This country is a member of the European Union, so data from the NDC submitted by the EU on behalf of its members is being displayed. For further information about the EU's NDC, legislation, and targets, please see the EU profile.

Finance Law 2018 and Second Rectifying Finance Law for 2017 ( 2017 )

Carbon taxation: The budget law sets a trajectory for the carbon component of domestic consumption tax rates for the 2018-2022 period, with a more ambitious objective than that set by the law on the energy transition. Thus, the value of the carbon component of the tariffs for these taxes is set at 44.60 euros /…read more

Law no. 2017-1839 on the end of exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbons and diverse dispositions related to energy and the environment ( 2017 / Mitigation Framework )

The law no. 2017-1839, voted in its final version on December 19th, 2017, and published on December 31st, 2017, modifies a number of articles from the French mining code and imposes an end to all activities of exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbon fossil fuels on the French territory, including the exclusive economic zone and the continental plateau,…read more

Law no. 2015-992 on Energy Transition for Green Growth (Energy Transition Law) ( 2015 / Mitigation Framework )

The framework Energy Transition Law and its related action plans are designed to give France the means to diversify its energy mix and enhance its actions contributing to tackling climate change. It covers a large scope of economic activities and brings in binding energy targets for transport, housing sector and renewable energy. In its 215 articles,…read more

Farming, forest and alimentation Framework Law No. 2014-1170 ( 2014 )

Sets outs the main targets and policies for the national agriculture and forest policy. This law offers guarantees for agriculture and forestry sustainable management, including compensation for forestry cuts. The Act recognises the carbon sequestration function of forests as well as their contribution to climate change adaptation. It also highlights among the main responsibilities of…read more

Grenelle II ( 2010 / Mitigation and adaptation Framework )

This law specifies the Grenelle I objectives in order to facilitate their implementation. Energy – supply-side policies: • Better linkage of renewable energy to the main energy network • Support and administrative facilitation for wind power • Incentives for solar power • Regulation of experimental carbon storage installations Energy – demand-side policies: • Carbon tax…read more

Grenelle I ( 2009 / Mitigation and adaptation Framework )

In 2007, the French government established six working groups gathering state and non-state actors to address ways to redefine France’s environment policy. The proposals were put to public consultation, leading to a set of recommendations presented to the French parliament in early 2008. One working group specifically addressed climate change. The Grenelle I Law states…read more

Energy Policy Framework (POPE, No. 2005-781) ( 2005 )

This law, adopted after two years of public debate, defines the objectives and orientations of France’s energy policy (energy security, competitive energy market, fight climate change, manage demand, diversify sources of supply, develop new technology). The bill states that tackling climate change is a priority of France’s energy policy. It contains objectives to increase the…read more

This country is a member of the European Union, so data from the NDC submitted by the EU on behalf of its members is being displayed. For further information about the EU's NDC, legislation, and targets, please see the EU profile.

Energy Renovation in Buildings Plan ( 2018 )

The fifth-year Energy Renovation in Buildings Plan, released in April 2018, is the government’s strategy to meet the challenge of carbon neutrality and improve the purchasing power. The plan offers tools suitable for housing, tertiary and public buildings. The Plan aims at: 1) creating a guarantee fund of more than 50 million euros to help…read more

Hydrogen deployment plan for the energy transition ( 2018 )

This Plan sets the government's vision on how to fastrack the development and deployment of hydrogen in France. The plan targets energy storage, electricity generation in transport, gas networks and CO2 storage. The Plan is organised on three main actions to focus on: 1) Production of hydrogen by electrolysis for industry, phase of initiation, 2)…read more

Climate Plan (Policy framework) ( 2013 / Mitigation and adaptation Framework )

As envisaged in the Energy Policy Framework (2005), the government has regularly updated the Climate Plan (2004, 2006, 2009, 2011), with the last update published in June 2014, integrating recent EU legislation. The Climate Plan covers nine Action Areas: • Transport • Residential tertiary • Industry and energy generation • Agriculture • Forestry • Waste…read more

