Winter Is Coming: the Baltics and the Russia-Ukraine War
In this LSE IDEAS Special Report, the authors focus on the impact of the Russia-Ukraine war on the Baltics. The report highlights both collective and country-level impacts and responses to the conflict. It is argued that Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have been among the top supporters of Ukraine, not merely in terms of military aid, but also with regards to providing substantial diplomatic and humanitarian support during Ukraine’s darkest hour since the breakup of the Soviet Union. Moreover, it is argued that this literal and metaphorical winter will be a key challenge, not only for Ukraine, but also for the Baltics. Given how closely the fate of Ukraine is intertwined with Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, the manner in which the Baltics and NATO respond to the winter could significantly influence the Russia-Ukraine war. A key strategic priority for the Baltics and NATO should be to promote resilience of everything from defense to energy security. Accordingly, the Report concludes with a variety of key policy recommendations aimed at the Baltics, EU and NATO.
Education, Training and Capacity Building in the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) 2021: Multilateral and Bilateral Ambitions Twenty Years On
The latest Forum for China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) took place in Dakar, Senegal in November 2021. Among the huge range of pledges and agreements, one of the most extensive was capacity building through scholarships, targeted training and people-to-people exchanges. In this Occasional Paper, Kenneth King analyses China’s pledges not just in the sphere of formal education, but across the many different sectors of China’s collaboration with Africa for the next three years.
Beyond Autonomy: Rethinking Europe as a Strategic Actor
Strategic autonomy has become the buzzword of the European policy scene in recent years, with a slew of reports and policy proposals dedicated to the subject, and high-level support among European leaders. But big questions remain about what the concept actually means and what its implications are for Europe and the EU. Drawing on contributions to a recent high-level workshop as well as the five briefings contained in this volume, this introductory chapter has sought to make the case for moving ‘beyond autonomy’ in five key respects - conceptually, thematically, geographically, temporally, and politically. Only by doing this are we able to move the debate on autonomy forward and highlight a number of key debates and issues on which greater attention from policymakers is needed. In this report from LSE IDEAS and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation, the five briefings in this report do just this, by highlighting new directions for policy debate and academic research on the concept of strategic autonomy, all of which take us into new domains.
Maximising business contributions to sustainable development and positive peace: A human security approach
This report examines how business can contribute to meeting the challenges of a world struggling to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, recover from the COVID-19 pandemic and make changes to traditional models of capitalism and investment. Faced with growing pressures from customers, employees, investors, and the wider public, business leaders have sought to respond with commitments to the SDGs, alongside adopting new ethical standards on human rights, transparency, and good governance.
Europe and the Indo-Pacific
LSE IDEAS and the Club of Three, the Franco-German-British leadership network, held a series of four discussions during 2021 on the strategies of European powers for the Indo-Pacific. The four-part conversation – involving leading commentators from the UK, France, Germany, Italy, the US, Japan, Australia, India and China – is summarised in this report. It reflects a broad spectrum of views on how Europe should contribute to security in the Indo-Pacific, and thereby lend support to US strategic objectives in the competition with China. These views ranged from seeking to support the US by extending the concept of strategic autonomy in Europe, to a desire to avoid having to make a choice between China and the US.
FOCAC at 21: Future Trajectories of China-Africa Relations
The China-Africa relationship has continued to evolve over the last years. In light of the 8th Forum on China Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) that will take place later in 2021, the latest report from LSE IDEAS China Foresight brings together an international team of experts to shed light on emerging and consolidated areas of engagement between China and Africa that will likely shape the relationship in the years to come.
Human Security Business Partnership Framework: A risk-informd approach to achieve the SDGs
This report presents the Human Security Business Partnership (HSBP) Framework, an innovative model to assist companies and investors to partner with governments, the UN system, and local stakeholders to achieve the ambitions of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
A New Digital Diplomacy in the Age of the Global Binary: Digitalisation, Pandemics and the Search for a Global Reset
Richard Higgott and Giulia Tercovich explore the key issues in contemporary diplomacy off the back of the international workshop held by the Centre for Security, Diplomacy and Strategy (CSDS) of the Brussels School of Governance and LSE's think tank LSE IDEAS. This report covers the core questions from the workshop and a retelling of the discussions from each session, providng a wider analytical commentary on modern international relations and diplomacy.
Authoritarian protectionism in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe: diversity, commonality and resistance
Authoritarianism has become a major buzzword of global politics today. But the public debate has often focused on headline-catching cases of democratic decline. In the European Union (EU), Hungary and Poland, have tended to dominate discussion and critique with the implication that a modern-day ‘containment’ strategy might suffice to withstand the authoritarian advance. This report seeks to provide a wider regional contextualisation through the examination of Hungary and Poland in tandem with four other case studies in the region: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Romania and Slovakia.
