General Law for Sustainable Forest Development ( 2018 )

This law replaces the 2003 general law for sustainable forest development. Specific objectives of this law (stated at art. 3) include: 1) the promotion of sustainable forest management in order to help maintain and increase carbon stocks, reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, as well as reduce vulnerability and strengthen resilience and adaptation to climate…read more

Energy Transition Law ( 2015 )

The Energy Transition Act's purpose is to promote sustainable and efficient use of energy, regulate the obligations of power companies related to the mandatory share of clean energies (including natural gas, and CCS with emissions not exceeding 100 kg/MWh), and push for the reduction of the polluting emissions of the electric power industry while ensuring competitiveness of the clean power sector…read more

Decree issuing the Electricity Industry Law, the Geothermal Energy Law and amending the Law on National Waters ( 2014 )

The present decree approves the Electricity Industry Law (LIE) and the Geothermal Energy Law. The LIE regulates part of the changes arising from the Constitutional Reform in energy matters of 2013. It modifies the regime of the electricity sector to move to a new model based on the free competition in the activities of generation and…read more

Energy Reform Package ( 2013 )

The Constitutional Reform on Energy (Energy Reform Decree and related 9 newly created laws and 12 modified laws) aims to modernise the energy system by introducing greater competitiveness and efficiency to the hydrocarbons sector, supporting shift towards low-carbon electricity generation and introducing the concept of ‘sustainability’ into the Constitution. The new laws adopted within the…read more

General Law on Climate Change ( 2012 / Mitigation and adaptation Framework )

The approval of the GLCC gives certainty and continuity to climate policy in Mexico and sets the country on a path to a low carbon economy. It establishes the basis for the creation of institutions, legal frameworks and financing to move towards a low carbon economy. As a General Law, it specifies the different responsibilities…read more

Law for Bioenergy Promotion and Development ( 2008 )

This law seeks to reduce GHG emissions as per the international instruments to which Mexico is a signatory. The Secretariat of Agriculture is charged with developing the Programme of Sustainable Input Production for Bioenergy and Scientific and Technological Development. The Inter-sectoral Commission for Bioenergy Development, in the context of the Development Plan, will promote the…read more

Accelerated Depreciation for Investments with Environmental Benefits ( 2005 )

The bill establishes that investments in environmentally friendly technologies, including renewable energy, could profit from accelerated depreciation. The information of the bill involves the Secretariat of Natural Resources and Environment as well as the Secretariat of Finance. The bill allows investors to deduct up to 100% of the investment in renewable energy projects from tax…read more

Law of General Ecological Balance and Protection of the Environment. ( 1988 )

This laws the framework document for environmental protection in Mexico. It was amended in 2016, 2017 and 2018 to include climate change issues, along side the establishment of new rules and fines. Art. 2.V) states that the formulation and execution of mitigation actions and adaptation to climate change is of public interest. Art. 15.IV) states that…read more

Special Tax Law on Production and Services (carbon tax and credits) ( 1980 )

The 2012 amendments to the Special Tax Law introduced Mexico’s carbon tax. It covers fossil fuel sales and imports by manufacturers, producers, and importers and is capped at 3% of the sales price of the fuel. Rather than imposing a levy on the full carbon content of fuels, it taxes the additional amount of emissions…read more

Organic Law of the Federal Public Administration ( 1976 )

  The 2014 amendment of the 1976 Organic Law of the Federal Public Administration deals with energy policy in article 33 (p.26). The article states that the Secretary for Energy is responsible for establishing, conducting and coordinating the country's energy policy. The Secretary must give priority to energy security and diversification, as well as to energy…read more

Transition Strategy to promote the use of cleaner technologies and fuels ( 2016 )

The Strategy has medium and long-term planning components, 15 and 30 years, respectively, consistent with international best practices. Based on a series of analyzes, studies and diagnostics mandated by the Energy and Transition Law, these planning components of the energy sector define clean energy goals and energy efficiency. Likewise, the Strategy establishes policies and actions…read more

Decree approving the Special Climate Change Program 2014-2018 ( 2014 )

