Index by subject

F

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Family allowances
   in Belgium 02.09, 08.13
   in Britain 03.11, 16.15
   in France 02.07, 07.14, 08.04
   see also Tax allowances

Family composition 16.15
   preferences in Taiwan 32.04

Family formation 38.08
   in historical Britain 19.10
   theory 28.30, 29.06

Family formation analysis
   child years of dependency 27.04

Family limitation
   see Fertility regulation

Family planning programmes
   ages of acceptors and users 34.23
   demographic targets 26.01, 28.14
   ethnic attitudes to 29.04
   evaluation 27.05, 27.06, 27.22, 29.28, 32.16
   in Asia 15.05
   in China 24.10
   in Costa Rica 36.02
   in India 17.01, 23.17, 28.14
   in Japan 13.11
   in Kenya 51.03
   in Korea 18.16, 20.04
   in Malaysia 32.16
   in Mexico 52.15
   in Philippines 29.04
   in Singapore 23.10
   in Taiwan 19.09, 22.21, 24.21, 28.06
   in western Europe 19.12
   in Yemen Arab Republic 32.11
   models 24.06, 25.23, 26.01, 26.18, 26.31
   policy
      in India 26.25
   pro-natalist programmes
      in eastern Europe 24.18
      in Romania 33.13
   role of Catholic Church 42.16

Family reconstitution
   analysis 32.32
   bias 46.27, 49.10
   historical Canada 49.10
   historical England 30.07, 37.09, 38.12, 46.27, 48.05
   historical Germany 22.18, 24.22, 32.31, 35.03
   historical USA 34.02
   partial
      Canada 24.13

Family size
   and contraceptive effectiveness 15.18, 23.17
   and education 51.12
   and savings 29.09
   disadvantages of large families 49.11
   estimation from birth and
      marital status 02.11
   ethnic differentials in the US 33.10
   in contracepting populations 27.23
   in Ghana 20.01
   interrelations with education 04.06
   interrelations with intelligence 07.11
   interrelations with landholding 46.26
      in China 05.07
   interrelations with physical growth 49.11
   interrelations with wealth/income 29.08, 46.03
   very small family sizes
      in historical Britain 52.11

Family size preferences 08.03, 17.05, 34.12
   and education 21.11
   and income 21.12, 25.19
   and son preference 17.05, 22.11
   and subsequent fertility 49.18
   Catholics/ non Catholics 22.03
   estimation methods 35.18, 37.17
      indirect estimation 09.19
   in eastern Europe 30.03
   in Germany 13.09
   in India 23.17
   in Kenya 46.23
   in Nigeria 49.18
   in Taiwan 33.32
   in Thailand 30.31
   models 27.23, 29.21
      economic status 24.16

Family structure
   landlessness and living arrangements
      in rural Bangladesh 52.12
   relationship with fertility differentials 27.18
   theory 32.26

Family systems 36.10

Famine
   demographic responses to
      in south Asia 45.15
      in Sudan 43.01
historical
      in Asia 45.01
      in Holland, 1945 47.02
      in India 30.01
      in Ireland 14.05

Famine mortality, see Mortality, famine

Far East
   mortality levels 34.01

Fecundability
   determinants 40.10
      in Bangladesh 41.20
      in Taiwan 23.06
      in USA 27.32
   mathematical models 17.04, 18.06, 18.07, 18.11, 18.12, 25.24, 34.25, 39.26, 42.04, 44.21
Fecundity
   and birth seasonality 50.11
   and family planning 20.18
   and status of women 32.19
   in Johannesburg 15.17
   see also Fertility, natural

Fertility
   adolescents 48.03
   and mental illness 23.26
   distributions
      graduation 14.08
   high
      and economic class 31.03
      and economic rationality 31.01
      and education 48.15
   impact of child mortality 52.21
   impact of desired family size 49.18
   impact of economic fluctuations 50.07
   impact of illegitimacy 27.34
   impact of migration 32.21, 38.09
   in Tanzania 51.17
   interrelations with altitude 20.07
   interrelations with migration
      in Puerto Rico 20.06
   low
       in India 44.19
   male 48.17
   natural
      American anabaptists 19.05
      at older ages 37.23
      control 49.02
      determinants 39.10, 39.11, 41.06, 41.21
      in Africa 34.18
      in agrarian societies 47.13
      in Finland 45.18
      in historical England 38.12, 39.16
      in historical Germany 32.31, 35.03
      in Peruvian Amazon 46.04
      in Sweden 12.08
   occupational differentials 02.11
      teachers in England 11.05, 11.16
   peasant fertility
      in Poland 11.10
   politicization 51.01
   polygamous 10.01
   seasonal patterns
      Bangladesh 40.28
   unwanted 52.02
   variations
      in contracepting populations 25.25
   see also, Birth intervals; Illegitimacy

