Author: P.N. Mari Bhat
Title: Completeness of India's Sample Registration System: An assessment using the general growth balance method
In the preceding issue of this journal, a generalized version of the Brass growth balance method was proposed that made it applicable to populations that are not stable and are open to migration. In this companion paper, the results of applying this new procedure to data from India's Sample Registration System for the decades 1971-80 and 1981-90 are discussed. The results at the national level show that, during the decade 1981-90, 5 per cent of the deaths among men, 12 per cent of the deaths among women, and about 7 per cent of births were being missed by the system. Further, it is estimated that the level of under-enumeration in the 1991 Census was more than that of the 1981 Census by 0.7 per cent for males and 1.4 per cent for females. The paper also presents results for major Indian states.
Authors: Dov Friedlander, Barbara S. Okun, Zvi Eisenbach and Lilach Lion Elmakias
Title: Immigration, social change and assimilation: Educational attainment among birth cohorts of Jewish ethnic groups in Israel, 1925-29 and 1965-69
We consider changes in ethnic gaps among Jewish Israelis in a variety of measures of educational attainment over three generations, forty years of birth cohorts, and in three broad ethnic groups. We document the educational attainments of huge waves of immigrants and their descendants, beginning with those born before the foundation of the State, and ending with those whose members are now entering higher education. In addition, we examine ethnic gaps while controlling for important determinants of educational attainment, such as indicators of parents' and community-level socio-economic status. We show that gaps in education across ethnic groups were quite large initially. We also document significant reductions in these gaps over successive cohorts and generations. We note that ethnic convergence at the primary and secondary school levels occurred between the first-generation and second-generation immigrants, while convergence at the matriculation and post-secondary levels proceeds during the third generation.
Author: Alice Reid
Title: Infant feeding and post-neonatal mortality in Derbyshire, England, in the early twentieth century
This paper examines influences on post-neonatal mortality in Derbyshire (England) in the early twentieth century, by applying multivariate hazard analysis to a rare individual-level data set. The data allow detailed patterns of breastfeeding and weaning to be examined. The role of feeding is given special attention as a mediator between mortality and the other environmental, social, and demographic factors considered. Twins and illegitimate children were more likely to have been hand-fed, but this could explain only a small fraction of their increased vulnerability. Artificial feeding was associated with increased risks of death from diarrhoea, respiratory disease, and wasting diseases. It is suggested that the link with wasting diseases was predominantly the result of the greater likelihood of congenitally weak children being hand-fed. Most of the variation in post-neonatal mortality, particularly from respiratory disease, was explained by environmental influences - population density, altitude, and the presence of mining. pp. 151-166
Author: Laurie D. DeRose
Title: Continuity of women's work, breastfeeding, and fertility in Ghana in the 1980s
Much of the inconsistency that has appeared in studies of the effect of women's work on fertility in less developed countries has been attributed to the varying accessibility of employment in the modern sector. The analysis presented in this paper shows that continuity of work matters more than sector of work. It also confirms that, even in a setting of low contraceptive prevalence, increased fecundity associated with the less intense breastfeeding practices of working women do not result in shorter birth intervals. The influence of women's work on fertility control is likely to be underestimated if the effects of sporadic versus continuous work are conflated, or if fecundity differentials by work status are unmeasured.
Authors: T. Chandola, D.A. Coleman and R.W. Hiorns
Title: Distinctive features of age-specific fertility profiles in the English-speaking world: Common patterns in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States, 1970-98
The paper seeks to identify common features in the fertility patterns of the English-speaking world and provide a model basis for comparison of fertility between countries and over time. Attention is focused on the heterogeneity within the fertility patterns of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States, similar to that reported earlier for the UK and the Irish Republic. The recent age-specific fertility patterns of these countries display a marked 'bulge' in fertility of women under age 25. A mixture model with two-component Hadwiger functions provides a suitable fit. The heterogeneity thus suggested is shown to be related to differences in the timing of births by marital status, and its magnitude is related to the proportion of births outside marriage. Additionally, there is some evidence that, in the United States, and to a lesser extent in New Zealand, this heterogeneity in fertility patterns may be explained by ethnic differences in the timing and number of births.
Authors: Elizabeth Frankenberg, Angelique Chan and Mary Beth Ofstedal
Title: Stability and change in living arrangements in Indonesia, Singapore, and Taiwan, 1993-99
We use longitudinal data from Indonesia, Singapore, and Taiwan to examine stability and change in the co-residence of older adults and their children. Longitudinal data support the analysis of transitions in living arrangements. We focus on how life-cycle characteristics of older adults and their children are related to co-residence at a point in time, to maintaining co-residence over time, and to transitions into and out of co-residence. We find that many of the characteristics found to be associated with co-residence at baseline interviews exhibit an even stronger association with continued co-residence over time. While some of the results support the interpretation that co-residence provides support for parents as they age, the needs of children also play an important role in the decision to co-reside.
Authors: Nicholas Townsend, Sangeetha Madhavan, Stephen Tollman, Michel Garenne and Kathleen Kahn
Title: Children's residence patterns and educational attainment in rural South Africa, 1997
Using data collected by the Agincourt Health and Population Programme in a rural sub-district of South Africa's Northern Province, this paper describes the residential arrangements of a population in rural South Africa, and analyses the impact of these arrangements on children's educational attainment.
Children with co-resident parents generally have higher levels of schooling than those who have one or no co-resident parents. However, having a father who is away from home as a migrant appears to benefit older children whereas, for girls aged 11 to 15, having a mother who is a migrant lowers educational attainment. Children who live in households headed by Mozambican refugees have lower levels of schooling than those who live in non-refugee households.
Living in a household headed by a woman is not associated with lower levels of education and, for some age-sex groups, appears to be an advantage.