Changing Dynamics of Pakistan-US Relations and the Challenge of Soft Power
Moonis Ahmar, Jinnah Visiting Fellow at LSE IDEAS in 2021, examines the changing dynamics of Pakistan-US relations and the challenge of soft power.
The Rise of Insurgent Europeanism
Civil society in Europe and its attitudes towards the European project have changed dramatically in the past decade of multiple crises. This study mapped, tracked and monitored developments in European civil society over a two-year period from 2018 to 2020, revealing the nature and implications of these changes.
Trianon: 100 Years After
The Central and South-East Europe Programme and Babeş-Bolyai University, Romania have launched their 2020 report exploring the impact and legacy of the Treaty of Trianon in Hungary and Romania.
A Sea Change? The Impact of the US Presidential Election on Central and South-Eastern European Security and Defence
Corina Rebegea, Wojciech Michnik and Ivan Vejvoda assess the likely impact of the new Biden administration on security and defence in the Black Sea, Balkan and Central European regions.
Hedging by Default: The Limits of EU "Strategic Autonomy" in a Binary World Order
Richard Higgott and Simon Reich explore how the EU now appears to have embarked on a hedging strategy in an increasingly bifurcated world.
UK Economic Diplomacy in the 21st Century: The LSE Economic Diplomacy Commission Final Report
This LSE IDEAS report presents economic diplomacy recommendations to advance the UK's strategic priorities at home and abroad.
Protect, Constrain, Contest: Approaches for coordinated transatlantic economic and technological competition with China
The Biden Presidency offers opportunities for a renewed effort at formulating a coordinated allied approach to technological and economic competition with China. LSE IDEAS China Foresight’s latest report provides a guiding framework for transatlantic coordination, and offers insights into key elements of future cooperation. While challenges abound, the opportunities for action prove just as great in number.
Ralf Dahrendorf and the European Union 2030: Looking Back, Looking Forward
The essays explore the future of European security, democracy, and economics with an eye to the state of the EU in 2030. They discuss Ralf Dahrendorf’s legacy, how he would view the modern European Union, and what advice he might offer policymakers today.
Europe 30 years after the fall of the Berlin Wall
This report follows the first annual workshop which was hosted by the Central and South-East Europe Programme Desk on 17 and 18 June 2019 at the Political Science Faculty of Babeş-Bolyai University in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. We present seven original research contributions. Each paper emphasises developments that take place or impact Central and Eastern Europe in a different way.
Getting Brexit Started: prospects for a new EU-UK partnership into the 2020s
With so many Brexit negotiations still underway, this paper underlines that the final form of the UK’s departure from the EU is not yet set in stone. Even with a withdrawal deal now ratified, there are multiple scenarios still possible: from a disorderly exit this year, through to the outside prospect of the transition being extended and a deep, comprehensive deal being concluded later in the 2020s.
High Hopes, Long Odds: On the False Promises of Brexiteer Deals with the EU and US
This report explores a No-Deal Brexit which would leave the UK economically, politically and diplomatically weakened and isolated. It further examines the relationships with its two main allies - the European Union and the United States - which would become more difficult and complicated.
The Dahrendorf Foresight Project "European Security 2030"
The Dahrendorf Foresight Project „European Security in 2030” brought together experts from 12 countries to look into the future, engaging in strategic and systematic conversation about the drivers of European security in the decade ahead.
Five Years After Maidan: Towards A Greater Eurasia?
This report evaluates the challenges and opportunities facing Russia's 'Greater Eurasia' foreign policy concept.
Ireland-UK Relations and Northern Ireland after Brexit (second edition)
Brexit has rudely interrupted Irish-British reconciliation. This report explores the impact of Brexit from an Irish perspective, explaining Europe’s role in improving Ireland-UK relations since 1970s and outlining the threat posed by Brexit to the political settlement in Northern Ireland. This is a second edition published in April 2019, with original contributions from February 2018. Read online / Download pdf
The Role of the European Union in the International Trade and Investment Order
Steve Woolcock argues the EU will need to cooperate with like-minded countries to support an open, rules-based order.
Less than Perfect: Some Brexit lessons for the EU
In this Dahrendorf Forum policy brief, Benjamin Martill and Tim Oliver seek to identify those areas where the EU has been less than perfect in its treatment of Brexit to date.
Beyond Operation Sophia: What role for the military in migration policy?
In this Dahrendorf Forum policy brief, Julia Himmrich argues the EU needs to reframe its overall approach to managing migration through the Mediterranean and strictly limit the roles assigned to the military to those it is suited to fulfil and outlines policy recommendations that would help the EU do so.
Is There a Populist Wave in Europe?
