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Peer-reviewed articles 

Articles published by LSE GSU staff in external outlets


Etat des lieux de la présence chinoise en Amérique latine et aux Caraïbes

by A. Mendez and G. Estrada (2023)

Sciences Po Observatoire stratégique de l’Amérique latine, notes d'analyse


Turkey and African agency: the role of Islam and commercialism in Turkey's Africa policy

by Buğra Süsler and Chris Alden (2022). 

The Journal of Modern African Studies, 60(4), 597-617


Visceral politics and its impact on US foreign policy decision-making

by D.P. Houghton and A. Mendez (2023)

Foreign Policy Analysis, Volume 19, Issue 1


The firm under the spotlight: How stakeholder scrutiny shapes corporate social responsibility and its influence on performance

by F. J. Forcadell, A. Lorena, and E. Aracil

Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management pp 1-15


Latin America in/and the AIIB: a constructivist analysis

by M. Turzi and A. Mendez (2022)

Vestnik RUDN. International Relations, Volume 22, No. 3, pp. 478-494


The sustainable practices of multinational banks as drivers of financial inclusion in developing countries

by F. Ubeda, A. Mendez, and F.J Forcadell (2022)

Finance Research Letters (JIF=9.848)


Russia–Ukraine crisis: China’s Belt Road Initiative at the crossroads

by A. Mendez,  F.J. Forcadell, and K. Horiachko (2022)

Asian Business & Management, Volume 21, pp. 488–496 JIF=4.13


Chinese institutions and international expansion within the Belt and Road Initiative: firm capabilities of Chinese companies in the European Union

by M. Altamira, G. Fornes, and A. Mendez (2022)

Asia Pacific Business Review, Special Issue (The Chinese Belt and Road Initiative: Strategic Responses of Governments and Multinational Companies) JIF=2.011


How sustainable banking fosters the SDG 10 in weak institutional environments

by F. Ubeda, F. J. Forcadell, E. Aracil and A. Méndez (2022)

Journal of Business Research, Vol 146, pp. 277-287 JIF=10.969


The Dynamics of Governance and Sustainable Development Goals in the Global South

by H. Liu, C. Lee, and C. Alden (2022)

Global Policy Special Issue 2022 JIF=2.375


Fitting China in: local elite collusion and contestation along Kenya’s Standard Gauge Railway

by C. Alden, and O. M. Otele (2022)

African Affairs, Vol 121, Issue 484, pp. 443–466 JIF=3.017


Sustainable Banking in the Global South

by A. Mendez, F. J.  Forcadell, and.  F. Ubeda (2021)

Digital Economy and Innovation, Vol 1, No 1


Chinese transnational criminal organisations and the illegal wildlife trade in Tanzania

by C. Alden and R. Harvey (2021)

The European Review of Organised Crime, Vol 5, No 1, pp 10-35 


China in Panama: From peripheral diplomacy to grand strategy

by A. Mendez and C. Alden (2021)

Geopolitics, Vol 26, Issue 3, pp 838-860 JIF=2.872


Mañana Today: A Long View of Economic Value Creation in Latin America

by Enrique R García and Álvaro Mendez (2021)

Global Policy, 12(3), 410-413


Outlining African Agency Against the Background of the Belt and Road Initiative

by Cobus van Staden, Chris Alden and Yu-Shan Wu (2020)

African Studies Quarterly, Special Issue: China-Africa Relations: The Belt and Road Initiative and Its Impact on Africa 


Enlisting the Gatekeeper: Chain-Referral and Elite Access in Foreign Policy Analysis

by Alvaro Mendez (2020)

SAGE Research Methods Cases, Part 1


Sustainable Banking: The Role of Multilateral Development Banks as Norm Entrepreneurs

by Alvaro Mendez and David Patrick Houghton (2020)

Sustainability, 12(972), 1-20


Foreign Policy Analysis and the study of Indian foreign policy: a pathway for theoretical innovation? 

by Chris Alden and Klaus Brummer (2019)

India Review, 18(5), 471-484


Latin America and the AIIB: Interests and Viewpoints

by Alvaro Mendez (2019)

Global Policy, 1-6. Q3 JIF = 1.197 


Brave new world: debt, industrialization and security in China–Africa relations

by Chris Alden & Jiang Lu (2019)

International Affairs, 95(3), 641-657. Q1
JIF = 3.74


Emerging Powers and Africa: From Development to Geopolitics

by Chris Alden (2019)

IAI Papers, 19(23), 1-15.


