LSTC Working Papers

Working papers in Large-Scale Technological Change

For further copies of this, and to see other titles in the Department's group of Working Papers series, visit our website at

These papers are available online in PDF format. If you don't have the Adobe Acrobat Reader on your computer, download it at



Were British Railway Companies Well-Managed in the Early Twentieth Century?
NIcholas Crafts, Timothy Leunig, and Abay Mulatu



Time is Money: A Re-assessment of the Passenger Social Savings From Victorian British Railways
Timothy Leunig


Efficiency among Private Railway Companies in a weakly Regulated System: The Case of Britain's Railways in 1893-1912
Abay Mulatu and Nicholas F.R. Crafts


Total Factor Productivity Growth on Britain's Railways, 1852-1912: A Reappraisal of the Evidence
Nicholas F.R. Crafts, Terence C. Mills and Abay Mulatu



Social Savings as a Measure of the contribution of a new Technology to Economic Growth
Nicholas F. R. Crafts


How did the Location of Industry Respond to Falling Transport Costs in Britain before World War 1?
Nicholas F. R. Crafts and Abay Mulatu


Market Potential in British Regions, 1871-1931
Nicholas F. R. Crafts


Regional GDP in Britain, 1871-1911: Some Estimates
Nicholas F. R. Crafts


Quantifying the Contribution of Technological Change to Economic Growth in Different Eras: A Review of the Evidence
Nicholas F. R. Crafts
(First published as 79/03 in the Department of Economic History Working Papers Series)


Steam as a General Purpose Technology: A Growth Accounting Perspective 
Nicholas F. R. Crafts
(First published as 75/03 in the Department of Economic History Working Papers series)