Fertility analysis
   cohort fertility 12.02, 27.11, 28.18
   marriage cohorts 28.04
   Monte Carlo simulations 28.28
   open birth intervals 26.30
   path analysis
      childlessness 31.08, 32.14, 32.15
   timing of first birth 33.04
   West Indies 08.15
   see also Fertility models; Population theory,
   economic theories; Fertility estimation
   methods

Fertility determinants 50.21
   agriculture and nutrition 47.13
   attitudes 32.12
   contraceptive pill 47.11
   cultural explanations 34.31, 35.06, 44.01, 50.01
   education 27.07, 42.20, 43.20, 47.25, 50.05, 50.06, 50.10
   in Tanzania 51.17
   family structure 27.18
   Indianapolis Study 07.05
   intergenerational support 47.04, 48.01
   intermediate variables 34.31, 38.02, 41.06
      historical 31.04
      in Bangladesh 28.16, 32.19
      in Britain, 1963-80 47.11
      in Guyana 33.21
      in historical Navarre 52.07
      in Israel 51.24
      in Java 41.07
      in Korea 40.25
      in Latin America 45.17
      in Lebanon 33.35
      in Mali 50.12
      in Nigeria 31.13
      in Swaziland 46.01
      in Vietnam 51.16
      in Zimbabwe 51.14
      models 30.13, 31.04, 41.18, 42.20, 45.17, 46.17, 47.23, 48.09, 48.10
      sub-national variations 39.08
   local perceptions 50.12
   social mobility hypothesis 05.16, 11.16, 15.10, 35.06, 35.07
   socioeconomic 27.08, 39.01
      in Africa 29.24, 35.12
      in Bangladesh 34.31
      in Egypt 27.27
      in historical Spain 43.20
      in historical USA 26.09
      in India 34.28, 44.01, 48.02, 50.10
      in Iran 30.27, 34.19
      in Jamaica 33.19
      in Japan 50.01
      in Latvia 33.17
      in Malaysia 34.30
      in Mexico 29.23
      in Nepal 36.06
      in Quebec 36.24
      in rural Japan 07.04
      in Sicily 33.14
      in Sierra Leone 33.34
      in Taiwan 27.20
      in Thailand 26.24
      in Third World 47.04
      in USA 12.14, 25.19, 35.09
      in Uzbekistan 50.05
      in Zaire 50.06
   socio-psychological factors 07.05
   third births 10.03
   women's status 50.10

Fertility estimation methods 44.17, 50.23
   African fertility 10.12
   Brass's method/critiques 31.25, 50.23
   comparison of methods 32.37, 42.22
   crude rates from total fertility 08.06
   data collection methods 43.21
   dual record systems 31.34
   from census data 28.23
   from current pregnancy data 34.33, 35.15
   from restricted data 07.07, 08.05
   from retrospective birth histories 31.19, 35.17
   Gompertz function 28.18, 35.26, 38.29, 48.17
   male fertility models 48.17
   own children method 32.37, 36.15, 50.23
      historical applications 32.23
   P/F ratio method 36.17, 50.23

Fertility histories
   post war USA 15.03
   Taiwan 12.03

Fertility interrelations
   with agriculture 47.13
   with child mortality 30.15, 30.16, 30.17, 50.04, 50.15
   with economic development 30.25, 50.01
   with education 48.15, 50.10
   with employment 37.13, 43.03
      of women 29.15, 30.24, 48.23, 50.10
   with income/economic status 23.19, 28.27, 39.07
   with literacy 47.25
   with landholding 39.01, 40.19, 40.20, 45.20, 46.26
   with marriage 35.13
      in Barbados 28.26
   with value change 50.01