This decree adopts the Special Climate Change Program 2014-2018 into law. The objective of the Special Climate Change Program 2014-2018 is to reduce the vulnerability of populations and productive sectors, preserve and protect ecosystems and environmental services and increase infrastructure resilience to the adverse impacts of climate change. The instruments included in the Special Climate Change Program 2014-2018 include the country's…read more

National Climate Change Strategy ( 2013 )

The strategy sets out the main focal areas regarding cross-sectorial climate policy, adaptation to climate change and reduction of GHG emissions, presented as “eight axes of action”. These are: 1) Reduce vulnerability to climate change of Mexicans living at risk and strengthen their resilience; 2) Reduce the vulnerability of production systems and strategic infrastructure against…read more

Economy-wide

NDC Laws and National Policies

25% (unconditional) reduction in GHG and Short Lived Climate Pollutants emissions for the year 2030 compared to BAU scenario, equivalent to 22% reduction in GHG and 51% reduction in Black Carbon

Economy Wide | Baseline Scenario Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: business as usual scenario

Source: NDC

30% cut in GHG emission against baseline by 2020 and 50% cut in GHG emission compared to 2000 in 2050

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Target year: 2050 | Base year: In 2020, against business as usual; and in 2050, compared to 2000 emissions. | Source(s): National C... (2013 / Executive)

Reducing emissions by 30% by the year 2020 and 50% reduction in emissions by 2050, against a 2000 baseline

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Target year: 2050 | Base year: 2000 | Source(s): General La... (2012 / Legislative)

By 2030, Mexico will reduce its total GHG emissions by 22% and will reduce its Black Carbon emissions by 51% compared with a 2000 baseline

General | Baseline Scenario Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2000 | Source(s): General La... (2012 / Legislative)

Energy

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

Around 35% of electricity generation will come from clean sources by 2020, al least 40% by 2030 and at least 50% by 2050

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2050 | Base year: N/A | Source(s): National C... (2013 / Executive)

Minimum 35% of electricity from clean energy sources by 2024

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2024 | Base year: N/A | Source(s): General La... (2012 / Legislative)

LULUCF

NDC Laws and National Policies

Reach a rate of 0% deforestation by the year 2030

Reforestation | Target year: 2030

Source: NDC

Forest carbon sinks have a positive balance on sequestration by 2030, compared with negative situation today

Carbon Sequestration | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: Business as usual scenario | Source(s): National C... (2013 / Executive)

Agriculture

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Buildings

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Coastal Zones

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Cross-Cutting Area

NDC Laws and National Policies

Reduce at least by 50% the number of municipalities in the category of “most vulnerable“ in the PECC 2014-2018 and avoid any other Municipality falling into this category.

Climate Risk Management

Source: NDC

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Disaster Risk Management (DRM)

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Environment

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Health

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Industry

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Social Development

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Tourism

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Transportation

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Urban

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Waste

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Water

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

In 2007 the Government adopted a first National Climate Change Strategy with the objective of defining a consensual public policy agenda to tackle climate change. The President also called on representatives from the legislative, executive and judiciary, private sector and civil society to integrate the announced Climate Change National System (eventually launched in 2014) and work for the promotion of a “truly sustainable development”. The launch of the Inter-secretarial Commission on Climate change, formed of 13 secretaries, was also announced.

In July 2013 Mexico adopted the 10-20-40 National Climate Change Strategy. Following from the 2012 General Law on Climate Change, the Strategy outlines actions to be implemented until 2040. It sets out the main focal areas regarding cross-sectorial climate policy, adaptation to climate change and reduction of GHG emissions, presented as “eight axes of action”.

These are: 1) reduce vulnerability to climate change of Mexicans living at risk and strengthen their resilience; 2) reduce the vulnerability of production systems and strategic infrastructure against weather contingencies; 3) foster adaptability of ecosystems to the effects of global warming; 4) accelerate energy transition towards clean energy sources; 5) reduce power consumption intensity through efficiency and rationality schemes; 6) transition to sustainable city models, with intelligent mobility systems, integrated waste management and buildings with a low carbon footprint; 7) encourage better agricultural and forestry practices, with schemes for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+); and 8) reduce “short life” pollutant emissions, such as black carbon and methane, to improve the health and welfare of Mexicans.