Thermal Regulation 2012 (RT 2012) ( 2012 )

The Regulation replaces the Thermal Regulations 2000 and 2005, introducing more stringent regulations of thermal insulation and heating systems. RT 2005 required 15% improvement of thermal efficiency (compared to a building constructed following the guidelines of RT2000) and applied to new buildings. It also created a labelling system to identify energy efficient buildings and introduces…read more

National Climate Change Adaptation Plan ( 2011 / Adaptation Framework )

The Climate Change Adaptation Plan follows from the National Adaptation Strategy 2006, which sets the overarching principles and strategic directions for a comprehensive and multi-actor adaptation action. The Adaptation Plan also aims to prevent inappropriate adaptation and ensure consistency across public policy measures relating to adaptation. It contains a large number of measures relating to…read more

Bonus-Malus: vehicle CO2 bonus and penalty system ( 2007 )

Following the “Grenelle of the environment” process, a combined bonus and penalty system was announced to encourage the purchase of low-polluting vehicles. The bonus system applies to new vehicles purchased from 5 December 2007 and is provided as a function of the CO2 emitted.…read more

This country is a member of the EU and so EU NDC data is being displayed.

Economy-wide

NDC Laws and National Policies

The European Union and its 28 Member States submitted a joint NDC: at least 40% domestic reduction in GHG emissions by 2030 compared to 1990.

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 1990

Source: NDC

Reductions in the ETS and non-ETS sectors amounting to 43% and 30% by 2030 compared to 2005 by 2030 against a 2005 baseline (collective EU target)

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2005 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

At least 40% domestic reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 compared to 1990 by 2030 against a 1990 baseline

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

Reducing by 2050 GHG emissions by 80–95 % by 2050 against a 1990 baseline

Economy Wide | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2050 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): Decision N... (2013 / Legislative)

Maximum quantity of hydrofluorocarbons to be placed on the market and corresponding quotas by 2015, 2030

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2015 | Source(s): Fluorinate... (2014 / Legislative)

In 2020, the target is for the emissions from the ETS sectors to be 21% lower than in 2005

Economy Wide | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Reduction of EU GHG emissions by at least 30% below 1990 levels by 2020

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Cut 72m tonnes of CO2 emissions annually by 2010 against a 2004 baseline

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2010 | Base year: 2004 | Source(s): ...

Reduce by 75% the level of emissions in 2050 against a 1990 baseline

Economy Wide | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2050 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): ...

Cut GHG emissions by 40% by 2030 and by 75% by 2050 against a 1990 baseline

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2050 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): Law no. 20... (2015 / Legislative)

Reduce GHG emissions by 3% per year and total emissions by 75% by 2050 against a 2005 baseline

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2050 | Base year: 2005 | Source(s): Energy Pol... (2005 / Legislative)

Reduce by 3% GHG emissions each year by 2050 against a 1990 baseline

Economy Wide | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2050 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): Grenelle I... (2009 / Legislative)

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Source(s):

Energy

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

20% of EU energy consumption to come from renewable resources by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

An EU target of at least 27% is set for the share of renewable energy consumed in the EU by 2030

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2014 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

An indicative target at the EU level of at least 27% is set for improving energy efficiency in 2030 compared to projections of future energy consumption based on the current criteria by 2030 against a 2014 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2014 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

On 30 November 2016 the Commission proposed an update to the Energy Efficiency Directive, including a new 30% energy efficiency target for 2030 by 2030 against a 1990 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Energy distributors or retail energy sales companies have to achieve 1.5% energy savings per year through the implementation of energy efficiency measures by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

20% reduction in primary energy use compared with projected levels, by improving energy efficiency by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Obligated energy distributors and/or retail energy sales companies achieve a cumulative end-use energy savings target by 31 December 2020 at least equivalent 1.5% a year from 2014 to 2020 of the annual energy sales to final customers of all energy distributors or all retail energy sales companies by volume, averaged over the most recent 3-year period prior to 2013 by 2020 against a 2012 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): Energy Eff... (2012 / Legislative)

