Ethnicity strand abstracts

 Abstracts are presented within sessions and in the order of presentation as shown in the provisional programme:

Residential segregation and mixing - Monday 9 September 4.45pm

White Flight, Mixed Neighbourhoods or both? Applying Spatial Measures of Ethnic Segregation to the 2001 and 2011 Censuses.
Richard Harris and Ron Johnston, School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol

The 2011 UK Census showed that London is no longer a majority ‘White British’ city. Media reports followed of ‘white flight’ from London, with tales of ethnic cliffs between neighbouring authorities (The Sunday Times and Daily Mail online). Others argue that what we are seeing is a process of aspiration as those able to do so relocate to more rural settlements: “It is a story of success” (Mark Easton, the BBC’s Home editor). Support for the positive view is given by Catney (2013) and by Johnston et al. (2013), showing that neighbourhood residential integration is increasing, with a greater percentage of the White British population now living in more mixed neighbourhoods, including in London. However, measures of segregation are relative, meaning neighbourhoods can appear more mixed due to the departure of one portion of their population. In fact, of the 17,167 Census Output Areas that were at least 80% White British in the 2001 but not the 2011 Census, almost two fifths had fewer White British people living in them at the end of that ten year period. Meanwhile, the growth of the White British population in places 80% White British in both censuses was 1.91%. In short, the Census presents a mixed picture with work to be done to understand it. In this paper, our contribution is to use methods of spatial analysis to consider ethnic differences at the boundaries of adjacent census areas, reviewing whether these give evidence of increased or decreased ethnic segregation between 2001 and 2011.  

White Flight and White Nationalism in the UK: Is there a Connection?
Eric Kaufmann and Gareth Harris, Department of Politics, Birbeck, University of London

The paper asks whether white attitudes to immigration affect the decision of respondents to leave - or avoid - diverse wards. Is white flight related to white nationalism? This analysis uses the 1991-2008 British Household Panel Survey and 2009-13 Understanding Society datasets, linked to decennial census data, to help answer a puzzle that emerges from 2007-12 Citizenship Survey data: why white UK-born residents appear to be more tolerant towards immigration in more ethnically diverse areas compared to those who live in more homogenous wards. This pattern has been found in the vast majority of studies of attitudes to immigrants, minorities and immigration in the US and Europe. Rarely does a dataset permit the analyst to track the demographic, geographic and attitudinal properties of respondents. The BSPS/Understanding Society is an important exception due to its longitudinal nature, large size (permitting geocoding) and inclusion of political and attitudinal items.  

Neighbourhood ethnic diversity and mixing in England and Wales, 1991-2011
Gemma Catney, University of Liverpool

The population of England and Wales is becoming more diverse, and more mixed. The 2011 Census showed that the minority (groups other than White) population of England and Wales now constitutes 14 per cent of the total, at around 7.9 million people – an increase of roughly eight percentage points from 1991. There has been considerable growth in the proportion of multiple ethnicity households, and a more than doubling of the number of individuals who identified with a mixed ethnic group category; thus, England and Wales has seen an increase in mixing at the individual and the household level over time. How has ethnic group mixing changed geographically, in particular within neighbourhoods? This paper will begin with an account of the changing landscape of diversity and mixing within England and Wales, before considering the decrease in minority group ‘segregation’ witnessed over the last two decades; London, and major urban centres like Leicester, Bradford, Manchester and Birmingham, have seen decreases in ethnic minority segregation. In this paper, local measures of segregation are applied, which enable the spatial variation in ethnic group population distributions to be properly accounted for. Not constrained by pre-imposed area boundaries, these local measures provide much greater insight into how areas have changed over time, and in what ways the different dimensions of segregation (for example, unevenness and isolation) are related over local space and between ethnic groups. This is not only methodologically innovative for British segregation studies, but provides the first systematic account of the nature of local level segregation.  

