The 9th of November has been extremely significant in German history. On the 9th of November 1918 the First World War ended in the German understanding. On the 9th of November 1923, Hitler attempted to putsch in Munich, but failed. On the 9th of November 1938, violent persecutions of the German Jewish population were organised by the Nazi regime. On the 9th of November 1989, the Berlin Wall fell.
All of these events can be closely linked to geopolitical orientations of Germany. To link history and geopolitics might be interesting for a wider audience. It will also set a light on why Germany is so closely committed to European integration.
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Klaus Welle is Visiting Professor in Practice at the LSE European Institute. He was previously Secretary General of the European Parliament from 2009 to 2022. His previous roles in Brussels include serving as chief of staff to the President of the European Parliament, as Director General for EU Internal Policies in the Parliament's administration, and as Secretary General successively of the European People's Party (EPP) transnational political party and of the EPP political group in the European Parliament.
Chris Anderson is the Ralf Dahrendorf Professor of European Politics and Society. His research has centred on the micro-foundations of markets and democracy. He is the recipient of several scientific prizes, including the American Political Science Association’s Heinz Eulau Award for the best article published in the American Political Science Review and the Best Article Award from the Journal of Politics.
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The European Institute (@LSEEI) is a centre for research and graduate teaching on the processes of integration and fragmentation within Europe.
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