The Union’s 2020 energy consumption has to be no more than 1 474 Mtoe of primary energy or no more than 1 078 Mtoe of final energy by 2020 against a 2012 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): Energy Eff... (2012 / Legislative)

Union’s 2020 20% headline target on energy efficiency by 2020 against a 2012 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): Energy Eff... (2012 / Legislative)

The biofuels and bio-liquids should contribute to a reduction of at least 35% of GHG emissions. From 2017, their share in emissions savings should be increased to 50% by 2020

Biofuels | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Increase the share of renewable electricity in national energy production to 10% of French energy demand by 2010 against a 2005 baseline

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2010 | Base year: 2005 | Source(s): Energy Pol... (2005 / Legislative)

Bring the share of renewables up to 32% of the energy mix by 2030 against a 2015 baseline

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2015 | Source(s): Law no. 20... (2015 / Legislative)

Minimum 23% of energy mix by 2020 sourced from renewable energy sources

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): Grenelle I... (2009 / Legislative)

Renewable energy's share of energy mix at 32% by 2030

Renewable Energy | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2017 | Source(s): Climate Pl... (2013 / Executive)

Cut the national energy usage by at least 50% by 2050 by 2050 against a 2015 baseline

Energy Intensity | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2050 | Base year: 2015 | Source(s): Law no. 20... (2015 / Legislative)

Reduce energy intensity by 2% annually between 2005 and 2015, and by 2.5% between 2005 and 2030 by 2015, 2030 against a 2005 baseline

Energy Intensity | Intensity Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2005 | Source(s): Energy Pol... (2005 / Legislative)

Reduce intensity of GHG emissions by at least 10% in 2020 and 20% in 2025 compared to 2010 levels by 2020, 2025 against a 2010 baseline

Energy Intensity | Intensity Target | Target year: 2025 | Base year: 2010 | Source(s): Law no. 20... (2015 / Legislative)

Improve energy efficiency by 20% by 2015 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2015 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): Grenelle I... (2009 / Legislative)

Cap the total output from nuclear power at 63.2 GW and reduce France’s reliance on nuclear power from the current 75% to 50% by 2030 against a 2015 baseline

Nuclear | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2015 | Source(s): Law no. 20... (2015 / Legislative)

Reduce the share of fossil fuels in energy production by 30% by 2020 against a 2012 baseline

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): Law no. 20... (2015 / Legislative)

Reduce energy consumption by at least 40% by 2020 and their GHG emissions by 50% by 2020 against a 2010 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2010 | Source(s): Grenelle I... (2010 / Legislative)

Transportation

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

Biofuel GHG emissions must be >35% lower than the fossil fuel they are replacing by 2017, 2018 against a 2015 baseline

Biofuels | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2018 | Base year: 2015 | Source(s): Fuel Quali... (2009 / Legislative)

Manufacturer's average emissions to be reduced yearly by 2014-2020 against a 2011 baseline

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Emission p... (2011 / Legislative)

Increasing aircraft fuel efficiency, thus reducing CO2 emissions by 20 to 30 % compared to ‘state-of-the-art’ aircraft entering into service as from 2014 by 2020

General | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2014 | Source(s): Clean Sky ... (2007 / Legislative)

Reduce CO2 emissions by 50% and NOx by 80% by 2020 against a 2007 baseline

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2007 | Source(s): Clean Sky ... (2007 / Legislative)

Reducing the GHG intensity of fuels used in vehicles for transportation by 10% by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

General | Intensity Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): Fuel Quali... (2009 / Legislative)

Average emissions of 95 g CO2/km as average emissions for the new car fleet, in accordance with Article 13(5) by 2020

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): Emission p... (2009 / Legislative)

At least 10% share of renewables in final energy consumption in the transportation sector by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Average emissions of 147 gCO2/km for the average emissions of new light commercial vehicles registered in the Union subject to confirmation of its feasibility, as specified in Article 13(1) by 2020