This Dahrendorf Forum commentary examines the rise of populist parties in Europe, and question the extent to which the recent success of populist parties is a singular phenomenon, or whether it is a result of parallel evolution.
Nuancing the Voter Landscape: Radical right and radical left constituencies in Europe
How do the voters of radical right and radical left parties compare? This Dahrendorf Forum working paper elaborates upon existing models by accounting for the effects of welfare chauvinism, identity, and culture.
People, Profits and Peace
This report presents the Human Security Business Partnership (HSBP) Framework and proposals for the private sector to work towards the achievement of the SDGs.
Beyond Regulation: Approaching the challenges of the new media environment
The spread of false information and hate speech has increased with the rise of social media. This Dahrendorf Forum working paper critically examines this phenomenon and suggests how policymakers across Europe could address the spread of fake news and hate speech in social media.
The Role of Fiscal Coordination and Partisanship in the Spanish Fiscal Federalist System: Lessons for European Union reforms
This Dahrendorf Forum working paper considers the possible lessons arising from the emerging federation in Spain for the European framework. It analyses the performance of Spain’s fiscal federalist framework with a special emphasis on its coordination and political relationship with the autonomous regions.
Cultures of Negotiation: Explaining Britain's hard bargaining in the Brexit negotiations
Drawing upon a series of elite interviews conducted in late 2017, this Dahrendorf Forum working paper argues that British hard bargaining is a consequence of three ideational factors particular to the UK case: the dominance of a conservative ideology of statecraft, a majoritarian institutional culture, and weak socialisation into European structures.
China's Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and Southeast Asia
In Southeast Asia, views of the Belt and Road Initiative range from admiration, to fear and suspicion. LSE IDEAS’ latest joint report with CARI points a path for leaders, revealing the impact, pitfalls, and opportunities for the region.
The Crisis of Global Politics: Perspectives from Continental Philosophy
Can the work of the great European philosophers help solve Europe's problems today? This report explores what we can learn from Heidegger, Arendt, and Anders about how to tackle populism, climate change, and technological change.
EU–UK Cooperation in CSDP After Brexit: Living apart together?
Brexit may, paradoxically, reinforce the need for closer EU–UK security and defence cooperation. This Dahrendorf Forum policy brief looks at the reasons why it is in the interest of both the EU and the UK to continue collaborating through the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP).
The Future of the European Central Bank
The European Central Bank (ECB) is more important than ever to the European economy. Can governments control it? This report explores the need to make the ECB more transparent and democratically accountable to prevent the next Eurozone crisis. Read online / Download pdf
Britain in the Post-Brexit European Security Architecture
Britain’s impending withdrawal from the EU raises important questions about the future of EU–UK security cooperation. This Dahrendorf Forum policy brief explores the content and scope of European security cooperation after Brexit by analysing the respective strategies, institutional structures, and operational capabilities of the EU and the UK.
A ‘Hybrid Threat’? European militaries and migration
The military has become an important part of European responses to increased migration flows. This Dahrendorf Forum working paper explores the effectiveness and long term impact of military involvement in migration enforcement.
The UK's Foreign, Defence, and Security Policy After Brexit
This report summarises the discussion between a group of British politicians, senior officials and other experts assembled by the LSE IDEAS Global Strategies project in November 2017 to discuss the UK's foreign policy and military options after Brexit. Read online / Download pdf
Known Unknowns: EU foreign, security, and defence policy after Brexit
This Dahrendorf Forum Working Paper examines the future of EU foreign and defence policy after Brexit by asking: Will the UK reduce its European defence commitments? Will Brexit cause greater defence integration within the EU? And will the EU allow the UK a continuing European security and foreign policy role?
From Deng to Xi: Economic Reform, the Silk Road, and the Return of the Middle Kingdom
This report explores the extent to which Deng's momentous economic reforms in 1978 have shaped modern China, what the country's expanded international role under Xi means, and who really makes Chinese foreign policy. Download pdf / Read online
Enhancing Decision Making in Foreign and Security Policy
In late 2016 thirty British politicians, officials and former officials, officers, and experts met to discuss ways in which the UK foreign policymaking leaves the country vulnerable to strategic errors. In this report, the group put forward practical ideas for improving decision making that are well within the reach of the UK’s current institutions and resources.
US, Russia, and the World: The Passing of Empires
In this Dahrendorf Forum report, former UK Ambassador to Russia Sir Rodric Braithwaite explores how recent American and European decline mirrors the collapse of the Soviet Union and what's next for NATO and Russia in a multipolar world order.
Hybrid Warfare in the Middle East
Distilled from discussions with senior British officials, academics, and current practitioners in the media, strategic communications, and cyber security, this report considers the hybrid warfare techniques of Daesh, Al Qaeda, the Taleban, and Iran, and makes specific suggestions on how the UK and other Western countries can better counter this threat.