Global Governance in Foreign Policy  


Dr Álvaro Méndez, Senior research fellow and co-founder of the LSE Global South Unit. 

Jul–Sep 2017


It’s time South Africa tuned into Africa’s views about its role on the continent


Chris Alden, Professor of International Relations, London School of Economics and Political Science.

Maxi Schoeman, Professor of International Relations and Deputy Dean: Postgraduate Studies, Faculty of Humanities, University of Pretoria.

Asnake Kefale, Assistant Professor, Political Science and International Relations, Addis Ababa University



African countries square up for battle over future of ivory trade ban


Chris Alden, Professor of International Relations, London School of Economics and Political Science

Ross Harvey, Senior Researcher in Natural Resource Governance (Africa), South African Institute of International Affairs



Authored books, edited books and book chapters

Authored books and edited books


China and Latin America: Development, Agency and Geopolitics

by C. Alden, and A. Mendez
Bloomsbury, 2023

In this detailed and up-to-the-minute investigation, Chris Alden, author of the critically acclaimed China in Africa, and Alvaro Mendez, leading expert in the international relations of Latin America, look at the interests, strategies and practices of China's incoming power. What can be learned by comparing Latin America with other developing regions in which China has had significant economic ties and a growing diplomatic stake? Does Beijing's approach to Latin America really differ, as is often claimed by Chinese leaders, from its approach to Africa? And more broadly, how should we read the curious and uneven decline of both the US and Europe as actors in the region?



South Africa–China Relations: A Partnership of Paradoxes

by C. Alden, and YS. Wu
Springer, 2021

Involves predominantly South African authors with knowledge and expertise on the topic of relations with China, allowing them to better interact with a local and African audience

Links societal and economic levels, seeking to merge the policymaking space with concerns of everyday citizens

Considers contemporary debates, trends and questions, such as the 2018 launch of the suspension bridge between South Africa and Mozambique that was built and funded by Chinese investment.



New diplomatic relations between Panama and China: geopolitical and socioeconomic implications

By L.C. Herrera, M. Montenegro, C. Alden, A. Mendez, V. Torres–Lista

Since Panama established diplomatic relations with China in June 2017, the two countries have developed a fairly strong diplomatic relationship. This edited book by scholars in Panama and in the UK explores the geopolitical and socioeconomic implications of the bilateral agenda. It analyses China’s efforts to recruit the global South, including Panama, into its ambitious Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). It also uniquely provides a comparative chapter of Costa Rica, Argentina, Malaysia and Djibouti and their complex relationship with Beijing.



The Political Economy of China-Latin America Relations

by Alvaro Mendez and Mariano Turzi
Palgrave Macmillan, 2020

The book explores the ways in which Latin American states are capitalizing or failing to capitalize on the initiatives of China in world affairs. The authors hypothesize that a dearth of regional agency and social construction, and a consequent institutional deficit in foreign relations, characterizes Latin America and its inadequate reaction to Chinese agency. 



New directions in Africa-China Studies

by Chris Alden & Daniel Large (Eds.)
Abingdon, UK: Routledge, 2019

Interest in China and Africa is growing exponentially. Taking a step back from the ‘events-driven’ reactions characterizing much coverage, this timely book reflects more deeply on questions concerning how this subject has been, is being and can be studied.

It offers a comprehensive, multi-disciplinary and authoritative contribution to Africa–China studies. Its diverse chapters explore key current research themes and debates, such as agency, media, race, ivory, development or security, using a variety of case studies from Benin, Kenya and Tanzania, to Angola, Mozambique and Mauritius. Looking back, it explores the evolution of studies about Africa and China. Looking forward, it explores alternative, future possibilities for a complex and constantly evolving subject.