Ethno-Religious Residential Segregation and Social Networks: A British Muslim Case Study
Richard Gale, Cardiff School of Planning & Geography, Cardiff University

Concerns over British Muslim integration have been to the fore of public debate over much of the last decade, with Muslim segregation constituting a key issue. Recent analyses have usefully shown that current concerns over segregation levels in the UK are exaggerated. However, these analyses continue to rely on census ethnicity data, which are used as proxy for religion to draw inferences about Muslim residential phenomena. Through a case study of Birmingham, this presentation will attempt to redress this tendency by exploring religious segregation directly. The presentation will comprise two parts. In the first part, standard measures of segregation and Special Migration Statistics (SMS) by religion for the year 2000-2001 will be used to show how Muslims exhibit a significant if spatially constrained movement away from concentrated inner urban areas. In the second part, qualitative data on Muslim friendship networks will be used to explore how religious values are drawn upon to manage and give coherence to the ‘micro-social worlds’ (Spencer and Pahl, 2006) and spatial mobility of a Birmingham-based group of Muslim women of Mirpuri heritage. Overall, the paper contributes to three existing and emergent geographical discourses: 1) the geography of ethno-religious segregation and internal migration; 2) the geography of religion, faith and spirituality relating to Muslims and Islam; and 3) the geography of friendship.  

Social and economic inequalities: Tuesday 10 September 11.00am

Ethnic minority and Labor Market inequalities: Pakistani ethnic minority, progress or regress in Britain social system.
Sabrina Khan, University of Manchester

This paper aims to investigate labour market mobility of Pakistani ethnic minority in Britain, in comparison with other ethnic minority groups and White British population. Furthermore, it analyses whether the labour market employment trends for Pakistani ethnic minority, follows the same trend and pattern of advantages/disadvantages, as the White British population and other ethnic groups, given that the preliminary research indicates that the Pakistani and Bangladeshis men and women are the least advantaged ethnic group in Britain, with respect to labour market participation. This study holds great significance as this will give us a unique understanding of how the Pakistani (together with other minority ethnic groups) are faring in the social system in the country, whether they have specific structural barriers in getting socially integrated into the class system, and whether they are making progress or are consistently lagging behind. It further employs latest data from the Understanding Society survey for analysis, which has a sample size of 40,000 households and nearly 100,000 respondents.  

Measuring the integration of the young foreign population in a new setting region of southern Italy through the command and use of the language
Michela Pellicani, Valeria Moro and Francesca Galizia, University of Bari

Measuring the integration of the young foreign population in a new settling region of Southern Italy through the command and use of the language
In the last decades Italy is increasingly taking a multi-ethnic face as a crossroads of peoples and cultures thanks to the gradual and widespread stabilization with a rising contribution of the foreign population in defining the socio-economic, ethnic, cultural and political set-up of the country. In this context, our aim is to analyze the integration process of foreign students also because of a substantial increase, in the recent years, of them: in the last six years, their number doubled reaching an incidence of foreign students on the total school population equal to 7.9%. With particular reference to the Southern regions, we can point out the case of Apulia that represents rather faithfully the national panorama with regard to the main characteristics of the foreign minors. Other than the official data collected at a national level that give just a quantitative description of the foreign students, we organized a field survey ad hoc, conducted in collaboration with the Regional School Division and financed by the European Fund for the Integration. Thanks to the richness of the questionnaire, it has been possible to find out, beyond quantitative aspects, qualitative features very useful for a more complete phenomenon interpretation. Among the different aspects we have put the emphasis on the linguistic integration, basing on the consideration that language is the vehicle par excellence for a full socio-economic integration. We considered the command of the Italian language as a dependent variable adopting a model of binary logistic regression.