Fertility levels and trends
   agricultural differentials 47.13
   among Indian migrants 37.15
   at older ages 37.23
   class differentials 39.19
   differentials
      in Beirut 51.08
      in Canada 06.08
      in Detroit, 1920-50 09.11
      in Iran 30.27
      in Latin America 18.19
      in Puerto Rica 05.08
      in South America 18.05, 21.06
      in Sudan 22.07, 23.12
      in Taiwan 20.19
   ethnic differentials
      in Brazil 13.10
      in Canada 04.14
      in China 49.12
      in India 11.12
      in Israel 47.15
      in Malaysia 49.03
      in Peru 16.18, 23.01
      in Sierra Leone 27.33, 29.12
      in South Africa 06.09
      in USA (1960s/70s) 27.09, 29.19, 30.34, 31.27, 33.27, 33.28
   in Africa 15.04, 29.24
   in Australia 35.24
   in Bangladesh 29.16
   in Brazil 25.04, 39.19
   in China 42.02, 44.17, 48.20, 50.02
   in England 28.04, 41.12, 50.25
      1940s 05.04, 05.10
   in Egypt 40.06
   in Europe 22.06
   in Europe and North America 44.15
   in Greenland 29.03
   in historical England 45.21
   in India 10.04, 28.23
      comparisons with historical Europe 25.30
   in Ireland 34.03
   in Latin America 32.27
   in Latvia 33.17
   in Malta 10.13
   in Mexico 29.23, 31.11, 31.12
   in Nepal 36.06
   in Netherlands 04.15, 10.07
   in Nigeria 34.11, 36.27, 36.28
   in Norway 07.03
   in Palestine 06.15
   in Papua New Guinea 33.20
   in Poland 11.10
   in Puerto Rica 04.19
   in Singapore 32.08
   in Spain 43.20
   in Soviet Union 21.03
   in Sri Lanka 35.16
   in Sweden 43.03
   in Tanganyika 13.05, 13.06
   in Thailand 28.25, 35.15
   in Upper Volta 35.12
   in USA 35.14
      Amish 50.13
      old order Amish 33.16, 34.35, 34.36
   in Uzbekistan 50.05
   in western Europe 36.20
   in West Indies 36.12
   in Yemen Arab Republic 32.11
   in Zaire 50.06
   occupational differentials
      England and Wales, 1939 01.14
   of American negroes in the past 20.05
   regional differentials
      in Brazil 28.24
      in historical Netherlands 25.27
      in Indonesia 31.02
      in Nigeria 19.01
   religious differentials
      Catholic-Protestant differentials 22.02, 22.03, 49.15
      in Lebanon 31.20
      in Thailand 24.20
      Mormon fertility 28.08
   residential differentials
      in Bombay 28.17
   rural-urban differentials
      in Bengal 09.17
      in Ghana 21.01
      in India 14.13
      in Mexico 21.16
      in Nigeria 23.21
      in Poland 29.27
   socio-economic differentials
      in Australia 25.03
      in India 48.02
      in Sweden 26.10
      in USA 15.08
      in USSR 27.07
   women's status
      in India 48.02

Fertility models 26.28
   attitudinal models 32.12
   birth distributions 12.04
   birth-history analyses 40.27, 42.22
   birth intervals 17.21
   economic models 26.11, 28.21, 29.01, 29.25, 32.22, 33.03, 46.13, 47.04, 51.06, 51.22
      see also Children, costs and utility of
   model fertility schedules 31.06
   Monte Carlo model 19.15, 28.28
      see also Fertility analysis; Family
      formation models
   Page's model of marital fertility 42.11

Fertility regulation
   and breastfeeding 39.13, 43.04, 43.22
   and desired family size 15.18
   and fecundity 20.18
   and infant mortality 39.18
   and post-partum amenorrhoea 25.37
   at older ages 37.23
   attitudes
      in Asia 15.05
      in Delhi 15.06
      indexes 18.13
      in Johannesburg 16.06
      in post war Britain 15.01, 15.07
      of Christian churches 14.07, 20.02, 26.02
      of industrial workers in India 14.14
   benefit-cost analysis 34.13, 39.15
   contraceptive acceptance
      in Malaysia 27.05
      theory 23.16, 24.06, 25.23, 26.31, 30.22
   contraceptive effectiveness 16.12
   contraceptive use
      in Greece 52.05
      in Mexico 52.15
   contraceptive use responses 38.15
   data collection procedures 35.20
   ethnic differentials 11.12
   historical 08.02, 11.03, 22.05, 24.25, 25.06, 30.29, 31.23, 36.11, 41.14, 43.16
   in Australia 30.24
      1925-71 27.01
   in Britain 24.30
   in China 24.10, 24.19, 26.14
      historical 49.21
   in eastern Europe 16.10
   in India 25.20
   in Malta 27.24
   in Nigeria 31.26
   in pre-transitional regimes 49.02
   in Singapore 23.10
   in South America 18.05
   in Taiwan 16.16, 26.22
   interrelations with employment 36.24
   KAP surveys
      re-test reliability levels 29.10
      Taiwan 27.20
      Trinidad and Tobago 27.02
   legislation
      in post-war France 05.17
      in post-war Germany 03.21
   levels and trends
      in Korea 36.13
      in post war Britain 15.01, 15.07
      in Thailand 44.13
      in USSR 22.19
      in Zaire 37.08
      of old order Amish 31.16, 34.35, 34.36
   medical profession
      in Britain 18.08
   migration 25.05
   models 24.06, 24.12, 47.09
      evaluation 48.11, 50.08
   motivation
      in China 26.14
   sterilisation programmes 21.17
      in India 17.10

