Toby is currently co-leading the Luce Foundation-funded project ‘Whose Revolution? Re-assessing the Impact of the 1979 Iranian Revolution on Sunni Islamism’ at the LSE with Raphaël Lefèvre. He is also a Marie-Curie Global Fellow at Stanford University and Ca’ Foscari University in Venice. He was previously Senior Research Fellow in the International Relations of the Middle East at the Middle East Centre, St. Antony’s College, University of Oxford, Research Fellow at Pembroke College, Cambridge, and Research Officer at the LSE and gained his doctorate from the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS). He is the author of Sectarian Gulf: Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and the Arab Spring That Wasn’t (Stanford University Press, 2013) and The Other Saudis: Shiism, Dissent and Sectarianism (Cambridge University Press, 2015). Matthiesen has published widely in various academic journals and in the mainstream media and has appeared on major TV and radio networks. His current research focuses on the History of International Relations, in particular Sunni-Shii relations and the legacies of the Cold War in the Middle East.