The Strategy also reinforces Mexico’s mitigation goals to reduce emissions by 30% by 2020 with respect to the business-as-usual scenario, and by 50% by 2050, as compared to emissions in 2000.

Internationally, Mexico has been one of the most active developing countries in relation to conducting and updating the UNFCCC’s National Inventories on Greenhouse Emissions. It was the first developing country to submit the Fourth National Communication and is on the verge of presenting its Fifth National Communication. Mexico’s hosting of COP16 in 2010 created momen­tum to address climate change, as evidenced by the four draft laws put forward to Congress by the major political parties that eventually led to the approval of the General Law on Climate Change (GLCC).

The GLCC became law in 2012 and was a major advance in Mexico’s actions to tackle climate change. After a process of negotiation that lasted two years, the key breakthrough was a meeting in October 2011, convened by GLOBE International and addressed by former UK Deputy Prime Minister Lord Prescott. At this meeting legislators from different parties, who had proposed separate drafts of a climate change law, agreed to merge them into one single proposal. The GLCC was voted on, and approved, in the Mexican Senate in December 2011, coinciding with the UNFCCC COP17/CMP7 in Durban, South Africa.

The current National Development Plan (2013-2018), in turn, includes an environmental sustainability axis concerned with reinforcing climate change policy and environmental policy to promote transition to a “competitive, sustainable, resilient and low-carbon economy”. The updated Special Programme on Climate Change (2014-2018) establishes goals, targets and actions necessary to promote climate change mitigation in the short term while securing economic competitiveness and allowing time for the development of adaptation strategies. The Government expects full implementation of the latter to achieve total annual emissions reduction of 83.2m tonnes of CO2–equivalent (PCG100) by 2018 in relation to the business as usual scenario.

Energy supply

The Law on the Use of Renewable Energies and Financing the Energy Transition (LAERFTE) and the Law for Sustainable Energy Use (LASE) were both passed in 2008. They are expected to be merged and updated soon by a new Energy Transition Law, awaiting approval of the Senate at the time of writing. In 2009 a fund for renewable energy was created at the initial value of MXN3bn (USD220m). In a similar vein, the Law on Bioenergy Promotion and Development was passed in 2007 with the purpose of developing bioenergy in the country, thus contributing to energy diversification and sustainable development while supporting rural areas and promoting social inclusion. These bills all outline a broad framework for action and request the estab­lish­ment of multiple bodies and funding mechanisms. In this sense, they represented the first step, a binding commitment of future action, which has been built on by the General Law on Climate Change. In December 2013, Mexico introduced a comprehensive Energy Reform to support competitiveness and efficiency of its energy sector and further promote the development of clean energies in particular in the electricity sector (renewables, smart grid). The reform also introduced the concept of ‘sustainability’ into the Constitution and created or amended a total of 21 laws. The ‘Special Programme on the Use of Renewable Energy’ (2014-2018) was adopted, which notably sets the ambitious targets of 34.6% of renewable and clean electricity generation capacity installed by 2018, and at least 25% share of renewables in gross electricity consumption by 2018.

Energy demand

Mexico’s energy efficiency and demand side management policy is also based on the above-mentioned LAERFTE and LASE laws. The ‘National Programme for Sustainable Use of Energy 2014-2018’ was adopted on 28 April 2014 (following the first edition 2009-2012). The Programme sets six main objectives: develop measures to promote optimal energy use in the processes and activities of the national energy chain; strengthen the energy efficiency standards for appliances manufactured and/or marketed in the country; strengthen energy efficiency governance at the federal, state and municipal levels in co-operation with public, private, academic and social institutions; support the development of sustainable development technical capabilities; contribute to the dissemination of energy-saving culture among the population; and promote research and technological development related to energy efficiency. In addition, a number of programmes have been introduced, such as the ‘National Project for Support of Efficient Municipal Lighting’ (2010) and the ‘Programme for Energy Savings and Efficiency by Companies’ (2011).

