This country is a member of the European Union, so data from the NDC submitted by the EU on behalf of its members is being displayed. For further information about the EU's NDC, legislation, and targets, please see the EU profile.

Act no. 117 of 2010 concerning the promotion of the use of renewable energy for transport and the greenhouse effect reduction of energy used for transport purposes (Biofuels Act) ( 2011 )

The purpose of this Act is to reduce the impact of climate change caused by transportation-related emission activities. The Act stipulates that at least 10% of energy for transport must be produced from renewable sources by 2020. It sets the specific sustainability criteria and certification process necessary to fulfil the prescribed quota of biofuel. A…read more

Act No.86 of 2011 on Electricity (Electricity Act) ( 2011 )

The aims of this Act includes the following: to create an efficient electricity market; to exercise the principles of energy efficiency and conservation in the interest of sustainable development; to ensure access to electricity; to supply adequate electricity safely and smoothly at a transparent price; to protect the interest of consumers efficiently; to integrate the…read more

National Climate Change Strategy (Resolution of the Parliament no 29/2008) ( 2008 )

This Resolution adopted the National Climate Change Strategy (NCCS). General objectives and priorities of the period between 2008 and 2025 are set, and the strategy is to be implemented by the National Climate Change Program (NCCP). The NCCS is structured as following: framework for the elaboration of the climate strategy; mitigation of climate change; adaptation…read more

This country is a member of the European Union, so data from the NDC submitted by the EU on behalf of its members is being displayed. For further information about the EU's NDC, legislation, and targets, please see the EU profile.

Governmental Decree No.343 of 2010 concerning the requisites and certification of sustainable biofuel production ( 2010 )

This Decree provides for the requisites of sustainable production of biofuel. It also sets out rules regarding the sustainable production of biomass and the certification of sustainability. It contains rules on the compulsory share of biofuels in relation to traditional fuels, traceability of and reporting on the quantity of marketed biofuels, registration of biomass traders,…read more

National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) for 2010-2020 ( 2010 )

This action plan constitutes the basis for action on resource efficiency and sustainability. The strategic objective of the EU stipulates a 13% increase in renewable energy capacity by 2020. The NREAP supersedes and overwrites the preceding target and renewable energy policy, and aims to increase renewable energy within the total gross energy consumption by 14.65%…read more

Governmental Decree No.176 of 2008 on certification of buildings energetic features ( 2008 )

This Decree defines certification criteria of energy features in buildings. It obligates the issuance of energy certificate in the following areas: occupancy permission of the new estates; long term real estate rentals and buildings with net area over 1000 square meters; and occupancy by public authorities and institutions providing public services. The certification is voluntary…read more

Governmental Decree No.2019 of 2008 adopting the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan ( 2008 )

This Decree adopts the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEAP). The first NEEAP outlined the existing planned energy efficiency measures to decrease the energy consumption by 1% annually during the nine years between 2008 and 2016. The objectives of the NEEAP I are as follows: alignment of Hungary’s energy policy initiatives with those of the…read more

This country is a member of the EU and so EU NDC data is being displayed.

Economy-wide

NDC Laws and National Policies

The European Union and its 28 Member States submitted a joint NDC: at least 40% domestic reduction in GHG emissions by 2030 compared to 1990.

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 1990

Source: NDC

Reductions in the ETS and non-ETS sectors amounting to 43% and 30% by 2030 compared to 2005 by 2030 against a 2005 baseline (collective EU target)

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2005 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

At least 40% domestic reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 compared to 1990 by 2030 against a 1990 baseline

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

Reducing by 2050 GHG emissions by 80–95 % by 2050 against a 1990 baseline

Economy Wide | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2050 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): Decision N... (2013 / Legislative)

Maximum quantity of hydrofluorocarbons to be placed on the market and corresponding quotas by 2015, 2030

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2015 | Source(s): Fluorinate... (2014 / Legislative)

In 2020, the target is for the emissions from the ETS sectors to be 21% lower than in 2005

Economy Wide | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Reduction of EU GHG emissions by at least 30% below 1990 levels by 2020