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Emission p... (2011 / Legislative)

The specific emissions of CO2 of each light commercial vehicle which is designed to be capable of running on a mixture of petrol with 85% bioethanol (‘E85’), and which complies with relevant Union legislation or European technical standards, shall be reduced by 5% by 2015

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2015 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Emission p... (2011 / Legislative)

Reduce share of road transportation and increase non-aviation modes by 2012, 2022 against a 2006 baseline

General | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2022 | Base year: 2006 | Source(s): Grenelle I... (2009 / Legislative)

Touristic bike trips in France to reach 6% by 2015 up from 3% in 2011

General | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2015 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): National C... (2011 / Executive)

7 million electric charging points for Electric vehicles by 2030

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2015 | Source(s): Law no. 20... (2015 / Legislative)

In aviation transport, reduce fuel consumption/ passenger/km by 50% and reduce by 50% total fuel consumption by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

Fuels | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): Grenelle I... (2009 / Legislative)

Inaugurate 2,000 km of high-speed rail by 2020

Public Transport | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): Grenelle I... (2009 / Legislative)

Reduce transportation GHG emissions by 20% by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

General | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): Grenelle I... (2009 / Legislative)

Buildings

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

Every year, governments in EU countries must carry out energy efficient renovations on at least 3% (by floor area) of the buildings they own and occupy by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

15% decrease in the final energy consumption of buildings in 2023, compared to the year 2010 reference. by 2023 against a 2010 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2023 | Base year: 2010 | Source(s): Energy Ren... (2018 / Executive)

The State will improve the monitoring of consumption and the overall management of its housing stock to reduce its consumption by 15% by 2022 compared to 2010 by 2022 against a 2010 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2022 | Base year: 2010 | Source(s): Energy Ren... (2018 / Executive)

Launch a social housing programme for energy efficiency renovation for 800,000 households by 2012 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2012 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): Grenelle I... (2009 / Legislative)

Apply the ‘Low consumption building’ norm to all new buildings starting end 2012 (less than 50kWh/m2/year of primary energy consumption) by 2012 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2012 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): Grenelle I... (2009 / Legislative)

The State retains the priority objective of the end of 2025 loss (LTECV) of the 7 to 8 million thermal strainers and renovation of 500,000 homes per year by 2025 against a 2010 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2025 | Base year: 2010 | Source(s): Energy Ren... (2018 / Executive)

Eradicate in the next ten years the 1.5 million heat socks inhabited by low-income households - 150,000 per year by 2018 by 2018, 2020 against a 2010 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2010 | Source(s): Energy Ren... (2018 / Executive)

By 2025, certain category of buildings must have done energy losses assessments by 2025 against a 2015 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2025 | Base year: 2015 | Source(s): Law no. 20... (2015 / Legislative)

Reduce energy consumption in old buildings by 38% by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): Grenelle I... (2009 / Legislative)

Urban

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

Plan of building 500,000 social housing by 2017 and decrease poor housing conditions by 15% by 2020 against a 2015 baseline

Adaptation | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2015 | Source(s): Law no. 20... (2015 / Legislative)

Waste

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

Increase the ratio of the GDP to domestic material consumption by 30% between 2010-2030; decrease the domestic material consumption per capita (consumer products, food waste, electronic waste) and increase recycling rates; state services and local authorities are to decrease their office paper consumption by 30% before 2020; as of 1 January 2017, at least 25% of paper products, stationery and fiber-based prints acquired by state services and local authorities and their groupings are to be made from recycled paper, with the rest to come from sustainably managed forests, increasing to 40% by 2020.

Recycling, Reuse, Reduce | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2015 | Source(s): Law no. 20... (2015 / Legislative)

Agriculture

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Coastal Zones

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Cross-Cutting Area

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Disaster Risk Management (DRM)

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Environment

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Health

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Industry

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

LULUCF

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Social Development

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Tourism

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Water

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

In his first major speech as President, François Hollande set the course for France to become “the nation of environmental excellence” through an energy transition based on efficiency and development of renewable energy. This transition involves a sustained reduction of GHG emissions coupled with a reduction of the weight of nuclear energy in the national energy mix from the current 75% to 50% by 2025.

