Families and households abstracts

Strand organiser: Wendy Sigle, London School of Economics 

Families: Gendered division in (un)paid work - Monday 7 September, 4.45pm 

Housework share between partners: experimental evidence on gender identity 
Katrin Auspurg 1, Maria Iacovou 2, Cheti Nicoletti 3. 1 Department of Social Sciences, Goethe University Frankfurt Main, 2 Department of Sociology,University of Cambridge, 3 DERS, University of York and ISER, University of Essex

Using an experimental design, we investigate the reasons behind the gendered division of housework within couples. In particular, we assess whether the fact that women do more housework than men may be explained by differences in preferences deriving from differences in gender identity between men and women. We find little evidence of any systematic gender differences in the preference for housework, suggesting that the reasons for the gendered division of housework lie elsewhere. 

Email: mi305@cam.ac.uk    

Trends in fathers’ contribution to housework and childcare under different welfare policy regimes 
Evrim Altintas, Oriel Sullivan, Centre for Time Use Research, University of Oxford 

In this paper, we investigate whether we can identify changing differences (Sullivan, 2010) in father’s childcare and core housework between clusters of countries identified according to their welfare policies. The rationale is that we might expect, given the findings of previous research, to identify differences in levels of fathers’ housework and childcare contributions by policy regime type. But if we find interactions between trends (for instance, where trends over time in father’s participation in housework or childcare, or the average time spent in these activities, vary systematically by welfare regime) then this is likely to have different implications for our understandings of the processes of change involved. For example, we are interested in whether we can identify any evidence for a ‘catch-up’ effect in the participation of fathers of young children in the most gender-traditional cluster of countries, which might be indicative of a process of social diffusion of more gender-egalitarian attitudes in those societies. Alternatively, if we can identify different trends in core housework and childcare within specific regimes this may cast more light on existing interpretations of why men’s involvement in childcare, for example, is increasing more rapidly than their contributions to housework. 

Email: evrim.altintas@sociology.ox.ac.uk 

Beyond exploitation: gendered division of labour and women’s negotiation with patriarchy 
Nadia Agha, Centre for Women's Studies, University of York 

Pakistani society is predominantly patriarchal with the prevalent perception of men as breadwinners and women as service providers. This paper centres on intra household division of labour which is influenced by traditional patriarchy in rural Pakistan. I take into account the appropriation of women’s labour and answer the main research question that how women negotiate in the stronghold of patriarchy. Data for this paper was collected from the villages of Khairpur, in the southern region of Pakistan, using 30 in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Results of the study demonstrate that the strict gendered division of labour is followed in the villages. This labour binds women into multiple responsibilities such as unlimited household tasks, childcare and looking after the elderly, but liberates men from them; they are only responsible for financing the family’s needs. Although women are supposed to do their assigned tasks themselves, their mutual support is evident in doing these chores in order for them to perform their work on time. Women use their role as service provider to bargain with patriarchy; I argue that women’s work is exploited by others and that others benefit from it, but that women also use this work as a means of making and consolidating a place for themselves in their affinal family. On one hand women are very much oppressed; they work for extremely long hours, many people depend on their work, but at the same time they have pride in their work because it earns them the status of ‘good women’. 

Email: na662@york.ac.uk   

Families: Labour market participation - Tuesday 8 September, 9.00am 

Is your partner paying the price for your career? How parents’ relative division of paid work is reflected in their relative labour market outcomes 
Laura Langner, Department of Sociology, University of Oxford 

Sociologists and economists concerned with intra-household divisions of labour propose that the way in which couples invest in each partner’s market human capital in terms of working hours is related to their relative wage outcomes (e.g. Becker 1991). However, a longitudinal test – using multiple measurement occasions to test for this relationship across the life course, has not been carried out. Instead, past studies either did not make full use of the longitudinal dimension – by focussing on single or few transitions – or did ignore the couple-level over-time dependencies. Hence, it remains unclear how couples’ relative working hours are related to couples’ relative labour market returns over time. To close this knowledge gap, the paper uses the German Socio-Economic Panel Study. Growth-curves, which follow parents along their child’s age, are employed to capture the longitudinal dimension. Parents are the focus of the analysis as parenthood is seen as the main initiator of work hour investment shifts. A dyadic index (his working hours/joint working hours) captures within-couple (within-dyad) dependencies. Preliminary findings suggest that there is indeed a close link between the type of within-couple work hour distribution and how wage outcomes are distributed within the couple across the life course. 