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Reduction by 16% to 25% of GHG emissions (in the case of a EU 20% plan) or reduction by 27% to 34% (in the case of EU 30% plan) by 2025 compared with a 1990 baseline

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Target year: 2025 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): National C... (2008 / Legislative)

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Source(s):

Energy

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

20% of EU energy consumption to come from renewable resources by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

An EU target of at least 27% is set for the share of renewable energy consumed in the EU by 2030

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2014 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

An indicative target at the EU level of at least 27% is set for improving energy efficiency in 2030 compared to projections of future energy consumption based on the current criteria by 2030 against a 2014 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2014 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

On 30 November 2016 the Commission proposed an update to the Energy Efficiency Directive, including a new 30% energy efficiency target for 2030 by 2030 against a 1990 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Energy distributors or retail energy sales companies have to achieve 1.5% energy savings per year through the implementation of energy efficiency measures by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

20% reduction in primary energy use compared with projected levels, by improving energy efficiency by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Obligated energy distributors and/or retail energy sales companies achieve a cumulative end-use energy savings target by 31 December 2020 at least equivalent 1.5% a year from 2014 to 2020 of the annual energy sales to final customers of all energy distributors or all retail energy sales companies by volume, averaged over the most recent 3-year period prior to 2013 by 2020 against a 2012 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): Energy Eff... (2012 / Legislative)

The Union’s 2020 energy consumption has to be no more than 1 474 Mtoe of primary energy or no more than 1 078 Mtoe of final energy by 2020 against a 2012 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): Energy Eff... (2012 / Legislative)

Union’s 2020 20% headline target on energy efficiency by 2020 against a 2012 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): Energy Eff... (2012 / Legislative)

The biofuels and bio-liquids should contribute to a reduction of at least 35% of GHG emissions. From 2017, their share in emissions savings should be increased to 50% by 2020

Biofuels | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

At least 16% of alternative energy for overall energy consumption, and 18% of green energy for electricity by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: N/A | Source(s): National C... (2008 / Legislative)

14.65% of overall renewable energy by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: N/A | Source(s): National R... (2010 / Executive)

10.9% of renewable energy for electricity by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: N/A | Source(s): National R... (2010 / Executive)

18.9% of renewable energy for heating and cooling by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: N/A | Source(s): National R... (2010 / Executive)

Transportation

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

Biofuel GHG emissions must be >35% lower than the fossil fuel they are replacing by 2017, 2018 against a 2015 baseline

Biofuels | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2018 | Base year: 2015 | Source(s): Fuel Quali... (2009 / Legislative)

Manufacturer's average emissions to be reduced yearly by 2014-2020 against a 2011 baseline

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Emission p... (2011 / Legislative)

Increasing aircraft fuel efficiency, thus reducing CO2 emissions by 20 to 30 % compared to ‘state-of-the-art’ aircraft entering into service as from 2014 by 2020

General | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2014 | Source(s): Clean Sky ... (2007 / Legislative)

Reduce CO2 emissions by 50% and NOx by 80% by 2020 against a 2007 baseline

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2007 | Source(s): Clean Sky ... (2007 / Legislative)

Reducing the GHG intensity of fuels used in vehicles for transportation by 10% by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

General | Intensity Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): Fuel Quali... (2009 / Legislative)

Average emissions of 95 g CO2/km as average emissions for the new car fleet, in accordance with Article 13(5) by 2020

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): Emission p... (2009 / Legislative)

At least 10% share of renewables in final energy consumption in the transportation sector by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Average emissions of 147 gCO2/km for the average emissions of new light commercial vehicles registered in the Union subject to confirmation of its feasibility, as specified in Article 13(1) by 2020

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Emission p... (2011 / Legislative)

The specific emissions of CO2 of each light commercial vehicle which is designed to be capable of running on a mixture of petrol with 85% bioethanol (‘E85’), and which complies with relevant Union legislation or European technical standards, shall be reduced by 5% by 2015

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2015 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Emission p... (2011 / Legislative)

10% of renewable energy for transport by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: N/A | Source(s): National R... (2010 / Executive)

Buildings

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

Every year, governments in EU countries must carry out energy efficient renovations on at least 3% (by floor area) of the buildings they own and occupy by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