The Government held a National Environment Conference in 2012 where a set of climate and energy governance measures was announced, including: (1) a push for policy to reduce the EU’s emissions of GHG by 40% in 2030 and 60% in 2040 and to introduce a carbon inclusion mechanism for sectors most exposed to international competition; (2) a target for heavy vehicles to consume no more than 2 litres of gasoline per 100km within 10 years; (3) continued support for wind and solar power; and (4) a call for tenders for the creation of offshore wind farms at Tréport and Noirmoutier (1,000MW).

France produced its first National Programme for Tackling Climate Change in 2000 and its measures were later either inscribed in laws or regulations on energy, finance, agriculture, urban planning, or abandoned. The same process occurred with the Climate Plans 2004, 2006, 2009, 2011 and 2013. The Climate Plan must be refreshed every two years according to the 2005 Energy Policy Framework Law and local authorities are encouraged to adopt the same process and to draw up territorial climate plans to develop a genuinely local climate and energy policy in their own jurisdictions. The approach has been scaled up and is mandatory for territorial collectivities with over 50,000 residents. The structure and consistency of the actions on every territorial scale have also been increased by the definition of a new regional strategic frame of reference: the regional climate, air and energy plans (SRCAE).

To support the development of climate change policy, there are many research institutions, projects, and initiatives with relevance to climate change. Many receive funding through the French Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS). They include: ECLIPSE (Past Environment and Climate History and Evolution); GICC (Management and Impact of Climate Change); PNEDC (National Programme of Climate Dynamics); PATOM (Mid-Scale Atmosphere and Ocean Programme); PROOF (Biogeochemical Processes in Ocean and Fluxes); PNCA (National Programme of Atmospheric Chemistry); PNRH (National Programme in Hydrology Research); and PNTS (National Programme of Space Teledetection)

Energy Supply

The Energy Policy Framework Law 2005 has a 10% renewable energy target for 2010, involving thermal energy sources as well as the use of biofuels in the transportation sector. The Grenelle I law (2009) increased the renewable energy target to 23% by 2020, beyond the official EU target of 20%. In support of the objectives in the National Action Plan to Support Renewable Energies (2009-2020), France uses fiscal tools such as tax incentives for renewable energies or feed-in tariffs as part of the country’s finance laws.

To define the most appropriate way to change the energy system economically, environmentally, and socially, a “National Debate on Energy Transition” was held between November 2012 and July 2013, focusing on three key issues: developing renewables; energy efficiency in the housing sector; and nuclear energy. It led to a series of recommendations on energy policy, including the reduction of the proportion of nuclear energy in the energy mix from 75% to 50% by 2025. It also called for a 50% cut in total energy consumption by 2050.

The recommendations have been submitted to the Government and the draft of the ‘Law for energy transition and green growth’ was adopted by the National Assembly in October 2014, and is expected to be passed by the Senate by the end of February 2015. The draft bill confirms the targets agreed during the National Environment Conferences 2012 and 2013 as well as the National Debate on Energy Transition and the discussions at the National Council for Energy Transition. Those include five main objectives: reduce GHG emissions by 40% by 2030 (base year 1990) and to 25% of 1990 levels by 2050; reduce by 30% the consumption of fossil fuels by 2030; reduce the share of nuclear energy in the energy mix from 75% to 50% by 2025; reach a minimum share of 32% of renewable energy in energy consumption (around 40% of electricity produced, 38% of heat consumed and 15% of transport fuels); reduce by 50% final energy consumption by 2050 (intermediate target of 20% reduction by 2030). The draft bill also organises several steering tools to achieve the transition, such as development of renewable energy, development of a “recycling economy” and energy demand control – especially within the residential and transport sectors. A carbon budget (i.e. emissions limits) and the Low Carbon National Strategy (LCNS) are proposed. With carbon budgets set for 2015-2018, 2019-2023 and 2024-2028, France aims to give a constant visibility to its GHG emissions reduction goals, while the LCNS should present the general and sector-based policies to achieve it.