Email: laura.langner@sociology.ox.ac.uk 

Provider or father? British men’s employment behaviour after the birth of a child 
Stefanie Hoherz, Mark Bryan, Institute for Social and Economic Research, University of Essex 

This study uses data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) and Understanding Society (UKHLS) to analyse the effect of first fatherhood on men’s work hours and work hour preferences. Past research indicates that British men follow the traditional male provider model by either not changing or increasing their working hours when they have fathered a child, but these previous findings are primarily based on descriptive or cross-sectional analyses. In our longitudinal analyses of 7,351 men in the UK (1991 to 2013) we find a significant positive effect of fatherhood on men’s work hours. However, this effect is mainly limited to the fathers of children between one and five years of age. Having children of this age increases a father’s work hours, but only if the female partner is not employed. A mother’s part-time and full-time employment has the opposite effect for this group, leading the male partner to reduce his work hours. Analyses of men’s work hour preferences did not find significant links with the number and age of children. In addition, men with children have higher housework hours than non-fathers, where this value decreases slightly with the age of the child. 

Email: shoher@essex.ac.uk 

Grandparental childcare and labour market outcomes of mothers: some aspects of inter-generational ties in India 
Mousumi Dutta 1, Zakir Husain 2. 1 Economics Department, Presidency University Kolkata, 2 Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur 

Research reveals that, in Europe, informal child care provided by grandparents determines mother's decision to undertake paid work. In Asian countries, however, this has remained an unexplored research question. This paper argues that, in the absence of reliable formal child care systems in Asian countries, grandparental support is a potentially important condition for mothers to work, as they may believe that women should undertake domestic work only. But conservative grandparents may oppose the concept of working mothers. The aggregation of these conflicting forces will determine how grandparental presence will affect the probability of mothers’ working. The study commences with an analysis using data from the Demographic Health Survey data for India (2005-06), revealing that only in metro cities, grandparents encourage mothers to participate in the labour market. DHS data, however, captures only whether grandparents are co-residential—it fails to reveal their health status. Alternatively, grandparents may live close enough to provide necessary support, without being co-residential. Hence the initial analysis was supplemented with a primary survey covering 750 households in Kolkata, a metropolitan city in Eastern India. After ruling out endogeneity, using appropriate tests, a probit model is estimated. Results reveal that support of grandparents is important in enabling mothers' to seek paid work. Culture plays an important role, as conservative grandparents may oppose mothers' decision to work. Extensions of the model indicate that the support of maternal grandparents and grandmothers is more critical than paternal grandparents and grandfathers, respectively. The type of care services provided is also examined. 

Email: dmousumi1970@gmail.com 

The employment status of Swiss and immigrant women: a life course perspective 
Elena Vidal-Coso, Julie Lacroix, Institut d’études démographiques et du parcours de vie, Université de Genève 

Switzerland is a country with an increasing demand for migrant labour force, on the one hand, with one of lowest female ‘full-time employment rate’ among OECD countries, on the other hand. The aim of this paper is to assess the extent to which different life course situation affects the pattern of women participation in the Swiss labour market differently depending on the origin. Concretely, we base our analysis on the family lifecycle approach to estimate the impact of the household characteristics over female labour supply of Swiss and migrant women. Using individual and household-level data from recent Swiss Structural Survey from 2010 to 2012 we perform a Generalized Tobit model to decompose the effect of socioeconomic determinants on participation (selection equation) and working hours (left-censured data). We assume these two outcomes to be distinguished processes and the impact of covariates on these respective outcomes to vary across the life course. We identify five phases of household situation where women integration in the labour market is likely to differ with regards to family arrangement. This typology is the key variable in our models and its effect on employment is presented separately by country of origin. Especially, we emphasize how the effect of a particular life course situation is moderated by the partner position in the labour market. Results generated by maximum likelihood estimations and marginal effects are reported to illustrate the magnitude of the change in employment for a particular group given a change in the life course or household economic situation. 

