Spain

In brief: Spanish findings from EU Kids Online 2020

Spanish children’s engagement online with communication and entertainment activities has increased since 2015. Their preference for communicating with family and friends (70%), and leisure activities – such as listening to music (63%), watching video clips (55%) and playing online (46%) – on a daily basis stands out, whereas the evidence shows lower interest in participatory and civic activities.

While engaging in their everyday online activities, 33% of the children were bothered or upset online. Social and instrumental skills are the most widespread among Spanish children, whereas informational and creative skills are a little less common. This shows the need for improving school mediation.

Even though Spanish children feel their school is a place they belong to, with supportive teachers willing to help them, teachers don’t really mediate their online activities and tend to be more restrictive (39%) than proactive (29%) when mediating the students’ online activities. They also tend to set more restrictions on teenagers (43%) rather than on pre-teens (33%). Policy on digital literacy in primary and secondary education focusing on safer internet use and pedagogical change would definitely contribute to developing children’s online skills.

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Highlights

  • Garmendia, M., Jimenez, E., Karrera, I., Larrañaga, N., Casado, M. A., Martinez, G. & Garitaonandia, C. (2019). Actividades, mediación, oportunidades y riesgos online de los menores en la era de la convergencia mediática. 2019. Editado por el Instituto Nacional de Ciberseguridad (INCIBE). León (España). Project EU Kids Online IV – University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU)

  • The number of teen girls who access content related to ways of physically hurting themselves (6% vs 2%), committing suicide (5% vs 1%), ways of being very thin (4% vs 1%) and hate messages (12% vs 4%) is significantly higher than among boys. Consequently, teen girls have found themselves in situations on the internet that have bothered them (40%) significantly more often than boys (29%). Parents tend to encourage boys more than girls to explore online, while more often restricting activities for girls. These findings, consistent with previous results, show their worry especially for girls’ online safety.

Reports and resources

Publications

Garmendia, M., Jimenez, E., Karrera, I., Larrañaga, N., Casado, M. A., Martinez, G. & Garitaonandia, C. (2019). Actividades, mediación, oportunidades y riesgos online de los menores en la era de la convergencia mediática. 2019Editado por el Instituto Nacional de Ciberseguridad (INCIBE). León (España). Project EU Kids Online IV – University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU)

Garmendia, M., Jiménez, E., & Larrañaga, N. (2019). Bullying y ciberbullying: victimización, acoso y daño. Necesidad de intervenir en el entorno escolar. Revista española de pedagogía77(273), 295-311.

Garmendia, M, & Karrera, I. (2019). ICT use and digital inclusion among Roma/Gitano adolescentsMedia and Communication7(1), 22-31.

Del Río, M.A; Garmendia, M. & Garitaonandia, C (2019)Internet y la infancia española con problemas de aprendizaje, de comportamiento y otras discapacidadesRevista Latina de Comunicación Social, 74, 653-667.

Casado, M. A., Garitaonandia, C. Moreno, G., Jimenez, E., & (2019). Immigrant children and the Internet in Spain: uses, opportunities, and risksMedia and Communication7(1), 56-65.

Garitaonandia, C., Karrera, I., Larrañaga, N. (2019). Media convergence, risk and harm to children onlineDoxa Comunicación, 28, version preprint.

Casado, M.A, Garitaonandia, C., Jiménez, E., Garmendia, M., Karrera, I., Moreno, G. (2018). Los niños y niñas de la brecha digital en EspañaMadrid: Unicef Comité Español.

Garitaonandia, C. (2018). Smartphone Cultures (Review). Communication and Society, 366-367.

Jiménez, E., Garmendia y M., Casado, M.A. (coords) (2018). Entre selfies y whatsapps. Oportunidades y riesgos para la infancia y la adolescencia conectada. Barcelona: Editorial Gedisa.

