Volume 59, Part 2, 2005

July 2005.

Authors: Robert Schoen and Vladimir Canudas-Romo
Title: Timing effects on first marriage: Twentieth-century experience in England and Wales and the United States.

Recent substantial declines in first marriage in Western countries have been accompanied by increases in the average age at first marriage. Since the period proportion ever marrying, PEM, is sensitive to cohort tempo changes, the recent fall in the PEM may simply reflect cohort delays in marriage. The importance of timing factors is examined in the light of twentieth-century experience of first marriage in England and Wales and the United States. Using a variant of the Timing Index developed in research on fertility, we measure cohort timing effects for marriage and calculate an adjusted PEM. After examining twentieth-century trends in nuptiality for men and women, we find substantial tempo effects on the period PEM. Adjusted PEM values show a real decline in marriage for cohorts, but that decline is considerably smaller than the one shown by the unadjusted figures. This is especially true for England and Wales, where the decline in marriage was much greater.

Keywords: average age at first marriage; marriage quantum; marriage timing; proportion ever marrying; nuptiality

pp. 135-146

Author: Robert Woods
Title: The measurement of historical trends in fetal mortality in England and Wales

This paper critically discusses recent attempts to estimate long-term trends in the stillbirth rate for England and Wales. It assesses the available historical evidence for the level of late-fetal mortality, drawing especially on examples from Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. A theoretical fetal-infant life table for a high-mortality population is also outlined as a means of analysing the relationship between segments of the conception-to-first-birthday mortality curve. Finally, new estimates of the stillbirth rate for England and Wales are proposed, based on variations in the early-neonatal and maternal mortality rates during the 1930s. These estimates are substantially lower than the earlier estimates and are more in keeping with the available evidence from northern Europe. The implications of the revised estimates for interpretations of historical changes in mortality patterns are also considered.

Keywords: fetal mortality; infant mortality; stillbirth rate; historical trends; fetal-infant life table; estimation; England and Wales; Norway

pp. 147-162

Authors: Barbara S. Okun and Dov Friedlander
Title: Educational stratification among Arabs and Jews in Israel: Historical disadvantage, discrimination and opportunity.

Arabs in Israel are a heterogeneous but largely underprivileged minority with a history of disadvantage in several domains, including education and employment. In this paper, we document changes in their attainment of various educational levels across cohorts born from the mid-1920s to the 1970s. We make comparisons among different Arab religious groups, between men and women, and between Arabs and the majority Jewish populations in Israel. We find that over consecutive birth cohorts, substantial ethnic differences in educational attainment have narrowed at the lower levels of schooling, but have increased at higher levels. Moreover, the results indicate that the disadvantage of Muslim Arabs in terms of entry into and completion of high school can be accounted for only partially by differences in the social status of their parents and characteristics of their neighborhoods. The findings suggest that long-term historical differences among groups and discriminatory practices towards Arabs are important factors in explanations of disparities in educational attainment.

Keywords: education; Israel; Arabs; Muslims; discrimination

pp. 163-180

Authors: Emily M. Agree, Anne E. Biddlecom and Thomas W. Valente
Title: Intergenerational transfer of resources to and from extended kin in Taiwan and the Philippines.

This study examines the extent to which older generations actively exchange resources with extended kin in Taiwan and the Philippines. It is critical to understand the position of older generations in the family, because population ageing and declines in family size spur concerns about the tenacity of family support. This research builds upon previous studies that have predominantly focused on parent-child relationships alone or on support received by older parents. Social network measures are used to estimate overall levels of transfers of resources across generations, and the prevalence and patterns of pathways that link generations and types of kin. Our findings show that the availability of kin is similar in both settings but that transfer activity in the Philippines appears more broadly distributed across family relations, especially siblings, while in Taiwan transfers are more concentrated among lineal kin. These results confirm the importance and diversity of extended kin in family-support systems.

Keywords: intergenerational transfer; social networks; ageing; family support

pp. 181-195

Authors: Laurie F. DeRose and Alex C. Ezeh
Title: Men's influence on the onset and progress of fertility decline in Ghana, 1988-98.

While lower fertility is commonly associated with women's reproductive autonomy, we demonstrate that the influence of men's education on reproductive decision-making increased during the first decade of rapid fertility decline in Ghana. Husband's education exerts a stronger influence on wife's fertility intentions than does her own education, and the magnitude of the effect of his education increased significantly from 1988 to 1998. Lower fertility in Ghana seems to be associated more with men's declining fertility desires than with women's increasing reproductive autonomy. Nevertheless, there is some indication that women's education may play a relatively greater role in reproductive decision-making as fertility decline progresses still further.

Keywords Reproductive decisions; power; fertility intentions; fertility decline; fertility transition; education

pp. 197-210

Authors: Matthijs Kalmijn and Ruud Luijkx
Title: Has the reciprocal relationship between employment and marriage changed for men? An analysis of the life histories of men born in The Netherlands between 1930 and 1970.

The study presented here analyses the reciprocal relationship for men between employment career and union formation and examines whether this relationship changed across twentieth-century birth cohorts. Competing hypotheses about trends are described, using notions of role-specialization, spouse support, and uncertainty. The study is based on an investigation of the life histories of 2,795 men in The Netherlands who were born between the 1930s and the 1960s, and confirms earlier findings by showing that employment fosters marriage while marriage protects men from becoming unemployed. There is also a relationship between employment and cohabitation but it is weaker in both directions. However, the relationship between marriage or cohabitation and occupational mobility is less clear, suggesting that the economic benefits of marriage cannot be generalized to the occupational domain. Although it is commonly believed that the link for men between career
and marriage has weakened over time, our comparison of birth cohorts shows that in fact this is not the case.

Keywords: cohabitation; employment; marriage; occupation; Netherlands

pp. 211-231

Authors: Tomas Frejka and Jean-Paul Sardon
Title: A note on the cohort-fertility analysis in the paper "Patterns of low and lowest-low fertility in Europe", Population Studies 58(2): 161-176 by Francesco C. Billari and Hans-Peter Kohler

This article does not have an abstract

pp. 233-238

Authors: Francesco C. Billari and Hans-Peter Kohler
Title: Reply to the note by Frejka and Sardon on our paper "Patterns of low and lowest-low fertility in Europe" and an erratum

This article does not have an abstract

pp. 239-245

Author: Sheila Ryan Johansson
Title: Review Essay. The Escape from Hunger and Premature Death, 1700-2100: Europe, America and the Third World. By Robert William Fogel, 2004.

This article does not have an abstract

pp. 247-253