Email: Elena.Vidal@unige.ch 

 

Families: Living arrangements - Tuesday 8 September, 11.00am

Long-term trends in children's family context in Britain 
Ursula Henz, London School of Economics 

The profound changes of the structure of British families during the past decades have been documented in many studies. During the past decades, the place of children in families and in research in general has also changed; children are increasingly conceived as agents in their own right. This new approach warrants a study of the changes to family structure in Britain from children's perspectives, i.e. with children as the unit of analysis. The presentation will map long-term socio-demographic changes in the family context in which children grow up, including growing up with a single parent and sibship size, and changes in parents' levels of employment. These socio-demographic changes will be documented through pseudo-cohort analyses of the pooled General Household/Lifestyle Surveys from 1972 to 2012. The data allow systematic comparisons between of the household context of children born in the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s and, to a more limited degree, those born in the 1960s and 2000s.  

Email: u.henz@lse.ac.uk 

Household composition and housing need 
Ludi Simpson 1, Ann Berrington 2. 1 University of Manchester, 2University of Southampton 

The past two decades have interrupted a half-century trend towards autonomous and smaller households. This paper will review and synthesise the evidence, throwing light on the extent to which recent changes could indicate the completion of a demographic transition, a temporary phase affected by economic recession, the impact of new factors including welfare policy and immigration, and physical constraints such as the availability of land for housing. These questions are motivated by measuring the need for future housing. Changes include the stability (or increase in case of London) in average HH size, lower rates of HH formation at young age groups; more complex, concealed HHs (again especially in London). The explanations for these changes are multifaceted, reflecting both demand and supply type explanations. Explanations are likely to differ for different age groups or life course phases. We will review trends in headship rates, by gender, age and type of household and marital status using data from Censuses and the UK Labour Force Survey. We will provide long-term historical trends and use recent research on transitions to adulthood to add evidence and explanation to the current state. The paper will trial a chapter in the forthcoming BSPS book on the population of the UK. 

Email: ludi.simpson@manchester.ac.uk 

Family geography and family demography in the UK: dynamic perspective 
Tak Wing Chan 1, John Ermisch2. 1University of Warwick, 2University of Oxford 

In this paper, we use linked data from the British Household Panel Survey and Understanding Society to explore how intergenerational proximity might change over the life course, in response to the changing experience and circumstances of individuals. Because past demographic research has focussed on the household, we know relatively little about individuals interact with their non-coresident relatives: how far they live from each other and how much contact they have with each other, and so on. In a paper that is forthcoming in Population Studies, we use cross-sectional data from wave 1 of Understanding Society and demonstrate large differences in intergenerational proximity by characteristics that are relatively fixed once individuals have turned 30s, e.g. educational attainment, ethnicity, number of siblings, etc. In this follow-up paper, we use panel data to explore the dynamics of intergenerational proximity over the short and medium term: (1) between wave 1 and wage 3 of Understanding Society, (2) between wave 11 and wave 16 of the BHPS, and (3) between wave 16 of the BHPS and wave 3 of Understanding Society. Overall, we show that changes in marital status, number of children, employment status, and health condition have relatively weak and inconsistent impacts on intergenerational proximity. We then consider how these effects might differ for different socio-demographic groups. We also consider the analytical implications of these results on the study of intergenerational relationships in general. 

Email: tak-wing.chan@warwick.ac.uk 

Living arrangements: differences by migration background explored and explained 
Helga A.G. de Valk1, Valeria Bordone 2. 1Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (NIDI)/KNAW/UoG and Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 2 Wittgenstein Centre (IIASA, VID/ÖAW, WU), International Institute for Applied System Analysis 

Intergenerational relations and support are key throughout the individual life course and a major mechanism of cultural continuity. In this study we analyze co-residence of (elderly) parents and their adult children among international migrant and non-migrant populations in six European countries. Although previous work suggests that co-residence would be more common among migrant populations, this is not empirically tested in a comparative way. We use data from the first wave of the Generation and Gender Survey (GGS) to explore who are the adults residing with their ageing parents and to analyse what are the main determinants for co-residence. Additionally, we analyse to what extent these determinants differ among migrants and non migrants in a cross-country comparative perspective. Preliminary findings indicate that second generation migrants and their parents are more likely to coreside than migrants. Among the non-migrants, second generation migrants are significantly more likely to live with at least one parent than their 2.5 and third generation counterparts. Among the migrants, those of West Asia origin are more likely to live with parents than their counterparts from Northern Africa or with other migrant origin. 