New Challenges, New Voices: Next Generation Viewpoints on Transatlantic Relations
This report offers views on the future of transatlantic relations from scholars who are at the start of their careers, with European and US perspectives on what the future holds in defence, economics, values, and relations with emerging powers.
Changing Waters: Towards a new EU Asia Strategy
The EU-Asia relationship is changing, from development assistance to cooperation – and possibly competition. This report explores an overhaul of the EU's 2001 Asia Strategy, more important than ever in the context of Asian economic growth and the US 'pivot'.
Avoiding a New 'Cold War': The Future of EU-Russia Relations
The feeling that we are experiencing the emergence of a New ‘Cold War’ is increasingly creeping into European and Russian discourse. This report provides a series of clear policy recommendations on how to move from a deeply confrontational mind-set to a more cooperative one.
After the Drug Wars
The War on Drugs is over. In this report, the LSE Expert Group on the Economics of Drug Policy sets out a framework for the future of international drug policy based on the Sustainable Development Goals.
Investing for Influence: LSE Diplomacy Commission Report
What should be the purpose of British foreign policy? With the Foreign Office and diplomatic service under budgetary pressure, this report argues the UK should reassess its international role from first principles.
21st Century Power - Dislocation, Diffusion & Decay
This report examines how power is shifting, diffusing and decaying in the modern world from ‘smart power’ to digital power. Produced as part of Churchill 2015 - a 21st century statesmanship programme commemorating Churchill’s legacy.
The Geopolitics of Eurasian Economic Integration
The Eurasian region faces competing pressures as the EU’s 'Eastern Neighbourhood' or as Russia’s 'Near Abroad'. This report analyses EU-Russian competition in Ukraine, Belarus, Armenia, Moldova, and Georgia including often overlooked domestic factors.
Ending the Drug Wars: Report of the LSE Expert Group on the Economics of Drug Policy
In this report the LSE Expert Group on the Economics of Drug Policy argue that it is time to end the ‘war on drugs’ and massively redirect resources towards effective evidence-based policies underpinned by rigorous economic analysis.
The Crisis of EU Enlargement
Enlargement is widely hailed as the EU’s most successful foreign policy tool, but now faces daunting challenges. This report looks at why enlargement has been successful in the past and how to integrate these lessons to develop a new strategy.
A Strategy for Southern Europe
This report examines the challenges confronting Southern Europe and seeks to explore the potential benefits the countries of the region could gain through closer cooperation in migration, maritime security, energy, and defence.
Emerging Powers in Africa
Emerging powers are playing an increasingly consequential role in Africa. This report analyses China, Russia, India, Brazil, Turkey, and South Korea’s increasing roles on the continent.
The New Geopolitics of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asian states risk becoming pawns in a geopolitical clash between two extra-regional superpowers. This report analyses how the states in the region are responding to the challenge posed by the strategic interests of the US and China in their geography and economy.
Governing the Global Drug Wars
Since 1909 the international community has worked to eradicate the abuse of narcotics. A century on, the efforts are widely acknowledged to have failed. How did this drug control system arise, why has it proven so durable in the face of failure, and is there hope for reform?
Europe in an Asian Century
This report, based on presentations at the Dahrendorf Symposium, explores how China looms large in Europe’s recovery from the crisis and is increasingly interested in Europe’s future for economic and wider strategic reasons.
China's Geoeconomic Strategy
This report assesses the economic bases of China’s foreign policy and the challenges the country faces as it makes the transition from rising power to superpower.
After the Arab Spring: Power Shift in the Middle East?
How far did the events of 2011 contest the fundamentals of social, economic and political organisation in the Arab world? This report assesses the uprisings in six countries and the impact on power shifts for the US, Iran, and Israel.
India: The Next Superpower?
Hillary Clinton called India "not just a regional power, but a global power". This report looks at India’s prospects as a great power from economic, military, environmental and soft power perspectives including issues such as democracy and corruption.
The Lessons of Northern Ireland
This report asks what we can learn from the history of peacebuilding in Northern Ireland, and critically assesses the applicability of the Northern Irish experience to contemporary counter-terrorism policy. Supported by the Airey Neave Trust and the LSE Annual Fund.
Turkey's Global Strategy
Analysing Turkish foreign policy beyond a pro or anti Western binary viewpoint, this report provides insight into the Justice and Development Party's (AKP) strategic thinking on relations with the EU, Greece, Iran, Syria, Iraq, the United States, and the Caucasus.
The Future of UK Foreign Policy
In this report a range of contributors, all with long and distinguished careers in British foreign policy, consider Britain’s role in the world in the broadest sense - identifying our core interests and the most appropriate capacities to secure them.