LULUCF

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

25 to 33 M tonnes of CO2 captured, or even 47 to 58 M in case of planting fast-growing tree species by 2025

Afforestation | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2025 | Base year: N/A | Source(s): National C... (2008 / Legislative)

Agriculture

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Coastal Zones

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Cross-Cutting Area

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Disaster Risk Management (DRM)

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Environment

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Health

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Industry

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Social Development

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Tourism

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Urban

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Waste

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Water

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

The UNFCCC was ratified and promulgated into law under the UNFCCC Act of 1995. The Kyoto Protocol was ratified in 2002, and Hungary has a target to reduce emissions by 6% from the average of 1985-1987. In terms of EU commitment, Hungary has a target to reduce its emissions by 18.3% by 2020. Hungary has submitted six national communications to the UNFCCC, the latest in January 2014.

Between 2003 and 2010, the Ministry of Environment and Water (now taken over by the Ministry of Rural Development) and the Academy of Sciences jointly conducted multidisciplinary scientific research on climate change impacts and responses, and produced the VAHAVA Report. Following this research progress, an overarching climate strategy, National Climate Change Strategy (NCCS) of 2008-2025, was prepared by the Ministry of Environment and Water. It creates the strategic framework for implementation of the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol. The strategy defines three main directions and implementation guideline for the government and other stakeholders: reduction of greenhouse gases, adaptation and raising public awareness of climate change. General objectives are defined for different sectors including energy, transport, agriculture, forestry and waste.

As defined in the NCCS, climate policy is an integral component of development policy and society, business and regional actors are expected to be involved. Climate change offers the potential for green growth and enhancement of international economic competitiveness through an increase in the supply of renewable energy and a subsequent fall in long term energy costs. The NCCS is implemented by the National Climate Change Programme that addresses actions for two years.

The Minister of Rural Development is responsible for overall co-ordination of the NCCS, and a Climate Change Working Group ensures co-ordination across different sectors of government. The implementation process is assisted by the Climate Change Commission, a consulting body composed of representatives from relevant ministries, the Academy of Science, NGOs, individuals and business actors.

Energy supply

More than two-thirds of consumed energy is supplied by natural gas and oil, with more than 75% of it imported. 80% of natural gas is imported from Russia. According to the Hungarian Energy Strategy 2030, primary energy intensity in 2007 was nearly 2.4 times the EU average. The reliance on Russian supplies is seen as a vulnerability, and energy security tops the country’s agenda. The National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) adopted in 2010, set a target to source 7.4% of energy from renewable sources by 2012 and 14.65% by 2020; in 2012 the actual figure was 9.6%. A review of this action plan was expected to be completed in 2014. Renewable energy sources considered important are biomass, geothermal and solar sources.

But energy policy is centred on nuclear power as a cost-effective energy source with low GHG emissions. 42% of electricity is generated by the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, which produces the lowest cost electricity in the country (HUF10.67/kWh – USD 0.04 – in 2009). A resolution to extend the service life of Paks Nuclear Power Plant by 20 years was passed in 2005 to ensure long-term domestic electricity supply. In 2009, Parliament approved the commencement of preparatory activities for the construction of new units at Paks. A recent increase in demand has spurred the search for uranium in southwest Hungary. In June 2014, Parliament approved a EUR10bn (USD12.5bn) loan agreement with Russia to finance the construction of two blocks at the Paks Nuclear Power Plant.

Energy demand

The residential sector is the largest final energy consumer, responsible for 30% of total CO2 emissions. The Green Investment Scheme established under the NCCP arranges the sale of surplus assigned amount units (AAUs) primarily to improve energy efficiency of existing buildings.

The government is developing the National Building Energy Strategy and the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan III. The Environment and Energy Operative Programme of the New National Development Plan 2007-2013 prioritised an increase in energy efficiency and the promotion of sustainable energy production and consumption patterns. For 2014-2020, energy efficiency improvements, support of renewable energy solutions and adaptation to climate change are among the priority areas of the programme.

