Volume 61, Part 2, July 2007

Authors: Guy Stecklov, Paul Winters, Jessica Todd, Ferdinando Regalia
Title: Unintended effects of poverty programmes on childbearing in less developed countries: Experimental evidence from Latin America

Because conditional cash transfer (CCT) programmes (which make payments to poor households, conditional on their behaviour) potentially affect both household resource levels and parental preferences for quality vs. quantity of children, they may have unintended consequences for fertility.

We use panel data from experimental CCT programmes in three Latin American countries to assess the unintended impact of these programmes on childbearing. Our findings, based on difference-in-difference models, show that the programme in Honduras, which inadvertently created large incentives for childbearing, may have raised fertility by between 2 and 4 percentage points. The CCT programmes in the two other countries, Mexico and Nicaragua, did not have the same unintended incentives for childbearing, and in these countries we found no net impact on fertility. S

ubsequent analysis examined several potential mechanisms by which fertility in Honduras may have been raised but was not able to identify a primary mechanism with the available data.

Keywords: transfer programmes; poverty; fertility; childbearing incentives
pp. 125-140.

Authors: Dana A. Glei, Shiro Horiuchi
Title: The narrowing sex differential in life expectancy in high-income populations: Effects of differences in the age pattern of mortality

Using data from the Human Mortality Database for 29 high-income national populations (1751-2004), we review trends in the sex differential in e(0).

The widening of this gap during most of the 1900s was due largely to a slower mortality decline for males than females, which previous studies attributed to behavioural factors (e.g., smoking). More recently, the gap began to narrow in most countries, and researchers tried to explain this reversal with the same factors.

However, our decomposition analysis reveals that, for the majority of countries, the recent narrowing is due primarily to sex differences in the age pattern of mortality rather than declining sex ratios in mortality: the same rate of mortality decline produces smaller gains in e(0) for women than for men because women's deaths are less dispersed across age (i.e., survivorship is more rectangular). 

Keywords: life expectancy; mortality; sex difference; sex ratio; mortality decline
pp. 141-159.

Authors: Jiajian Chen; Zhenming Xie; Hongyan Liu
Title: Son preference, use of maternal health care, and infant mortality in rural China, 1989-2000

This study assesses the effects of socio-economic conditions and the interaction between son preference and China's one-child family planning policy on the use of maternal health care services and their effects on infant mortality in rural China, using nationally representative data from the 2001 National Family Planning and Reproductive Health Survey.

The results show that while the use of maternal health care services has continued to increase over time, large gaps still exist in the use of these services and in infant survival by mother's education, community income, and parity. Further improvements in the reproductive health of all women and in infant survival will require effective reduction of the obstacles to the use of maternal health care among those women in rural China who are less educated, poor, and of higher parity.

Keywords: prenatal care; birth delivery; infant mortality; mother's education; parity; family planning programme; son preference
pp. 161-183. 

Authors: Megan Klein Hattori, Ulla Larsen
Title: Motherhood status and union formation in Moshi, Tanzania 2002-2003

Age at first union is increasing throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa at the same time that not all couples are waiting for marriage before their first sexual intercourse. We assessed the effect of a premarital first birth on entrance into a first union in an urban area in East Africa - Moshi, Tanzania.

The data come from the Moshi Infertility Survey of 2002-2003. Women who spent less than a year in single motherhood were significantly more likely than childless women to enter into a first union, although the magnitude of this relationship was weaker for more recent cohorts. Women who had been single mothers for 5 or more years (about two-thirds of women with a premarital birth) were significantly less likely than women without children to enter into a first union. 

Keywords: nuptiality; fertility; premarital births; sub-Saharan Africa; Tanzania
pp. 185-199.

Authors: Helga A. G. de Valk, Francesco C. Billari
Title: Living arrangements of migrant and Dutch young adults: The family influence disentangled

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the family of origin on whether migrant and Dutch young adults live in the parental home.

Using a sample of 1,678 young adults aged between 15 and 30 years from 847 families with five different ethnic backgrounds, we identified patterns of co-residence and investigated how and to what extent the likelihood of co-residence was influenced by migrant background, family ties, and the socio-economic characteristics of the family. The results show that of the four migrant groups, only Moroccan young adults are more likely than those of Dutch origin to live with their parents.

For both migrant and Dutch young adults, family ties and the socio-economic characteristics of the family rather than an ethnic factor are the major influences on living arrangements.

Keywords: co-residence; leaving home; migrant families; parent-child relation; young adults
pp. 201-217

Author: Shoshana Neuman
Title: Is fertility indeed related to religiosity? A note on: 'Marital fertility and religion in Spain, 1985 and 1999', Population Studies 60(2): 205-221 by Alicia Adsera

This article does not have an abstract.

pp. 219-224.

Author: Alicia Adsera
Title: Reply to the note by Neuman 'Is fertility indeed related to religiosity?'

This article does not have an abstract.

pp. 225-230.