Dr Kirsten E. Schulze
Summary of the impact:
Dr Schulze's evaluation of the EU’s Aceh Monitoring Mission contributed to better application of human security principles in other peacekeeping missions and contributed to the protection of civilians human rights post conflict
In 2005, Dr Kirsten E. Schulze was invited by the British Embassy in Jakarta to the history and causes of a conflict that had begun in 1976 in the Indonesian province of Aceh between the Free Aceh Movement and the Indonesian military. The conflict lasted for three decades. Both sides committed human rights abuses and 100,000 Acehnese were killed, most of them civilians. After the fall of President Suharto in 1998, Dr Schulze began researching and publishing widely on the Indonesian conflict, its resolution and the transition from conflict to negotiated settlement. She found that the fall of Suharto not only allowed the Indonesian government to explore avenues other than force to resolve the Aceh conflict, but also presented the Free Aceh Movement with the opportunity to modify its strategy and to transform itself into a genuinely popular movement.
Subsequent to the briefing, designed to prepare the ground for the European Union's Aceh Monitoring Mission (2005-2006), Dr Schulze was invited by the EU to evaluate the Mission's work. This was part of a broader "Human Security and European Security and Defence Policy", which focused on the changing nature of security risks. It led to a set of proposals for military and civilian capabilities guided by human security principles. Schulze produced four evaluation publications. Recommendations included decommissioning of Free Aceh weapons, redeployment of Indonesian forces, reintegration of former combatants and human rights monitoring. Her research established that the support of the UK, Swedish and Finnish embassies, good leadership by the head of the Monitoring Mission, a swift amnesty for Free Aceh Movement prisoners and a commitment to the peace process by both sides were all crucial to the successful conclusion of the Mission's aims.
Dr Schulze found, however, that the primacy of human rights was more challenging to implement and required a bottom-up approach to the reintegration of former combatants as well as improvements in staff training. Therefore the EU initiated a 'human security' project. Practitioners and academics worked together to develop proposals to redesign European security capabilities, moving away from a 'traditional security' approach and towards 'human security'. In 2004, the human security project published A Human Security Doctrine for Europe.
The human security team conducted an evaluation of existing European Security and Defence Policy missions (including the Aceh Mission) and Schulze's insights into the Aceh conflict proved vital for the assessment of the root causes of conflict. Her recommendations for the future European Security and Defence Policy included the recruitment of monitors proficient in the local and the mission language; a more culturally-sensitive training programme; a clear definition of the human rights mandate; and compulsory training on human rights.
Read the full impact case study here.
Some of her many publications include:
The Arab-Israeli Conflict (2016) [3rd edition]; International History of the Twentieth Century and Beyond (2014) [co-edited, 3rd edition]; The Jews of Lebanon: Between Coexistence and Conflict (2008) [2nd edition]; "Making Jihadis, Waging Jihad: Transnational and Local Dimensions of the ISIS Phenomenon in Indonesia and Malaysia" (with Joseph Chinyong Liow) Asian Security Vol 15, No 2, 122-139 (2019); "Special Issue: Militant Islam in Southeast Asia: New Insights into Jihad in Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines" (co-edited with Julie Chernov Hwang) Contemporary Southeast Asia (2019) Vol 41, No 1, 1-13 (April 2019); "Transforming the Aceh Conflict: From Military Solutions to Political Agreement" in Amy L. Freedman (ed), Threatening the State: The Internationalisation of Domestic Disputes, Routledge (2013); "The 1948 War: The Battle over History" in Joel Peters and David Newman, Israel-Palestine Handbook, Routledge (2012); "The AMM and the Transition from Conflict to Peace in Aceh, 2005-2006" in Mary Martin and Mary Kaldor (eds), The European Union and Human Security: External Interventions and Missions (2010); "Israeli Crisis Decision-making: the 1982 and 2006 Lebanon Wars", in Heidi Kurkinen (ed), Strategic Decision-making in Crisis and War, Series 2, No 42, National Defence University Finland (2010); "Point of Departure: The 1967 War and the Jews of Lebanon", Israel Affairs, Vol 15, No 4, October (2009).