Email: bordone@iiasa.ac.at

 

Families: The consequences of family transitions & fertility decisions on later life outcomes - Tuesday 8 September, 1.45pm

Session organiser: Brienna Perelli-Harris, University of Southampton

Union formation and mid-life well-being: is cohabitation as good as marriage? 
Marta Styrc 1, Brienna Perelli-Harris 1,  Ann Evans2, Trude Lappegård 3, Fenaba Addo 4, Sharon Sassler 5. 1University of Southampton, 2Australian National University, 3 Statistics Norway, 4 University of Wisconsin, 5 Cornell University 

Previous research has found that marriage conveys benefits to individuals, but with recent increases in cohabitation, it is no longer clear that it is marriage per se that matters, compared to the benefits of living in a co-residential partnership. The marriage benefit is especially questionable in countries where cohabitation is widespread, such as Australia, Norway, the UK, and the US. In this paper, we compare the effects of marriage and cohabiting partnerships on mid-life outcomes. Using Propensity Score Matching, we investigate whether there are differences in self-rated health, depression, life satisfaction, and relationship quality. Our surveys - the Australian HILDA, Norwegian GGS, UK BCS70 and the US NLSY - include a mix of longitudinal and retrospective questions, allowing us to control for socio-economic background and family structure in childhood, which often select individuals into marriage. We will explore several types of partnership histories, including ever being in a union; ever being married among those in a union; pre-marital cohabitation vs. direct marriage; and long-term cohabiting unions vs. long-term marriages. Preliminary analyses indicate that in the UK, both men and women who have ever experienced a union or married score better on life satisfaction and on self-rated health. In contrast, in Australia ever being in a union does not differentiate life satisfaction and self-rated health. Those who ever married have higher life satisfaction and self-rated health than those who experienced only non-marital unions, but after adjusting for demographic and socio-economic background the effect vanishes, except for the effect on men’s life satisfaction. 

Email: m.e.styrc@soton.ac.uk 

Fertility history and use of antidepressant medication in late mid-life: a register-based analysis of Norwegian women and men 
Øystein Kravdal 1,2, Emily Grundy 3, Vegard Skirbekk 1. 1Norwegian Institute of Public Health  2Department of Economics, University of Oslo, 3Social Policy Department, London School of Economics and Political Science 

Background: Previous studies have addressed associations between fertility and childrearing and concurrent depression risks, but results on the relationship between fertility and depression at post-reproductive ages have been mixed. Methods: We estimated logistic regression models to analyse variations in the purchase of antidepressants 2004-2008 by timing of births and number of children among women and men aged 45-73, using register data for the entire Norwegian population. We controlled for age, education, marital and partnership status, and (in some models) family background shared among siblings. Results: Mothers and fathers of two or more children were generally less likely to purchase antidepressants than the childless. Mothers who started childbearing before age 22 were an exception, although according to sibling models they were not more likely to purchase antidepressants. All models showed that women who had become mothers before age 26 and had only one child had higher odds of medication purchase than the childless. Overall, older age at first birth was associated with lower risks of antidepressant purchase. Conclusion: This analysis of high-quality data for a national population indicates that early motherhood, childlessness and low parity are associated with higher usage of antidepressants in late mid-life. Our data did not allow identification of mediating pathways, and we lacked information on early mental and physical health and some other potentially important confounders not shared between siblings. Furthermore purchase of antidepressants is not a perfect indicator of depression. Those concerns aside, the results suggest complex effects of fertility on depression that merits further analysis. 

