment. Research will cover relationships between corporate governance structure and economic and political economy outcomes.
- Assess the innovative methodology of the UK government. The new methodology (dataset, cost of compliance etc) is brand new and it will be important to analyse whether this new UK model is working and how it can be improved.
- Use this analysis to assess cross-border holdings of foreign countries in the UK. In addition, perform similar exercises in emerging economies that have signed up to the UK Government’s initiative. Ukraine has announced its interest in participating in such an exercise.
- Provide a set of evidence-based recommendations to inform affected governments’ policy decisions in the related areas.
- Engage key stakeholders in this area (policy makers; NOGs; academia; IFIs; G20 process) to leverage each other’s remit, mandate and toolkit for maximum impact;
- Help inform the public in this critical area, thus contributing to more sustainable social outcomes. Public awareness and information about this critical governance area has an impact on political governance and associated reforms.
- Set of high quality a research papers and associated policy advice;
- Policy proposal on good practice on public disclosure on beneficial ownership, informing, inter alia, the G20 process and the public;
- Mobilise key relevant government and non-government stakeholders through a unique multi-stakeholder platform as described above and outreach;
- Engage with IFIs for them to collectively start public disclosure of the beneficial owners on their new projects (retroactivity on stock of projects may not be possible for legal reasons);
- Organise high profile conferences drawing on this multi-stakeholder platform, which will be accessible to, and actively engage with, the public. We hope to continue with our fruitful engagement with the UK government;
- Design an implement a specific communication strategy for dissemination of new research and policy recommendations. These will involve, in addition to open conferences, dedicated sections of its multi-stakeholder participant’s websites and other outreach instruments within the toolkit of each stakeholder.
- LSE IGA Third joint workshop on 'Who Owns What in the UK?', October 5, 2017.
- Beneficial Ownership workshop with and hosted by the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB), a meeting with several IFIs and the LSE IGA was held on the margins of the IMF-World Bank Annual meetings in Washington. A plan was drawn on IFI support for disclosure of beneficial ownership. Washington DC, USA, October 7, 2016.
- Data dive into new public data on beneficial ownership, organised by Global Wittness. See the results.
- LSE IGA joint workshop with Global Witness on 'Who Owns What in The UK?'. The inaugural meeting of the WOW multi-stakeholder group took place at LSE, July 6, 2016. Global Wittness held a followup meeting in late October and organised, along with other NGOs, a data-dive exercise in mid-November, where LSE students also participated
- The Great Reversal – demographics driving global trends, PowerBreakfast Series, December 7, 2017. Speakers: Charles Goodhart, Professor Emeritus of Banking and Finance, LSE and Manoj Pradhan, Founder of Talking Heads Macro and former Global Economist at Morgan Stanley.
- Protests and Political Opposition in Russia and the Screening of the documentary film Nemtsov, November 30, 2017. Speakers: Vladimir Kara-Murza, Vice Chairman of “Open Russia”; Professor Richard Sakwa, University of Kent; Professor Tomila Lankina, LSE and Vladimir Ashurkov, Executive Director of the Anti-Corruption Foundation.
- Obstacles to Peacebuilding - The Economics of Post War Foreign Intervention, October 25, 2017. Speaker: Dr Graciana del Castillo, Ralph Bunche Institute and member of the Council on Foreign Relations.
- Three Tigers, One Mountain: China, Japan and the US in the Pacific Century, October 19, 2017. Speaker: Richard McGregor, award-winning journalist and author.
- Global Leadership - by default or by design? PowerBreakfast Series, October 18, 2017. Speakers: Professor Michael Mastanduno, Dartmouth College and Richard McGregor.
- Red Famine: Stalin's war on the Ukraine and why it still matters, October 4, 2017. Speaker: Professor Anne Applebaum, LSE IGA Professor in Practice.
- Fit for Purpose? Reforming Global Financial Governance, PowerBreakfast Series, October 3, 2017. Speakers: Professor Jeffrey Sachs, University of Columbia and Lord Nicholas Stern, LSE.
- After the 2017 elections: towards a Franco-German Grand Bargain on Euro area reform, September 28, 2017. Speaker: Dr Jeromin Zettelmeyer,Peterson Institute for International Economics and LSE IGA Visiting Fellow.
- The Pathology of Presidential Power, May 9, 2017. Speakers: Bill Antholis and David Leblang, Miller Center; Peter Trubowitz, LSE.
- North Korea: Beyond the Headlines, joint event with LSE SU Korea Future Forum and the LSE SU China Development Society, March 18, 2017. Speakers:Oh Joon, Former Korean Ambassador to the UN; Kihl- jae Ryoo, Former Minister of Unification, republic of Korea and Professor Seyul Choe, Poyongyang University.
- LSESU China Development Forum: A Nation at the Crossroads, joint event with LSESU China Development Forum and China Development Society, February 11, 2017. Speakers: Rt HonVince Cable, IGA Professor in Practice; Cindy Fan, UCLA; Zou Ming, Phoenix New Media; Lord Adair Turner, Former Chairman of the Financial Services Authority and Gudrun Wacker, German Institute for International and Security Affairs.
- The Future of Europe, LSE IGA and LSE SU Italian Society lecture, February 9, 2017. Speaker: Paolo Gentiloni, Prime Minister of Italy.
- NATO and Russia in the New World Disorder, PowerBreakfast Series, December 8, 2016. Speakers: Hans Blix, Swedish diplomat and Tarak Barkawi, LSE.
- The Great Convergence: information technology and the new globalisation, LSE IGA PowerBreakfast Series, November 24, 2016. Speakers: Richard Baldwin, Director of the Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR) and Gianmarco Ottaviano, LSE.
- Rich People Poor Countries: the rise of emerging market tycoons and their mega-firms, LSE lecture as well as PowerBreakfast Series, October 25, 2016. Speaker: Caroline Freund, Senior Fellow at the Patterson Institute for International Economics.
- Germany and Brexit, PowerBreakfast Series, September 7, 2016. Speakers: Jeromin Zettelmeyer, Senior Fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics and LSE IGA Visiting Senior Fellow; Rt Hon Vince Cable, LSE IGA Professor in Practice and Simon Hix, LSE.
- Are CEOs Fired for Bad Luck? joint event with The European Corporate Governance Institute (ECGI), April 22, 2016. Speaker: Francesca Cornelli, Professor of Finance and Director of Private Equity at London Business School.
- The Evolving China Model: Meritocracy or New Autocracy? PowerBreakfast Series, April 6, 2016. Speakers: Daniel Bell, Tsinghua University and Mayling Birney, LSE.
- The Political Economy of Change: the Case of Senegal, joint event with the International Growth Centre and LSE Africa Centre, March 17, 2016. Speakers: Mr Ali Mansoor, IMF and Daouda Sembene, advisor to the Minister of Finance of Senegal.
- ISIS: If a non-state actor becomes a state, PowerBreakfast Series, October 1, 2015. Speaker: Stephen Walt, Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government.
- Global Leadership, joint event with LSE Department of Management, July 2, 2015. Speakers: Michael Maccoby; Marc Stears, University College Oxford; Mari Sako, Saïd Business School and Stefan Stern, Financial Times.