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Development as State-Making

In much of the developing world the immediate prospects for achieving or sustaining peace and promoting development are contingent on the complex processes of conflict and bargaining among elites

The Development and State-making component of the second phase of research involved a systematic Small N comparative study of processes of state collapse (and state resilience), war, and reconstruction at the national level. A set of eight countries was chosen for detailed study, with a further set of comparative countries where work was based mostly on secondary materials. Primary case studies were undertaken in Afghanistan, Colombia, DR Congo, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia, with secondary research being undertaken in Pakistan, Philippines, Sudan and Tajikistan. Research addressed these questions: 

1) Why, and how, under conditions of late development, are some fragile states able to respond effectively to contestation while others collapse and/or experience large-scale violence?

2) What are the factors that contribute to, and impede, state reconstruction in post-war periods?

Research aimed to explain, at a given point in time, whether a state is moving towards collapse or away from it and what causes such movement. The condition of a state was evaluated by looking at processes of institutional change and contestation in five domains, or sub-systems of the state: security, administrative, legal, political and economic management. In fragile states, each of these domains is contested terrain where the authority of state actors and the formal institutions through which they rule are challenged by various non-state actors, often anchored in alternative institutional arrangements. Those patterns of contestation and "institutional multiplicity" were central objects of investigation.  

A short introduction to this element of the research programme is available to download.

For more information on this research theme please contact Prof James Putzel.

Development as State-Making Resources

Antonio Giustozzi - discussing contemporary social and political issues in Afghanistan, January 2010

Antonio Giustozzi - on present and future challenges in Afghanistan,  LSE IDEAS, December 2009

James Putzel - definitions of state fragility and resilience, ODI seminar, July 2009

'Do No Harm: international support for state-building" - OECD report co-authored by Prof James Putzel.

'Fragile States topic guide"- a GSDRC resource prepared in collaboration with Jo Beall and Golooba Mutebi from CSRC.

Trading Conflict for Development    - a report researched and written by Nicholas Garrett and Harrison Mitchell of Resource Consulting Services and supported by funding from the DfID, with assistance from the Crisis States Research Centre and the Conflict Research Group. The report challenges calls for a ban or disruption of the trade in cassiterite, coltan and wolframite from Eastern DRCongo and urges policymakers, the private sector and other stakeholders to commit to reforming the existing trade in minerals from DR Congo instead.

'Why Templates for Media Development do not work in Crisis States'  - a report from the CSRC workshop held in spring 2005 in conjunction with the Stanhope Centre and the Annenberg School for Communications.

'Peace, Justice and the ICC in Africa'  - reports from a workshop hosted by the Royal Africa Society and co-funded by the CSRC (short synopsis)

'Military Training and Children in Armed Conflict  - a training manual produced by Jenny Kuper, Visiting Fellow with the CSRC during the first phase of the programme.

Development as State-Making Publications

Overview papers on this component of research:
'Patterns of Resource Mobilisation and the underlying elite bargain'
WP86.2 'Double-edged Swords: armies, elite bargaining and state building'
WP84.2 'Taxation, Resource Mobilisation and State Performance'

Working Papers relating to this component of research:
WP83.2 'Drugs and (Dis)order: the opium trade, political settlements and state-building in Afghanistan'
WP80.2 'Civilian Control of the Military in Tanzania and Zambia: persistent exceptionalism'
WP79.2 'Kyrgyzstan in Crisis: permanent revolution and the curse of nationalism'
WP78.2 'The Political Economy of Taxation and State Resilience in Zambia'
WP77.2 'Inclusive Elite Bargains and Civil War Avoidance: Zambia'
WP76.2 'Exclusionary Elite Bargains and Civil War Onset: Uganda'
DP18   'The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship between Pakistan's ISI and Afghan insurgents'   (Dari)
WP75.2 'State Resilience against the odds'
WP74.2 'Poverty is not being reduced in Mozambique' (Portuguese version)
WP66.2 'Negotiating with the Taliban: toward a solution for the Afghan conflict'
DP17 ' Anatomy of a 'Political Chameleon'
WP58.2 'The Quandaries of Coding and Ranking'
WP51.2 ' The Dissipation of Political Capital among Afghanistan's Hazaras: 2001-2009'
WP50.2 'Force and Ambiguity: evaluating sources for cross-national research - the case of military interventions'
OP 9 'Economic Initiatives to Tackle Conflict: bringing politics back in'
OP8 'Guarding the State or Protecting the Economy? the economic factors of Pakistan's military coups'
WP46.2 'The Perils of Emerging Statehood: civil war and state reconstruction in Tajikistan'
WP 42.2 'Divide and rule: State penetration in Hazarajat (Afghanistan) from monarchy to the Taliban'
WP 41.2 'At the sources of factionalism and civil war in Hazarajat'
WP 40.2 'Afghanistan: Transition without end'
OP 7 'Tribal Security System (Arbakai) in Southeast Afghanistan'
DP 15 'Do inclusive elite bargains matter? A research framework for
understanding the causes of civil war in Sub-Saharan Africa'
WP 28.2 'Collapse, War and Reconstruction in Rwanda: an analytical narrative on state-making'  (French version)
WP 27.2 'Collapse, War and reconstruction in Uganda: an analytical narrative on state-making'
WP 26.2 'Drivers of Change in the Democratic Republic of Congo: The Rise and Decline of the State and Challenges For Reconstruction - A Literature Review'  (French version)
WP 25.2 'Conceptualising the Causes and Consequences of Failed States: A Critical Review of the Literature' (French version)
WP 24.2 'District Creation and Decentralisation in Uganda'
WP 23.2 'Strong Party, Weak State? Frelimo and State Survival Through the Mozambican Civil War: an analytical narrative on state-making'
WP 22.2 'Policing, Regime Change, and Democracy: Reflections from the Case of Mexico'
WP 21.2 'The Rise and Decline of the Congolese State: an analytical narrative on state-making'
WP 19.2 ' Violent Liberalism? State, conflict and political regime in Colombia, 1930-2006: an analytical narrative on state-making'
WP 14.2 'Understanding State-building and Local Government in Afghanistan', Sarah Lister
WP 12.2 'Making Law in Rural East Africa: SunguSungu in Kenya'
WP 11.2 'The Missing Ingredient: non-ideological insurgency and state collapse in Westrn Afghanistan, 1979-1992'
WP 8.2 'Identifying Fraud in Democratic Elections: a case study of the 2004 presidential election in Mozambique'
WP 7.2 '"Tribes" and warlords in Southern Afghanistan, 1980-2005'
WP 6.2 'The Failure of a Clerical Proto-State: Hazarajat, 1979-1984'
WP 4.2 'Genesis of a Prince: the rise of Ismail Khan in Western Afghanistan, 1979-1992'
WP 3.2 'Economic and Political Foundations of State-making in Africa: understanding state reconstruction'
WP 2.2 'Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration of ex-combatants (DDR) in Afghanistan: constraints and limited capabilities'
WP 1.2 'War, State Collapse and Reconstruction: phase 2 of the Crisis States Research Programme'