Spatial Integration at the Expense of Occupational Disadvantage: The Case of Latin Americans in Spain
Albert Sabater, Centre for Housing Research, University of St. Andrews; Andreu Domingo, Centre for Demographic Studies, Autonomous University of Barcelona; and Juan Galeano, , Centre for Demographic Studies, Autonomous University of Barcelona

Throughout the last decade, a third of the new inflows towards Europe were directed to Spain, thus making the most important destination of international migration in Europe. Immigration from Latin American countries was pivotal both in terms of its magnitude (representing 38.4 per cent of the total inflows until 2010) and gendered nature. The growing demand for care work is considered the main responsible of the feminization of migration flows from Latin America to Spain. Although this has prompted various examinations of occupational disadvantage, little is known about the connection between occupational and residential segregation. To address our main objective, we examine the relationship between occupational and residential segregation, thus giving further insight into the socio-spatial behaviour of Latin Americans over time and space in Spain. For this purpose, we employ the index of dissimilarity (D) as the standard measure to analyze the uneven distribution of members of two groups (native and Latin American) across a set of categories on both occupational and residential segregation. We use data from the Labor Force Survey and Local Census data for the period 2000-2010. Contrarily to the parsimony hypothesis (i.e. positive correlation), our findings suggest that occupational and residential segregation are generally negatively correlated (i.e. spatial integration at the expense of occupational disadvantage). Hence, while the level of residential segregation for Latin American is generally moderate, high levels of occupational segregation are found due to their over-representation in care work (mostly women) and construction (mostly men).  

Self-determination through self-employment? Livelihood strategies of immigrants and their partners in rural Sweden
Robert Macpherson, Department of Geography & Sustainable Development, University of St. Andrews; Svante Karlsson and Magnus Stromgren, Department of Geography & Economic History, Umea University

In many immigrant receiving countries, self-employment is considered a potentially beneficial pathway to the economic integration of new arrivals. But while the majority of studies have focused on metropolitan labour market regions, and particularly ethnic enclaves, other immigration literature has stressed the importance of understanding immigrant settlement away from traditional metropolitan gateways, such as smaller urban and rural areas. Furthermore, while broader literature on self-employment has stressed the importance of individual, family background, and intra-partner and household characteristics, significantly less is known about the role of inter-ethnic partnership. This study bridges these areas of research through an empirical case-study of Sweden using register data for individuals to address questions of: what extent, and where, do immigrants utilise self-employment as a livelihood strategy? Also, what degree do immigrant partner characteristics influence this pattern? Our findings suggest that immigrants in rural areas seek self-employment to a higher degree and that this is reinforced through having a native partner and the self-employment of their partners. This not only raises important issues concerning rural areas often associated with economic and population decline, but also the role of inter-ethnic contact and self-employment.  

Population change, mixed ethnicities and racism: Tuesday 10 September 4.45pm

'The pebble in the pond': Race equality and racism in Wales
Heaven Crawley, Centre for Migration Policy Research, Swansea University

According to the 2011 Census, the population of Wales now stands at 3.06 million and has increased by 5% in the last ten years. Migration (mostly from England) accounts for over 90% of this growth. The Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) population of Wales remains small but has nearly doubled over recent years, rising from 2.1% to 4.0% between 2001 and 2011, largely as a result of international migration. Although international migration to Wales is nothing new, there have been significant changes since 2001 associated with asylum dispersal, EU accession and the internationalisation of higher education. This paper, based on recent research undertaken for Race Council Cymru (2012), explores the experiences of BAME communities living in different areas of Wales. The research found evidence that people from BAME backgrounds do not feel that they are treated equally in education, housing and health services. Only 25% consider that there is race equality in employment with even lower proportions for those from Black African (20%), Chinese (20%), Indian (12%) and Bangladeshi (5%) backgrounds. Around half (47%) of those who participated in the research have experienced racism with much higher proportions among Pakistani (73%), Bangladeshi (70%) and Black African (60%) respondents. Much of this takes the form of ‘everyday racism’, that is to say, racism that occurs in daily life and is subtly reinforced by the response (or otherwise) of others. There is evidence that this racism is largely under-reported and has a significant impact on those form BAME backgrounds.  