New Development Assistance: Emerging Economies and the New Landscape of Development Assistance.

by Yijia Jing, Alvaro Mendez & Yu Zheng (Eds.)
Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020

This book explores the changing face of development assistance. China's One Belt, One Road development program is the largest international investment scheme in history, surpassing the Marshall Plan by an order of magnitude. In 2017, a group of top scholars from Fudan, the London School of Economics, and other institutions like the Institute of Development Studies, Australian National University, and World Bank gathered to share findings and ideas about the nature of New Development Assistance. A compilation of their findings, this book will be of interest to NGOs, policymakers, and academics.



La Conexión China en la Política Exterior del Perú en el Siglo XXI

by Javier Alcalde, Chris Alden, Angelica Guerra & Alvaro Mendez (Eds.)
Lima, Perú: Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, 2019

This book brings together the contributions of speakers invited by the London School of Economics Global South Unit, the Institute of International Studies, the School of Government of the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru, and the academic, diplomatic and business sectors of Peru, to the international seminar that bears the same name, held in May 2016, in Lima (Peru).


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China and Africa - Building Peace and Security Cooperation on the Continent

Editors: Alden, C., Alao, A., Chun, Z., Barber, L. 

This book investigates the expanding involvement of China in security cooperation in Africa. Drawing on leading and emerging scholars in the field, the volume uses a combination of analytical insights and case studies to unpack the complexity of security challenges confronting China and the continent. It interrogates how security considerations impact upon the growing economic and social links China has developed with African states.


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Foreign Policy Analysis - New approaches, 2nd Edition

By Chris AldenAmnon Aran

Building on the success of the first edition, this revised volume re-invigorates the conversation between foreign policy analysis and international relations. It opens up the discussion, situating existing debates in foreign policy in relation to contemporary concerns in international relations, and provides a concise and accessible account of key areas in foreign policy analysis that are often ignored. Focusing on how foreign policy decision making affects the conduct of states in the international system, and analysing the relationship between policy, agency and actors, the volume examines:

  • foreign policy and bureaucracies
  • domestic sources of foreign policy
  • foreign policy and the state
  • foreign policy and globalization
  • foreign policy and change.

This second edition builds on and expands the theoretical canvas of foreign policy analysis, shaping its ongoing dialogue with international relations and offering an important introduction to the field. It is essential reading for all students of foreign policy and international relations.


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The China-Latin America Axis: Emerging Markets and their Role in an Increasingly Globalised World

This second edition authored by Dr Álvaro Méndez and Dr Gastón Fornes explores and accounts for the many changes in the emerging markets of China and the Latin American countries since 2011. Taking account of the major developments such as the rapid expansion of the Chinese state and the ongoing effects of the world recession, the authors will present up-to-date case studies and data on both Chinese and Latin American companies, including updates on those included in the first edition and presenting new innovative start-ups. Including an international relations perspective alongside business strategy and global markets, The China-Latin America Axis 2nd edition presents the drastic changes in the globalized economy in the past 5 years. 


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Colombian Agency and the making of US Foreign Policy: Intervention by Invitation

This book authored by Dr Álvaro Méndez studies a significant event in US relations with Latin America, shedding light on the role of dependent states and their foreign policy agency in the process by which local concerns become intertwined with the dominant state’s foreign policy. Plan Colombia was a large-scale foreign aid programme through which the US intervened in the internal affairs of Colombia, by invitation. It proved to be one of the major successes of US foreign policy, and has been credited with stemming a potentially catastrophic security failure of the Colombian state.


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China and  Mozambique: From Comrades to Capitalists

New Edited volume by Dr Chris Alden and Dr Sergio Chichava, "China and Mozambique drills down into the heart of a relationship whose growing depth and complexity exposes key themes that will affect Africa’s future development."