Carbon pricing

Hungary is part of the EU ETS. Connected to the sale of surplus AAUs under the Kyoto Protocol, Green Investment Schemes (GIS) fund projects and programmes to mitigate global climate change. The GIS is being reformed to enable more effective emission reductions. A GIS Credit Guarantee Fund is being set up to enable applicants to draw state-guaranteed credit to fund measures aimed at reducing GHGs. The fund provides credit to finance building energy renovations, which often is not adequately available through traditional mortgage and personal loans.

REDD+ and LULUCF

The first forestry law dates back to 1791 and was implemented to stop overexploitation and ensure sustainable use of wood. The forestry framework is defined by the 2009 Act on the Forest, Protection of Forestry and Forestry Management. Forest legislation provides a comprehensive framework with detailed operational rules and a centralised database to protect forests from harm and support reforestation.

There was 7.4m ha of forest at the end of 19th century, which fell to 1.1m ha by 1930, but forest area has gradually increased since then, reaching 2 million ha by 2010, thanks to afforestation measures. Multiple forest programmes are in place with collaborations with non-governmental organisations including the World Wildlife Fund (WWF).

Transportation

The transport sector is petroleum intensive, accounting for 68% of the total petroleum consumption in 2009. Two-thirds of transport-derived carbon emissions come from vehicles, because the number of cars has increased while the average Hungarian vehicle is over 10 years old.. The Hungarian State Railway (MÁV) is being reformed to cut public transport costs. The National Transport Strategy initiated by the Ministry of National Development in 2012 was due to lead to adoption of an action plan for 2014-2020 by the end of 2014. The Transport Operative Programme of the New National Development Plan 2007-2013 prioritised improvements in public transport to provide economically and environmentally sustainable alternatives to individual transport and these priorities continue into the 2014-2020 programming period.

To date, Hungary does not have any litigation listed.

Hungary is a republic (since the constitutional amendment of 1989) which entered the EU in 2004. It is a unicameral parliamentary democracy governed by the principles of popular sovereignty. The Prime Minister is the head of the government and the President is the head of the state and appoints ministers according to the recommendations made by the Prime Minister. A Prime Minister is officially appointed by the President, subject to the majority vote of Members of Parliament (MPs). Executive power lies with the government and legal power is shared by the government and Parliament, which approves government programmes, and has the right to initiate a motion of no-confidence against the government and elect a new Prime Minister.

The Parliament is comprised of 199 members (down from 386 between 1990 and 2014) of the House of the Representatives, who are directly elected by citizens every four years. The last parliamentary election took place in June 2014, and the next one is expected to take place in 2018. Parliamentary decisions are made by simple majority of the votes of members present, and qualified majority is required for certain decisions. The Parliament adopts the Constitution, elects the President of the Republic and approves international treaties. The President is elected indirectly by the Parliament for a term of five years. The next presidential election is expected to take place in 2017.

There are four sources of law: the Constitution, Acts of Parliament, Decrees and international agreements. The Constitution, the Fundamental Law of Hungary, is the highest level of legal norm that define basic structure and operation of the state. Amendment of the Fundamental Law requires a two-thirds majority of all MPs. The Speaker of the House signs the Fundamental Law or its amendment, which is sent to the President for final signature and the official publication in the Official Gazette within five days of the receipt. A series of amendments to the 1989 Constitution following the 2011 elections attracted heavy international criticism (including from the European Parliament, the European Commission and the US government). Critics say that changes to judicial independence, religious rights, media independence and political campaign ads, weaken Hungary’s democracy.

Other forms of legislation are defined by the Act 11 of 1987 on Legislation. Acts of Parliament are adopted by a simple majority of votes in the Parliament (more than half of the MPs present) or qualified majority. Bills are discussed by designated parliamentary committees and the plenary meetings of the Parliament before the final vote to adopt the new bill or its amendment. Nearly 300 bills are submitted each year. While 55% of proposed legislation is submitted by the Government, 40% by MPs and 5% by the committees; 90% of the adopted bills come from the submission of the Government. An average of 130 Acts is passed annually. There are three types of decrees recognised by the Legislation Act, with government decrees being at the top of hierarchy, followed by ministerial decrees and local government decrees. International agreements are acceded to by the government and later promulgated by domestic legislative forms.

Last modified 21 August, 2017