Ethnic differences in household composition and housing: Evidence from the 2011 Census
Nissa Finney, University of Manchester (presented by Ludi Simpson, University of Manchester)

This presentation will review evidence from the 2011 Census about the housing circumstances of ethnic groups in England and Wales. The presentation will examine ethnic differences in household composition, tenure and overcrowding and will relate these to indicators of socio-economic circumstances (car ownership and central heating). The patterns will be examined nationally and for sub-national areas and changes since 2001 will be outlined. In conclusion, the results will be discussed in relation to debates about ethnic inequalities and housing provision.  

Mixed-Britain and Ethnicity: findings from the census
Darren P. Smith, Loughborough University

This paper will analyse GB census data to explore the emerging and changing geographies of mixed-ethnicity couples and families. The paper will frame the discussion within wider political rhetoric about the virtues of social mixing and so-called balanced communities. The paper will consider the salience of findings from other national contexts such as the possible links between social diversity, specific neighbourhood characteristics, and where and why concentrations of mixed-ehtnicity families prevail. The discussion will pose some important questions about the reasons for the presence and absence of mixed-ethnicity families from particular types of neighbourhood and location, using Area-level classifications.  

How well did we do in projecting ethnic group populations for local authorities in England? An investigation of errors in the ETHPOP projections
Philip Rees, University of Leeds; Pia Wohland, University of Newcastle; and Paul Norman, University of Leeds

In 2012 and 2013 the main outputs from the 2011 Census are being published. Publication of tables reporting the ethnicity of local authority populations by ethnicity provides a rare opportunity to evaluate a set of ethnic group projections for England local authorities completed in 2010-2011, one decade into a 50 year forecast horizon. We convert ethnic group, local authority and time definitions for the projections to match those of the 2011 Census. Our projection of England’s population is quite close but we over-project the White British group by 3%, the White Irish group by 25% and the Black African group by 27%. For all other ethnic groups we under-project their populations. For the Black population as a whole the under-projection is 12%, for the Asian population it is 8%, for the Mixed population 17% and for the Other (residual) groups it is 45%. Our projections thus under-estimate the speed at which the England population is diversifying. We also assess how well our projections did in comparison with inter-census change in terms of directions of change (growth, no change, decline) and in terms of changes in levels of segregation and diversity. In the paper we explore the local variation in census-projection errors and attempt to identify the estimation and assumption errors by component, in order to learn how to produce better projections using the 2011 Census for starting populations.  

Changing families and fertility: Wednesday 11 September 9.00am

The changing dynamics of migrant families: Findings from a qualitative longitudinal study
Nilufar Ahmed, Swansea University

This paper reports on findings from a qualitative longitudinal study. In 2001 one hundred first generation Bangladeshi women were randomly selected for interview from GP lists across Tower Hamlets. Ten years later, twenty respondents were again randomly selected from within this sample for follow up. Respondents arrived in the UK as part of the family reunification process, and have mostly been viewed simply as dependents of their spouses. There has been little exploration of the complexity of relationships they have within and outside the home and their role in renegotiating the family structure. This paper discusses the ways in which the family has undergone change since migration in terms of structure, roles and practices, reciprocal obligations and material circumstances. It analyses the changing structure of the family from the nuclearisation of the family in the early years after migration to the renewed extended structure that has developed as children grow older and marry and the way family roles have been reinterpreted to fit the UK context. It also analyses the greater affluence and upward mobility of the community as a result of family obligations and responsibilities. The findings caution against ethnographic studies which offer a snapshot of a community that can lead to them being reified in positions of disadvantage by providing an insight into a period of accelerated change over ten years which challenges the notion of a static and homogenous community resistant to change and integration.  