Fertility regulation methods 24.30, 37.08
   abstinence 31.13
   coital frequency 49.21
   coitus interruptus 49.02
   cost-benefit analysis 28.05
   diaphragm
      continuation rates 26.29
   in Australia 1925-71 27.01
   in Britain 15.01, 15.07, 16.02, 31.09
   in China 38.21, 38.22
   in Japan 16.01
      historical 33.02
   in South Africa 16.20
   in Taiwan 22.21, 28.06
   in USA 14.04, 41.17
   in Uzbekistan 50.05
   IUCD 19.09, 22.21, 23.10, 24.21
      continuation rates 30.22
   knowledge of
      Nigeria 24.02
   late marriage
      in China 24.19
   oral contraceptives
      in Britain 47.11
      in Canada 23.03
      in China 18.15
   rhythm method 19.04, 20.13, 22.17, 22.25
   vasectomy 17.10
   see also Sterilization; Fertility regulation,
   KAP surveys

Fertility surveys
   differential responses 19.03

Fertility transition
   causes of
      in eastern Europe 24.03, 24.18
      in Hong Kong 26.27, 27.38
      in Latin America 32.27
      in Nepal 47.25
      in Prussia 48.08
      in Punjab 49.26
      in Singapore 32.08
   Caldwell hypothesis 21.01, 24.02, 34.29, 35.01, 36.10
   in Bangladesh 47.18, 51.14
   in Britain 52.01, 52.11
   in Ceylon 26.26
   in China 38.21, 38.22
   in Costa Rica 36.02
   in Czechoslovakia 44.05
   in developing countries 36.10
   in England 37.11
      social class differentials 43.15
   in Finland 41.22
   in France 44.04, 48.16
   in Germany 31.29
   in Ghana 20.01
   in Greece 18.18
       in Mykonos 52.05
   in Guyana 33.21
   in historical Navarre 52.07
   in Hong Kong 22.10
  in India 51.23
   in Ireland 52.01
   in Israel 33.15, 47.15, 51.24
   in Japan 16.01, 34.06, 35.02
   in Kenya 46.23
   in Korea 32.18
   in Less Developed Countries 33.17
   in Malaysia 17.02, 36.21
   in Malta 27.24
   in Mexico 52.15
   in Puerto Rica 23.20
   in Spain 16.19
   in Sweden 34.06
   in Taiwan 16.16, 20.19, 47.24
   in Tanganyika 13.05
   in Thailand 44.13
   in Turkey 28.15
   in USA 30.29, 32.03, 32.23, 41.23
   in Uzbekistan 50.05
   in Vietnam 51.16
   models 33.33
   role of family planning programmes 27.06
   role of literacy in 36.02
   theory of 35.01, 41.14, 41.23, 43.16, 50.20
      birth control attitudes 39.15, 41.01
      diffusion 47.24
      diffusion of birth control
      practices 47.09
      innovation vs. adjustment 20.10, 24.02, 31.14, 48.11
      utility of children 37.11
   see also Demographic transition
Fiji
   ethnic populations 12.13
   migration from India 10.08

Finland
   catastrophic mortality in the past 25.21
   divorce 45.23
   fertility decline 41.22
   historical 33.06, 43.05
   Laestadian fertility 45.18
   mortality differentials
      in the past 32.33
      socioeconomic 49.05
   patterns of cohabitation 49.04

Foetal life times
   in Scotland 40.07

Foetal mortality
   in Africa 35.12
   in Bangladesh 39.24

France
   age at leaving home 48.04
   family allowances 02.07
   fertility regulation since 1939 05.17
   fertility transition 44.04
   historical 05.01, 11.03, 48.16
   housing policy 07.02
   immigration policy
      post-war 06.01
   marriage behaviour 44.07 44.22
   migrant assimilation 03.23
   population policy 07.14, 08.04
   urban mortality in the past 32.20

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