Energy Demand 

The integrated approach of the Grenelle has contributed to bringing principles and policies on energy demand, energy supply, and sustainable transportation into the mainstream. The Grenelle has either strengthened those policies and goals that already were part of national legislation, or has incorporated them into a dedicated law on the environment. Although some of the initial measures have proven challenging given the economic slowdown and budgetary constraints, the Grenelle II law still contains many positive provisions, including a focus on emission reductions and energy efficiency improvements in buildings and transportation (which account for the bulk of GHG emissions). It is to be reinforced by the ‘Law for energy transition and green growth’ currently under discussion in Parliament, which sets a target for energy renovation of 500, 000 residential houses per year starting from 2017 (at least 50% occupied by low income households). The Energy Policy Framework Law 2005 includes a target to decrease energy intensity by 2.5% in 2030. The Thermal Regulation 2012, complemented by creation of two new labels, strengthens building efficiency requirements, aiming at reducing the primary energy consumption in buildings by 150bn kWh between 2013 and 2020, and reducing the CO2 emissions by 13m-35m tonnes of CO2 (depending on the method) between 2013 and 2020.

Carbon Pricing

One of the key mechanisms adopted by the Grenelle I and II laws (2009/2010) was a carbon tax, set up by the Finance Law 2014 and implemented since April 2014 (EUR7, USD8.78 per ton), with incremental increase of the rate planned for 2015 (EUR14.5, USD18.2 per ton) and 2016 (EUR22, USD27.6 per ton).

Another mechanism for carbon pricing comes from the European directives transposed into national legislation, such as the French National Allocation Plan voted on in 2005 to implement the EU Emissions Trading Scheme.

REDD+ and LULUCF

All forests (public and private) are regulated by the Forest Code, which specifies the roles and responsibilities of the institutions in charge of its implementation. France has been involved in the Helsinki process since its inception and plays a leading role in the discussion of indicators for sustainable forest management.[1] According to the National Institute for Geographic and Forestry Information (IGN), there is 1.14bn tons of carbon in French commercial forests. For the period of 1996-2007, the annual carbon sink is estimated to be 14m tons.

Transportation

There are various policies and laws with relevance to renewable energy in the transportation sector, including the Climate Plan 2011, the Energy Policy Framework 2005, and the Farming Policy Framework 2006. Measures include a bonus-malus scheme to support purchases of cleaner vehicles, support to develop recharge points for hybrid and electric vehicles and vehicle location schemes. Since 2009, sustainable transportation policies have been developed around the EU Renewable Energy Directive which includes a target of 10% of biofuels in transportation by 2020. The clean transportation policy should be reinforced by the Law for energy transition and green growth once adopted.

Adaptation

Responsibilities for climate change adaptation are split between national, regional, and local levels. The creation of a National Observatory for the Effects of Global Warming in 2001 and the adoption of the National Adaptation Strategy 2006 marked the beginning of government activity in adaptation. In 2011, France published the first National Adaptation Plan. Covering the period 2011-2015, the Plan includes measures designed to prepare for and exploit new climatic conditions in France. Regional adaptation guidelines are defined in Regional Climate, Air, and Energy Schemes and local adaptation actions are designed within Territorial Climate-Energy Plans.

[1] The Helsinki Process, which began in 1990, developed guidelines for the sustainable management of forests in Europe. The Process has sought to identify measurable criteria and indicators to evaluate how European countries have progressed in their efforts to follow the principles of sustainable forest management and conservation of the biodiversity of European forests.