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Mercenaries, Hybrid Armies and National Security

This book, authored by Dr Caroline Varin, assesses the use of ‘mercenaries’ by states, and their integration into the national armed forces as part of a new hybridisation trend of contemporary armies in the 'Global South' as well as in Western societies. 

Book Chapters


great-power-competition-vol-5 Cover

Russia’s Backyard: China and Central Asia after the Invasion of Ukraine

by A. Mendez

in The Great Power Competition Volume 5, Springer, 2023, pp199-216




China and Latin America: Diplomacy, Trade and Geopolitics (translated from Spanish)

by A. Mendez and F.J. Forcadell

in América Latina: Mirar al futuro
Fundacion Felipe Gonzales (2022)




Geopolitics in Central America: China and El Salvador in the 21st century

by A. Mendez

in China-Latin America and the Caribbean: Assessment and Outlook, Taylor and Francis, 2021, pp 207-221




The drive for Chinese investments in agriculture: comparing South Africa to the continent

by A. Harding, L. Jiang, W. Anseeuw, C Alden

in South Africa–China Relations: A Partnership of Paradoxes, Palgrave Macmillan, 2021, pp179-198




Leadership, Global Agendas and Domestic Determinants of South Africa’s Foreign Policy Towards China: The Zuma and Ramaphosa Years

by C. Alden, YS. Wu

in South Africa–China Relations: A Partnership of Paradoxes, Palgrave Macmillan, 2021, pp37-63




Studying China-Africa/Africa-China Relations

by Chris Alden, & Daniel Large

In Chris Alden & Daniel Large (Eds.), New directions in Africa-China Studies (pp. 3-36). Abingdon, UK: Routledge, 2019.



The Western Way of Development: A Critical Review

by Chris Alden, Daniel Large & Alvaro Mendez

In Yijia Jing, Alvaro Mendez, & Yu Zheng (Eds.), New Development Assistance: Emerging Economies and the New Landscape of Development Assistance (pp. 19-38). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019



New Development Assistance in the Making: An Introduction

by Yijia Jing, Alvaro Mendez & Yu Zheng

In Yijia Jing, Alvaro Mendez, & Yu Zheng (Eds.), New Development Assistance: Emerging Economies and the New Landscape of Development Assistance (pp. 1-18). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019



Introducción: Análisis de la Política Exterior de Perú hacia China en el siglo XXI

by Alvaro Mendez, Javier Alcalde & Chris Alden

In Javier Alcalde, Chris Alden, Angelica Guerra-Baron, & Alvaro Mendez (Eds.), La Conexión China en la Política Exterior del Perú en el siglo XXI (pp. 13-24). Lima, Perú: Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, 2019



Perú, China y la nueva multipolaridad – navegar en la política internacional en tiempos inciertos

by Chris Alden & Alvaro Mendez

In Javier Alcalde, Chris Alden, Angelica Guerra-Baron, & Alvaro Mendez (Eds.), La Conexión China en la Política Exterior del Perú en el siglo XXI (pp. 278-307). Lima, Perú: Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, 2019



Evolving Debates and Outlooks on China-Africa Economic Ties

by C. Alden

In A. Oqubay & J. Y. Lin (Eds.), China-Africa and an Economic Transformation (pp. 84-97). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2019



Working Papers

The LSE Global South Unit Working Paper Series showcases research conducted by GSU staff and other academics working on the topic of the emergence of the 'Global South'.

Working Paper Series



Global Megatrends That Challenge Latin America

by G. Fernandez de Soto and A. Rugeles

LSE GSU Working Paper Vol 9, No 3


Sustainability and Trust: Financial Inclusion in the Global South

by F. Ubeda, A. Méndez, and F. J. Forcadell

LSE GSU Working Paper Vol 9, No 2




The Sustainable Practices of Multinational Banks as Drivers of Financial Inclusion in Developing Countries

by F. Ubeda, A. Méndez, and F. J. Forcadell

LSE GSU Working Paper Vol 8, No 1






The diplomatic context between China and Panama and their agreements

by Luis Carlos Herrera, Markelda Montenegro and Virginia Torres-Lista

Working Paper 03/2020




Myths of Multipolarity: The sources of Brazilian Overexpansion

by Luis L Schenoni, Dawisson Belém Lopes, and Guilherme Casarões

LSE Global South Unit Working Paper Series
edited by Alvaro Mendez and Chris Alden








'Early Lessons from the Colombian Peace Process'

by Andrés Ucrós Maldonado.

