Not available in 2022/23
LL4AT      Half Unit
Regulation: Strategies and Enforcement

This information is for the 2022/23 session.

Teacher responsible

Professor Veerle Heyvaert

Also taught by: Professor Nicola Lacey 


This course is available on the LLM (extended part-time), LLM (full-time), MSc in Public Administration and Government (LSE and Peking University), MSc in Public Policy and Administration and University of Pennsylvania Law School LLM Visiting Students. This course is available with permission as an outside option to students on other programmes where regulations permit.

This course is NOT available for students of the MSc Regulation programme.

This course will be relevant to the following LLM specialisms: Banking Law and Financial Regulation; Corporate and/or Commercial Law; Criminology and Criminal Justice; Information Technology, Media and Communications Law; Intellectual Property Law; Legal Theory; and Public Law.

This course has a limited number of places and we cannot guarantee all students will get a place.

Course content

The course provides an introduction to key topics relating to regulatory strategies and their implementation. It deals with issues from a systemic and comparative perspective and draws on approaches encountered in public administration, socio-legal studies and institutional economics. Topics include:

• Introduction: What is Regulation and why regulate?

• Regulation Strategies: Command-and-control; regulating through rules, standards and principles; alternative approaches including emissions trading; and self-regulation

• Risk regulation as a regulatory paradigm

• Enforcement: tools, strategies and principles

• Regulatory Policy: Cost/benefit Assessment, Regulatory Impact Assessment and Better Regulation;

• Regulatory competition; and 

• Transnational Regulation


This course will have two hours of teaching content each week in Lent Term, either in the form of a two hour seminar or an online lecture and one hour class. There will be a Reading Week in Week 6 of Lent Term.

Formative coursework

One 1,000 - 1,500 (upper limit) word essay. Students will also have the opportunity to sit a mock exam.

Indicative reading

R Baldwin, M Cave and M. Lodge Understanding Regulation 2nd ed.(OUP, 2012); R. Baldwin, M. Cave and M. Lodge (ed.) Oxford Handbook on Regulation (OUP, 2010) Ian Ayres and John Braithwaite, Responsive Regulation: Transcending the Deregulation Debate by (OUP, 1992); V. Heyvaert, Transnational Environmental Regulation and Governance (CUP, 2019) B. Morgan and K. Yeung, An Introduction to Law and Regulation (CUP, 2007).


Exam (100%, duration: 2 hours, reading time: 15 minutes) in the summer exam period.

Key facts

Department: Law School

Total students 2021/22: 31

Average class size 2021/22: 30

Controlled access 2021/22: Yes

Value: Half Unit

Guidelines for interpreting course guide information

Course selection videos

Some departments have produced short videos to introduce their courses. Please refer to the course selection videos index page for further information.

Personal development skills

  • Communication
  • Specialist skills