Email: okravdal@econ.uio.no 

Do ART children have better or worse cognitive outcomes? A longitudinal study of socio-economic gradients 
Anna Barbuscia, Melinda Mills, Department of Sociology and Nuffield College, Oxford University 

Since the first birth in vitro in 1978, more than 5 million babies have been born with the help of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) worldwide, and the number of couples seeking ART is constantly increasing. As some of those ART “children” are now approaching adulthood and in light of several debates related to legitimacy and outcomes of ART, there is an increased urgency to understand the childhood outcomes of these children. Different mechanisms might play a role and have potentially contrasting effects on the development of ART children. First of all, the use of ART is linked to higher risk of adverse health outcomes at birth, such as multiple births, low weight, preterm delivery, which might lead to worse development later in life. However, women and couples undertaking ART represent a particular part of the population that is highly selected into parenthood both in term of socio-demographic background and because of the strong desire to have a child. Both aspects might be related to specific ways of living parenthood and investing in the children’s development. Using data from the first 5 waves of the UK Millennium Cohort Study, we compare the cognitive development (as measured by the British Ability Scale) of children born through ART and “naturally conceived” children up to the age of 11. Preliminary results confirm that women undertaking ART represent a specific part of the population, with ART mothers being on average older, better educated, more likely to be in employment and married compared to the rest of the population. ART children seem to perform better compared to the average, however, the effect almost disappears when controls for parental background are added. Further analysis will implement growth curve models to better study the development in time and will explore the mediating effect of parental style. 

Email: anna.barbuscia@sociology.ox.ac.uk

Stay with mommy and daddy or move out? Consequences of the age at leaving home in the United States 
Maria Sironi, Francesco C. Billari, Department of Sociology and Nuffield College, University of Oxford 

Leaving the parental home is a milestone in the transition to adulthood and is often the first step towards independence. Changes over time in the timing of leaving and the increasing share of young adults who return back home have been well documented. However, there is little research investigating the consequences of the timing and pathway of leaving home. We address this gap, examining the relationship between the timing and pathway of leaving home and economic and employment outcomes in early thirties. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), taking advantage of its longitudinal design and study young Americans born between 1980 and 1984, who are 27-31 years old in 2011. We find that, among those who have not attained a college degree, the higher the age at leaving home the better are the working and especially the economic conditions of individuals between 27 and 31 years of age, albeit with a potential reversal of the effect at later ages of leaving home. Among college graduates instead, age at leaving home is not associated with labor market outcomes, while leaving home to go to college has a positive correlation with subsequent income. 

Email: maria.sironi@sociology.ox.ac.uk

 

Families: Union & family formation - Tuesday 8 September, 5.00pm 

Is remarriage increasing or decreasing? – The case of Austria 1974-2013 
Johannes Klotz, Vienna Regina Fuchs, Statistics Austria, Vienna 

Starting in the mid 1970’s and lasting until the mid 2000’s, the proportion of remarriages increased substantially from about 20 to 40 percent in Austria. Our analysis shows that this increase has to be put into perspective: first it did not continue after 2004 and second, the growing number of remarriages was rather driven by an increase in the risk population instead of rising remarriage rates. Another factor which contributed to the rising relative frequency of remarriages was the decline in first marriages which resulted from a sharp drop in the incidence rates as well as from the tempo-distorting rising age at first marriage. We also investigate by how much the decline in the remarriage propensity is offset by the increasing likelihood of cohabitation among the widowed and divorced as alternative to remarriage. 

Email: johannes.klotz@statistik.gv.at 

Emerging Patterns of Union Formation in the Philippines 
Bernice Kuang, Brienna Perelli-Harris, Sabu Padmadas, University of Southampton 

Cohabitation as a family form has become a widespread practice in the Western world. More recently, evidence of increased cohabitation in Latin America and Asia has emerged, especially in the Philippines where over 14% of women aged 15-49 report currently being in a cohabiting relationship (PDHS 2013). This study investigates the competing risk of entry into a cohabiting union compared to a marital union and examines the socioeconomic predictors of entering cohabitation versus marriage. Data from the past two decades indicate that cohabitation has been increasingly practiced among all age groups in the Philippines (PDHS 1993-2013). These changes have been especially dramatic among the younger population; approximately one quarter of all 20-29 year old women report currently cohabiting in 2013, compared to only 6 % in 1993. At the same time, the percentage of women currently married has decreased consistently across all age groups while the percentage never in union has been relatively stable, suggesting some substitution of cohabitation for marriage. At all ages, cohabitation is more widely practiced among lower income and lower educated women than among higher income and higher educated women. By using a competing risk model to gain a more in-depth understanding of who cohabits and who marries, and when women enter into their respective unions, this analysis will provide crucial insight into the nature of family formation in the Philippines, placing this demographic transition within the larger context of union formation trends worldwide. 