Garmendia, M & Karrera, I. (2018). Sexting: qué sabemos y qué nos queda por aprender. En E. Jiménez, M. Garmendia y M.A Casado. (Eds) Entre sefies y whatsapps. Oportunidades y riesgos para la infancia y adolescencia conectada, 141-152.

Garmendia, M., Casado, M. A., Jiménez, E. & Garitaonandia, C. (2018) Oportunidades, riesgos, daño y habilidades digitales de los menores españoles. En E. Jiménez, M. Garmendia y M. A. Casado. (Eds.) Entre selfies y whatsapps. Oportunidades y riesgos para la infancia y adolescencia conectada, 31-54. Barcelona: Gedisa.

Martínez, G. & Casado, M.A. (2018). La responsabilidad  de las madres y de los padres españoles como mediadores en el uso de Internet que hacen los menores: evolución y nuevos retos. En E. Jiménez, M. Garmendia y M. A. Casado. (Eds.) Entre selfies y whatsapps. Oportunidades y riesgos para la infancia y adolescencia conectada, 173-185. Barcelona: Gedisa.

Garmendia, M., Casado del Rio, M. A. & Jiménez, (2018) Adolescents and smartphones: coping with overload. En J. Vincent & L. Haddon (Eds.) Smartphone Cultures, 108-120. London: Routledge.

Team

Maialen Garmendia 2019

Maialen Garmendia (PhD) Senior Lecturer in Sociology at the Faculty of Education, Philosophy and Anthropology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU). Her interests are in social research techniques, audience research and digital technologies and everyday life. Since 2006 she has been a member of the EU Kids Online network. She coordinated the Net children Go Mobile project in Spain.

Carmelo 2019

Carmelo Garitaonandia is Professor of Journalism at the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) and was its Vice-Chancellor from 2009 to 2017. PhD in Political Sciences and B.A. in Law and Master of Information and Audiovisual Communication (University of Paris VII). He has written numerous scientific articles and books on topics related to the history of communication, regional TV, digital TV and digital technologies and their influence on children and teenagers. 

Estefania Jimenez 2019

Estefanía Jiménez, (PhD) Lecturer in Media Studies at University of Basque Country (UPV/EHU). She has been visiting fellow at UAB (Barcelona), Instituto Tecnológico de Monterrey (Mexico) and University of Oxford. She has been member of EU Kids Online since 2012. She has published her works both in journals and divulgative publications and conferences. She has recently co-edited and published the book “Entre selfies y whatsapps. Oportunidades y riesgos para la infancia y la adolescencia conectada” (Gedisa, 2018), and collaborates with institutions related to childhood rights and cibersecurity such as Unicef and Red.es. She is also a regular contributor to the media.

Iñaki Karrera 2019

Inaki Karrera; (PhD) Lecturer at the Faculty of Education, Philosophy and Anthropology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) in Donostia-San Sebastián. He has taken part in several research projects, at European (Socrates-Grundtvig 2010-1-FR1-GRU06-00253-1), country and local level. His research interests are related to Educational Inclusion and Innovation, digital divide and social inequalities. 

Nekane Larrañaga 2019

Nekane Larrañaga (PhD) Senior Lecturer in Sociology at the Faculty of Education, Philosophy and Antropology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU). Her research interest and topics are related to diversity, intercultural relations, interethnic relationships, values and school, bilingualism, identity, citizenship and acculturation.  She has participated in several research projects. ORCID 0000-0002-8062-3544 
nekane.larranaga@ehu.es

Gema Martinez 2019

Gemma Martínez (PhD) has developed her doctoral thesis at the University of the Basque Country within the framework of the EU Kids Online project, focused on the topic of parental mediation. She has collaborated in different national and international projects. During her years of residence in London where she moved to do a research stay at the LSE, she combined her academic career with working in different schools in London with children with different special needs. Gemma has a passion for studying, working and learning about children´s development and collaborates actively with Spanish institutions, which promote a safer use of the new technologies.

Contact

HEFA II, Plaza de Oñati 3, 20018, San Sebastián, Spain

Email: maialen.garmendia@ehu.eus