After Swedish Intermarriage
Ognjen Obucina, Demography Unit, Department of Sociology, Stockholm University

The researchers largely agree that interethnic marriages are an important indicator of social integration of immigrants into host societies. However, it has been frequently found in the previous literature (e.g. Kalmijn et al, 2005) that interethnic marriages are more likely to break up than mono-ethnic marriages. Sweden is no exception to this pattern (Dribe and Lundh, 2012), while the UK might be (Feng et al., 2012). The main question in this paper is how the experience of having been in a mixed-nativity union affects the subsequent marital and cohabitational trajectories in Sweden. The data used in the paper are derived from the Swedish population registers and cover the period from the 1990 until 2007. In this paper, the cohabitants with at least one common child are treated the same as the married couples, whereas the second-generation immigrants are not included into the analysis. The multivariate analysis is based on event history models of competing risks or, more precisely, discrete-time multinomial logistic regression. Even though the descriptive statistics suggests that many of those who experience a divorce of intermarriage do make a different choice the second time around (this is most obvious among native women and immigrant men), the multivariate analysis shows that, for both natives and immigrants, there is a strong and positive association between having been in an intermarriage and forming another intermarriage following the divorce, when a comparison is made with persons who were previously in a same nativity marriage  

Intergenerational fertility changes, minority status and social mobility of ethnic minorities in the UK
Sylvie Dubuc, University of Oxford

This paper gives an overview of fertility for immigrant and second generation women in the UK, by ethnic groupings using the LFS-OCM method (with cross-sectional and pseudo-cohort comparisons). Results reveal intergenerational fertility transitions that strongly contribute to the fertility convergence between ethnic groups and indicating degrees of intergenerational adaptation to the UK mainstream childbearing behaviour, although ethnic differences remain. The analysis of fertility by educational attainment of women reveals consistent educational association with fertility patterns across immigrant and ethnic groups. Results provide evidence for educational/structural factors to largely contribute to ethnic fertility differentials and intergenerational changes. Departure from the classical assimilation theory for some well-established minority groups is discussed in the second part of the paper.  

Pathways out of the parental home among young second generation migrants in the UK
Ann Berrington and Peter Tames, ESRC Centre for Population Change, University of Southampton

This paper fills a gap in our knowledge and understanding by focusing on pathways out of the parental home for second generation migrants in the UK. Migrants from the Caribbean, India, Pakistan and Bangladesh who arrived in the UK during the 1960s, 70s and 80s produced a second generation now in their twenties and thirties. Given the greater levels of education and labour market participation of the South Asian second generation, we expect to see a delay in family formation to later ages and more diverse routes out of the parental home, more consistent with the white population. The first generation of Caribbean migrants tended to have more “modern” family situations with a large proportion living without a partner, many as lone parents. We examine whether this continues to be relevant for the contemporary second generation. We argue that adherence to traditional family formation patterns will be greater amongst those second generation young adults who identify more strongly with their parents’ ethnicity. We test this explicitly within our analytical framework which includes two indicators identifying the extent to which young adults’ identify themselves with their parental ethnic group and the importance they put on “being British”.  

National identity and belonging: Wednesday 11 September 11.00am

Researching residential segregation in Northern Ireland: Interpreting the question on ‘national identity’ in the 2011 Census of Population
Ian Shuttleworth, Queen’s University Belfast; and Christopher D. Lloyd, University of Liverpool

Social and political research on Northern Ireland has commonly used religion or religion brought up in as a proxy for national or cultural identity. The conflict has historically been understood in terms of two communities – Protestant and Catholic – which equate respectively to British/Unionist and Irish Nationalist identities. This interpretation is shared by academics, policymakers and politicians and is deeply rooted. Studies of residential segregation have also followed in this tradition with a focus on the spatial distributions of Catholics and Protestants. However, the newly-available national identity question in the 2011 Census is an alternative and possibly more direct measure of political and cultural identity. Initial findings have drawn attention to the ‘Northern Irish’ who form a large minority of the population. The presentation mainly, though not exclusively, focusses on this group by trying to answer questions about who the Northern Irish are, understanding how the relationship between religious affiliation and national identity varies spatially, and working through the implications of recasting the analysis of residential segregation in Northern Ireland from a two-group to a three-group problem. One major conclusion is that the social and political interpretation of residential segregation is, as ever, more complicated than would initially appear.  