Commune de Grande-Synthe v. France (Opened in 2019 )

Citation/reference number: Not available
Jurisdiction: France
Core objective(s): Whether the French government’s failure to take further action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions violates domestic and international law
Current status: open

On January 23, 2019, the municipality of Grande-Synthe sued the French government for insufficient action on climate change. The suit was filed in the Conseil d'Etat, the highest administrative court in France. According to an English summary of the case provided by the plaintiffs, the suit alleges that the French government’s failure to further reduce…read more

Notre Affaire à Tous and Others v. France (Opened in 2018 )

Citation/reference number: Not available
Jurisdiction: France
Core objective(s): Whether the French government’s failure to take further action on climate change violates a statutory duty to act under domestic and international law.
Current status: open

On December 17, 2018, four nonprofits sent a “lettre préalable indemnitaire” (letter of formal notice) to Prime Minister Edouard Philippe and 12 members of the French government, initiating the first stage in a legal proceeding against the French government for inadequate action on climate change. This type of letter is part of a legal proceeding…read more

Fédération environnement durable et autres (Schéma régional du climat, de l’air et de l’énergie- Schéma régional éolien) (Opened in 2014 )

Citation/reference number: 2014-395 QPC
Jurisdiction: France
Core objective(s): The Constitutional Council is asked to review the conformity of articles L.222-1 to L.222-3 of the Environmental Code with the Constitution.
Current status: Decided

The Constitutional Council is asked to review the conformity of articles L.222-1 to L.222-3 of the Environmental Code with the Constitution. It decided that article L.222-2 does not comply with the Constitution. The applicants claimed that these dispositions violated the principle of public participation (art.7 of the Charter of the Environment). In addition, they claimed…read more

Re Emission Quotas: Decision No. 2010-622 DC of December 28, 2010 (French Constitutional Council, 2010) (Opened in 2010 )

Citation/reference number: N° 2010-622 DC
Jurisdiction: France
Core objective(s): Challenge to assignment of quotas
Current status: Decided

Article 64 of the finance law of 2011 provides that companies will have to purchase their greenhouse gas emissions quotas for 2011 whereas quotas were distributed free of charge in 2010. Some of the companies have still not received their quotas, even though they carried out activities in 2010, and as a result challenged the…read more

Re French Carbon Tax: Decision No. 2009-599 DC of December 29, 2009 (French Constitutional Council, 2009) (Opened in 2009 )

Citation/reference number: N° 2009-599 DC
Jurisdiction: France
Core objective(s): Challenge to law proposing carbon tax in France
Current status: Decided

French Constitutional Council annulled a tax on carbon emissions. The tax was set at 17 Euros per ton of carbon dioxide. The Council ruled that the proposed tax contained too many exemptions and would not have applied to 93% of industrial emissions.…read more

Decision No. 287110 of February 8, 2007 (French Council of State, 2007) (Opened in 2007 )

Citation/reference number: Decision No. 287110 of February 8, 2007
Jurisdiction: France
Core objective(s): Challenge to validity of decree transposing EU directive
Current status: Decided

Companies from the steel industry claimed that decree n°2004-832, which transposes the EU directive of October 13, 2003 establishing a system of exchange of greenhouse gas emission quotas in the European Union, was illegal. The Companies claimed that the directive violated the principle of equality since it provided for a difference of treatment between certain…read more

France has a bicameral parliamentary system where legislative power belongs to the National Assembly and the Senate. The last election for the National Assembly was held in 2012, the next is scheduled for 2017. The Senate is elected indirectly by Members of Parliament and local representatives. Statute legislation may be proposed by the Council of Ministers or by Members of Parliament; the majority of bills are currently proposed by the government.

There is a strict separation between laws and regulations. Laws determine general principles and rules in domains explicitly set out in the constitution, such as civil rights, nationality and crime. They must be voted on by the Parliament and can be blocked by the Constitutional Court if it finds that the law goes against the Constitution. In this case, the law must be modified and voted on again, or abandoned. Regulations can establish rules out­side of the law’s domain or specify more precisely how to implement laws. Regulations do not need to be voted on by the Parliament.

Last modified 21 August, 2017