Email: bk2g14@soton.ac.uk 

Dynamics of mixed marriages in the United Kingdom 
Tina Hannemann, Hill Kulu, The University of Liverpool   

The increasing mobility among European citizens and continuous immigration flows has a profound effect on the marriage markets in European countries. On the one hand, a growing number of foreign-born individuals increases the opportunities for ‘natives’ to enter partnerships with non-native individuals. On the other hand, among the foreign-born population a partnership with a native person is seen as an indicator for successful integration. However, exogamous marriages have higher risk of dissolution as previous research shows. This study analyses formation and dissolution of ethnically endogamous and exogamous unions in the United Kingdom. The aim is to determine which migrant groups are more prone to form exogamous partnerships and how stable those unions are in comparison to endogamous unions. The study is based on data from the Understanding Society study including an ethnic minority boost sample, which facilitates research on ethnic minorities. Applying survival analysis the study investigates formation and dissolution of endogamous and exogamous unions. Children of mixed marriages might be more prone to choose a native partner due to higher levels of social integration. In contrast, immigrants and the descendants of immigrants with both parents of the same origin may experience a socialisation in a minority subculture and therefore choose a partner of the same ethnic background, especially in ethnic groups with different partnerships traditions than the native population. 

Email: tina.hannemann@liverpool.ac.uk 

Assessing the contribution of living arrangements to aggregate trends in entry into parenthood for five European countries between 1970 and 2005 
Jorik Vergauwen, David de Wachter, Karel Neels, University of Antwerp 

Changes in partnership behaviour are frequently related to shifts in value orientations towards individual autonomy and post-materialism. The evidence on the relation between value orientations and fertility, in contrast, is mixed. Studies on fertility determinants provide a range of structural, rather than cultural, explanations of changing fertility trends (i.e. increasing educational enrolment, rising educational attainment, economic insecurity, etc.). This study however hypothesizes that post-materialist values affect the entry into parenthood indirectly via changing living arrangements. Using data from the Harmonized Histories this paper therefore investigates 1) whether changing patterns of living arrangements – e.g. delayed home leaving, postponement of marriage, increasing unmarried cohabitation and divorce – can explain trends in synthetic parity progression ratios for first births in five European countries between 1970 and 2005. In the next step 2) different types of living arrangements are compared to identify the particular partnership formation behaviours that contribute the most to the explanation of entry into parenthood. In line with Second Demographic Transition theory, the results show that changing living arrangements are instrumental in explaining aggregate trends in entry into parenthood on top of ‘structural’ indicators. The explanatory power of living arrangements is especially pronounced in Bulgaria, Hungary and Russia, which is interesting since the decline of period fertility in these countries has largely been attributed to changing economic conditions. It is further observed that distinguishing between unmarried cohabitation and marriage significantly contributes to the explanation of fertility trends. As literature demonstrates that marriage remains the predominant childbearing setting, this suggests that the timing of parenthood is often affected by opting for (child-free) cohabitation which in turn postpones the transition to marriage. 

Email: jorik.vergauwen@uantwerpen.be

 

Families & housing - Wednesday 9 September, 11.30am

Session organised by Julia Mikolai, University of Liverpool & Michael Thomas, University of Groningen

Housing conditions and union dissolution in Germany 
Sandra Krapf, University of Cologne 

Moving in together with a partner is one step in the institutionalization process of intimate relationships, and a large fraction of young adults has lived with a partner by their mid-20s . When searching for an apartment or house, couples with a low socio-economic status might be unable to afford the rent for high standard dwellings and opt for a small flat of cheap quality. But it is unclear whether the housing conditions of coresidential unions have an influence on their stability. Substandard housing can create social stress and we argue that this might foster partner conflicts and diminish coping capabilities. For example, a lack of private space, an insecure housing situation or a high financial burden due to high mortgages or rents are likely to be stressful for a couple. In this study we investigate the relationship between housing problems and the dissolution of coresidential unions. Our analyses are based on the German Family Panel pairfam, waves 1 to 5. In order to investigate the stability of coresidential unions, the data is organized in relationship-years. We found 4,896 cohabiting partnerships and 455 union dissolutions. The results of our discrete-time event-history model indicate that, against our expectations, neither crowding (less than one room per person) nor the economic burden of housing cost (as share in household income) seem to affect relationship stability. In line with previous findings, home ownership reduces separation risks. 