Belonging and not belonging: The experience of return migration for the second generation Irish from Britain
Sara Hannafin, National University of Ireland, Galway

The enduring connections between the children of migrants and their parental homelands are growing areas of research interest (see Levitt and Waters, 2006; Christou, 2006; Wessendorf, 2007) suggesting that the parental home place frequently remains meaningful and significant to next generations. This paper is based on research into the migration to Ireland of the adult children of the Irish in Britain and the extent to which this return to a perceived homeland generates conflicting feelings of belonging and not belonging. A qualitative methodology was employed to investigate this relatively invisible migration flow which was more likely to have been motivated by emotional than economic factors. Through in-depth interviews combined with written commentary, participants were asked to focus on their experience of growing up in Britain with a sense of connection to Ireland, their decision to move and their experiences since the move. Individuals have described how a physical engagement with specific places in Ireland during regular childhood holidays, along with cultural activities in Britain, frequently promoted an emotional attachment to place. Many have described a ‘reverence’ for the physical place of Ireland and exhibit a great deal of insider knowledge however this is complicated, for some, by a sense of disconnect from the people and an acceptance that their claims to an Irish identity are frequently misunderstood. My aim is to explore this complex relationship with place in order to contribute to an understanding of the significance of place to identity in terms of how these migrants negotiate feelings of belonging/not belonging.  

Who feels British? The relationship between ethnicity, religion and national identity.
Stephen Jivraj, Bridget Byrne, James Nazroo, Centre on Dynamics of Ethnicity, University of Manchester

The Coalition government has set out an approach to create an integrated society in England, in part, through strengthening national identity. What national identity the government seeks its citizens to feel is unclear, however, it is clear that those with minority affiliation are the main target of the policy. According to early results from the Understanding Society survey, Britishness has shown to be felt more strongly by ethnic minorities than the White British majority. This is true of UK and non-UK born minorities. Therefore, forcing minority groups to accept British identity is inconsistent, not least because many of the problematised groups (e.g. Muslims) are willing to accept the idea of shared values that politicians ask of them whereas the least problematised groups (e.g. White British, American, Australian and Western Europeans) are not. This paper seeks to compare the sense of national identity by ethnic group using data available for the first time in the census in 2011. We show how certain ethnic groups are more likely to feel a form of British national identity. However, English (Welsh in Wales) only national identity is felt by more people than any other form of British national identity, especially among the majority White British. We also find differences in national identity by religious affiliation and age. This demonstrates the confusion that surrounds national identity in the UK and suggests that policy makers should be careful when advocating identities that the majority of the population do not appear to experience.  

Ethnicity, nationality and identity in the UK: the development of a comparative acculturation framework
Alita Nandi, University of Essex; Lucinda Platt, Institute of Education, University of London

There has been extensive public debate on the potential exclusiveness of ethnic identities. However, the psychological and sociological research literature has demonstrated that dual identities can be successfully maintained. Moreover, particularly in the context of devolution within the UK, there are claims that we are seeing a shift within the 'majority' population towards country-specific national identities, raising questions about what a 'majority' identity actually means. In this paper we present new analysis of Understanding Society: the UK Household Longitudinal Study, which addresses the following questions: what are the patterns of identification with British and minority identities across minority ethnic groups? Do stronger identities in one domain lead to weaker or strong identities in another domain? Which group or groups are least likely to maintain strong ethno-national identities? To address these questions we employ an adaptation of Berry's acculturation framework to estimate the factors associated with dual, single and weak identities across both majority (exploring British, UK country identity, both or neither) and minorities (exploring British, minority identity, both or neither). Results from multinomial logistic regression models indicate that there are variations in identity acculturation across minority groups and by generation. We also find that identities are interconnected, but in varying ways. For example, stronger political adherence is linked to higher chances of a dual identity compared to a minority identity for minorities, but to a reduced chance of a dual identity compared to a single country identity for the majority. We conclude with some broader implications of our results.