Carbon pricing

Building on the existing National Emissions Registry and the recent tax reform (October 2013) that introduced a carbon tax on fossil fuels starting 2014 allowing companies to pay the levy with carbon credits, Mexico launched a voluntary emissions trading scheme (MEXICO2) in 2013 and announced a cap-and-trade system for carbon emissions from energy sector in February 2014.

LULUCF

In 2012 Congress passed a series of legal reforms on the Environmental Law (1988, last amended in 2014) and on the Sustainable Forest Development Law (2003), to facilitate the implementation of the REDD+ mech­anism in Mexico. The amendments focus on harmonising the definitions of key terms, the development of economic instruments that benefit forest owners and users and the inclusion of REDD+ safeguards.

The development and passing of these legal reforms was led by the Mexico Programme of the GLOBE Legislators’ Forest Initiative and highlight the beginning of a transition towards integrating REDD+ within national legal frameworks. Until then, the REDD+ mechanism has predominantly been discussed within the UNFCCC and the executive branch of governments. The legal reforms also take a critical step towards ensuring that local communities, which sustainably manage their forests, receive economic benefits derived from any future carbon payment scheme. The definition of environmental services has been adapted to emphasise the relationship between the benefits and the functionality of the natural ecosystem and the individuals settled in the territory.

The National Strategy for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (ENAREDD+) was prepared in April 2014 by the Inter-secretariat Committee on Climate Change and is offered for public consultation until 2015, when it will be officially adopted. It aims to “reduce GHG emissions from deforestation and degradation of forest ecosystems and maintain and increase forest carbon stocks in the context of sustainable rural development in Mexico”. The new National Forestry Programme 2014-2018 creates a basket of 17 indicators to evaluate the implementation of the Strategy objectives for 2018. In parallel, national and municipal forest inventories are to be created and linked to the REDD+ Measure, Reporting and Verification (MRV) system based on the latest UNFCCC guidelines. All economic instruments will be considered to promote environmental forest services, thus establishing a legal basis for new “payment for ecosystem services” mechanisms, so that forest land owners are the direct beneficiaries of the economic revenues generated by the sustainable management of their forests. In June 2014, there were 11 REDD+ projects and around 38 forest initiatives initiated in Mexico.

Adaptation

Due to its geographical features, Mexico is one of the countries most vulnerable to the effects of climate change, in particular droughts, floods, rising sea levels and frequent extreme events. Moreover, more than half of the population lives in poverty with limited adaptation capacity. In response to the adaptation challenges, the Special Programme on Climate Change 2013-2018 has been adopted. It defines two main objectives: “Reduce vulnerability of the population and productive sectors and strengthen the resilience of the strategic infrastructure” and “Protect, restore and sustainably manage ecosystems supporting the related environmental services for climate change adaptation and mitigation” and proposes a number of related measures.

To date, Mexico does not have any litigation listed.

The United Mexican States (Mexico) has a bicameral legislature (Congress) made up of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. The Lower Chamber is formed by 300 members elected in a system of electoral districts, and 200 members elected through a system of regional lists for a three-year term. The Senate has 128 senators, two of whom are elected and one assigned for each of the 31 states and the Federal District for a six-year term. The last Senate election was held in 2012 and the last Chamber of Deputies election in June 2015 (next election for both Chambers is scheduled for 2018).

The Constitution establishes that only the President and members of the Congress can introduce a bill in Congress. In practice, most bills are initiated by the executive branch. With a few exceptions, the legislative process requires the discussion and approval of a draft bill by both the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. The Senate addresses all matters concerning foreign policy, approves international agree¬ments and confirms presidential appointments. The Chamber of Deputies addresses all matters pertaining to the government’s budget and public expendi¬tures.

If passed in both Chambers, a bill becomes law once it has received presidential approval and been published in the official gazette. If not sanctioned, the bill is sent back to one of the chambers with suggested amendments, re-launching the legislative process for the adoption of that law.

Last modified 22 August, 2017