Email: krapf@wiso.uni-koeln.de 

Separation and housing transitions in England and Wales 
Julia Mikolai, Hill Kulu, University of Liverpool 

This study explores the interrelationship between separation and housing transitions in England and Wales. Although previous studies show that separation leads to downward moves on the housing ladder, they do not distinguish between moves due to separation and moves of separated people. Distinguishing these moves is essential to determine a long-term influence of separation on individuals’ housing career. Following the life course perspective, we use advanced event history models to study the risk of a move of single, married, cohabiting, and separated women into different types of housing (detached, semi-detached, and terraced house, flat, and other). Using 1991-2008 data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS), we track changes in respondents’ partnership and residential careers and socio-economic characteristics (e.g. employment, income, education, housing tenure, area type, fertility). We find that separated women are more likely to move than single, cohabiting, and married women. They are most likely to move to a terraced house followed by a semi-detached house or a flat. When distinguishing between moves due to separation and moves of separated people, we show that moving risks are the highest at the time of separation and that five months after separation the risk of a move is already similar to that of single, married and cohabiting women. These results suggest that separation has a short-term influence on moving risks. However, when taking into account the order of moves we find that women are increasingly likely to move to a terraced house over time. 

Email: J.Mikolai@liverpool.ac.uk 

Partnership dissolution and residential mobility: A question of who moves out and how far 
Michael Thomas, Clara H. Mulder, Population Research Centre, University of Groningen 

This paper seeks to address the simultaneous questions of who moves out of the home and if so to what distance, following an event of partnership dissolution. Co-residential partnership dissolution is a key predictor of residential mobility; after all, it necessitates a change of residence for at least one and sometimes both ex-partners. However, despite the secular increase in separation and divorce rates, there is a surprising absence of relevant research on this topic, particularly for the UK. Consequently, the proposed analysis will draw on detailed individual, household (BHPS and Understanding Society) and administrative and census based area-level data for the UK and apply a multilevel mixed discrete-continuous response model in order to correctly account for micro and area-based characteristics whilst simultaneously addressing the questions of who moves out and how far. Through the inclusion of a battery of theoretically informed covariates, the analysis seeks to uncover the importance of partnership status (duration of partnership and whether married or cohabiting), family (presence of dependent children and child custody), intra-couple relative resources (differences in education, age, income and gender), housing (homeownership, private renting and social renting), and area characteristics (local house prices, whether urban-rural). Moreover, given rises in female employment and educational attainment as well as similar increases in the relative cost of housing, the analysis will also seek to uncover differences in the relationship over time. 

Email: m.j.thomas@rug.nl 

Recent housing transitions among young adults in Scotland: home-ownership and the widening of socio-economic disadvantage 
Elspeth Graham, Francesca Fiori, Zhiqiang Feng, ESRC Centre for Population Change, University of St Andrews 

During the 1980s Scotland experienced a housing revolution as home-ownership became the majority tenure for the first time, displacing the previously dominant social housing sector. However, declines in home-ownership have emerged since the economic downturn in 2008, especially among young adults. This paper investigates housing transitions among young Scots between 2001 and 2011 compared to the previous decade. We ask whether there has been a marked ‘postponement’ in transitions to independent living and home-ownership, and which groups are disadvantaged. Samples of young adults (16-29 years) living with their parents at the beginning of each decade are drawn from the Scottish Longitudinal Study. Repeated cross-sectional analyses compare the two decades (1991-2001 and 2001-2011). First, we observe whether individuals had left their parental home by the end of the period; then – and only for those who left - we model the likelihood of becoming a home-owner. Multilevel logistic regressions assess the influence of the characteristics of individuals and their family of origin, as well as of local housing markets. Results reveal a reduction in the proportion of young adults making the transitions to residential independence and into home-ownership, with notable postponement to later ages. We show that these transitions are more likely to occur among those who obtain a university degree, are in continuous employment and have better health. Overall our findings support the hypothesis that the increased importance of parental resources in establishing an independent housing career plays a role in the widening of socio-economic disadvantage among young Scots. 

Email: ff20@st-andrews.ac.uk 

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