WPS 01-2016.




'The Origins of Nuclear Cooperation between Brazil and Argentina

by Matias Spektor.

WPS 04-2015.




'A comparative study of foreign economic policies: The CIVETS countries

by Angélica Guerra-Barón and Álvaro Méndez.

WPS 03-2015.






'Strategies and Counter-strategies: China in the Andean Region of South America'  

by  Ádam Chimienti and Benjamin Creutzfeldt.

WPS 01-2014.


Call for papers

The Global South Unit is now soliciting submissions for its Working Paper Series. We welcome research manuscripts of the standard of quality expected of submissions to academic journals or academic book chapters.

All manuscripts must be original scholarly efforts which make a substantive contribution to scientific knowledge concerning the following subjects:

  1. South-South cooperation.
  2. Latin America in a global context.
  3. Emergence of China in the South.
  4. Foreign Policies of the South.
  5. Regionalism and the South.

Authorship of papers is not limited to members of academic faculties; practitioners and independent researchers are also encouraged to apply. Submissions must conform to the following format requirements:

  1. APA 6th edition citation style must be used, along with the full list of references.
  2. The file format must be Microsoft Word (and not .pdf).
  3. A title page must include, in addition to the title, the names of the author(s), an address for correspondence, an abstract with keywords, and the month and year of submission.
  4. Line spacing must be 1.5, margins 1”, and the text justified.
  5. A word limit of 4,000 must be observed.

Submit to Dr Alvaro Mendez or to

The Global South Unit’s decisions to publish on its website are final.

All work published in the working paper series remain the property of the author. 

Commentary and Blogposts

Commentary and Blogposts from the GSU


China plays geopolitical chess game in Latin America

A. Rugeles and A. Mendez (2023)

El País


China y el ajedrez geopolítico de América Latina

A. Rugeles and A. Mendez (2023)

El País


China’s Free Trade Agreements in the Global South: Quito and Beijing

A. Mendez and C. Alden (2023)

China Global South Project


China’s Overseas Fishing Fleet and the Global South

C. Alden and S. Chichava (2022)

China Global South Project


The New Development Bank and Uruguay: a win-win deal

A. Mendez (2022)

Global Policy Journal


Beijing and Taipei: the Latin American geopolitical connection

A. Mendez (2021)

China Global South Project


China’s vaccine diplomacy: soft power lessons from Latin America

A. Mendez (2021)

China Global South Project



China-Driven Port Development: Lessons from Kenya and Malaysia

C. Alden, S Chichava, L. Jiang, B. Murg, G. Lim, and Y.S. Wu (2021)

South African Institute of International Affairs Policy Briefing


Autocratic entrenchment as the world turns a blind eye towards Zimbabwe

R. Harvey and C. Alden (2020)

LSE International Relations blog


Policy Brief

The LSE Global South Unit Policy Briefs Series showcases expert analysis conducted by GSU staff, and other academics and political experts working on the topic of the emergence of the 'Global South'.

Policy Brief Series


Navigating Argentina's BRICS Entry: between domestic dynamics and geopolitical Implications

By Ariel González Levaggi and Tomás Múgica

PBS 02-2023

October 2023


Towards a consensus of the Global South

By Andrés Rugeles

PBS 01-2023

July 2023


The discrete role of Latin America in the globalization process

By Iliana Olivié and Manuel Gracía.

PBS 01-2018

December 2017


The Long Crisis Facing Emerging Markets: A Roadmap for Policy Reforms.

by Rajiv Biswas and Álvaro Méndez 

PBS 01-2016

January 2016

If you wish to submit a paper to be considered for publication, please contact us by email: