Hertog, Steffen

Dr Steffen Hertog  


Position held

Associate Professor


Experience keywords:

Gulf politics; Middle East politics; comparative politics of the developing world; political economy; terrorism

Research summary > [Click to expand]

Steffen Hertog has been researching the comparative political economy of the Gulf and Middle East for more than a decade, working with a number of local and international institutions. His expertise includes labour market regulation, support policies for small and medium enterprises, reform of public companies as well as regional development. His book about the politics of the Saudi bureaucracy, "Princes, Brokers and Bureaucrats: Oil and State in Saudi Arabia", based on two years of field research in the Saudi kingdom, has been published by Cornell University Press in 2010. He has a subsidiary research interest in political violence and is currently finishing a book manuscript, co-authored with Diego Gambetta, about why there are so many engineers among Islamic radicals worldwide.

Sectors and industries to which research relates:

Banking; Energy; Environment; Financial Services; Policy and Regulatory Bodies; Public Administration

Countries and regions to which research relates:

Gulf monarchies; Middle East; Saudi Arabia


Arabic [Spoken: Basic, Written: Intermediate]; French [Spoken: Intermediate, Written: Intermediate]; German [Spoken: Fluent, Written: Fluent]

Media experience:

Has written for mainstream press; Radio; TV

Contact Points

LSE phone number:

+44 (0)20 7955 7196

LSE email:




Hertog, Steffen (2017) A quest for significance: Gulf oil monarchies' international 'soft power' strategies and their local urban dimensions LSE Kuwait Programme Paper Series, The London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Kuwait Programme, London, UK.

Rode, Philipp and Gomes, Alexandra and Adeel, Muhammad and Sajjad, Fizzah and McArthur, Jenny and Alshalfan, Sharifa and Schwinger, Peter and Tunas, Devisari and Lange, Christiane and Montagne, Clemence and Hertog, Steffen and Koch, Andreas and Murshed, Syed Monjur and Wendel, Jochen and Duval, Alice (2017) Resource urbanisms: Asia’s divergent city models of Kuwait, Abu Dhabi, Singapore and Hong Kong LSE Cities, London, UK.


Hertog, Steffen (2016) Challenges to the Saudi distributional state in the age of austerity. In: Saudi Arabia: Domestic, Regional and International Challenges, 12 - 13 December 2016, Singapore

Bishara, Fahad Ahmad and Haykel, Bernard and Hertog, Steffen and Holes, Clive and Onley, James (2016) The economic transformation of the Gulf In: Peterson, J. E., (ed.) The Emergence of the Gulf States: Studies in Modern History. Bloomsbury Publishing, London, UK. ISBN 9781472587626

Hertog, Steffen (2016) The oil-driven nation-building of the Gulf states after World War II In: Peterson, J. E., (ed.) The Emergence of the Gulf States: Studies in Modern History. Bloomsbury Academic, London, UK, 323-352. ISBN 9781472587619

Hertog, Steffen (2016) Late populism: state distributional regimes and economic conflict after the Arab uprisings Project on Middle East Political Science (1 January 2016) other

Hertog, Steffen (2016) The political economy of labour markets and migration in the Gulf: workshop proceedings Sleiman-Haidar, Ribale, ed The London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Kuwait Programme, London, UK.

Hertog, Steffen (2016) Rent distribution, labour markets and development in high rent countries LSE Kuwait Programme Paper Series, The London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Kuwait Programme, London, UK.

Gambetta, Diego and Hertog, Steffen (2016) Engineers of jihad: the curious connection between violent extremism and education Princeton University Press, Princeton, UK. ISBN 9780691145174


Hertog, Steffen (2015) The political economy of regional development in post-World War II Saudi Arabia In: Haykel, Bernard and Hegghammer, Thomas and Lacroix, Stéphane, (eds.) Saudi Arabia in Transition: Insights on Social, Political, Economic and Religious Change. Cambridge University Press, New York, USA, 97-124. ISBN 9780521185097

Hertog, Steffen (2015) Back to the 70s? Saudi youth and the Kingdom’s political economy after the Arab uprisings In: Selvik, Kjetil and Utvik, Bjørn Olav, (eds.) Oil States in the New Middle East: Uprisings and Stability. Routledge studies in Middle Eastern democratization and government. Routledge, Abingdon, UK, 70-92. ISBN 9781138888340


Hertog, Steffen (2014) Arab Gulf states: an assessment of nationalisation policies GLMM Research Paper, Gulf Labour Markets and Migration Programme, Badia Fiesolana, Italy.

Hertog, Steffen (2014) State and private sector in the GCC after the Arab uprisings Journal of Arabian Studies, 3 (2). 174-195. ISSN 2153-4764


Hertog, Steffen (2013) Saudi Aramco as a national development agent: recent shifts Policy brief: August 2013, Norwegian Peacebuilding Resource Centre (NOREF), Oslo, Norway.

Hertog, Steffen (2013) Introduction: the role of MENA business in policy-making and political transitions In: Hertog, Steffen and Luciani, Giacomo and Valeri, Marc, (eds.) Business Politics in the Middle East. Hurst, London, UK, 1-16. ISBN 9781849042352

Amico, Alissa and Hertog, Steffen (2013) State-owned enterprises in the Middle East and North Africa: engines of development and competitiveness? OECD, (corp. ed.) OECD, Paris, France. ISBN 9789264202962

Hertog, Steffen (2013) The private sector and reform in the Gulf Cooperation Council Research papers, LSE Kuwait Programme, London, UK.

Hertog, Steffen and Luciani, Giacomo and Valeri, Marc, eds (2013) Business politics in the Middle East Hurst, London, UK. ISBN 9781849042352


Hertog, Steffen (2012) A comparative assessment of labor market nationalization policies in the GCC In: Hertog, Steffen, (ed.) National Employment, Migration and Education in the Gcc. The Gulf Region: economic development and diversification, 4. Gerlach Press, Berlin, Germany. ISBN 9783940924001

Hertog, Steffen (2012) Good, bad or both?: the impact of oil on the Saudi political economy In: Kamrava, Mehran, (ed.) The Political Economy of the Persian Gulf. Hurst, London, UK, 221-250. ISBN 9781849042093

Hertog, Steffen (2012) How the GCC did it: formal and informal governance of successful public enterprise in the Gulf Co-operation Council countries In: Amico, Alissa, (ed.) Towards New Arrangements for State Ownership in the Middle East and North Africa. OECD, London, UK, 71-92. ISBN 9789264110908

Hertog, Steffen, ed (2012) National employment, migration and education in the GCC The Gulf Region: economic development and diversification, 4. Gerlach Press, Berlin, Germany. ISBN 9783940924001

Hertog, Steffen and Hodson, Nathan (2012) Economic policy in the ESCWA region and its impact on employment ECWA working paper, ECWA, New York, USA.


Hertog, Steffen (2011) The costs of counter-revolution in the GCC The Middle East Channel (31 May 2011) Blog entry

Hertog, Steffen (2011) The evolution of rent recycling during two booms in the Gulf: business dynamism and societal stagnation In: Legrenzi, Matteo and Momani, Bessma, (eds.) Shifting Geo-Economic Power of the Gulf: Oil, Finance and Institutions. The international political economy of new regionalisms series. Ashgate, Farnham, UK, 55-74. ISBN 9781409426707

Hertog, Steffen (2011) Rentier militaries in the Gulf states: the price of coup-proofing International Journal of Middle East Studies, 43 (3). 400-402. ISSN 0020-7438

Hertog, Steffen (2011) Princes, brokers and bureaucrats: oil and the state in Saudi Arabia Cornell University Press, Ithaca. ISBN 9780801477515


Hertog, Steffen (2010) Lean and mean: the new breed of state-owned enterprises in the Gulf monarchies In: Seznec, Jean-Francois and Kirk, Mimi, (eds.) Industrialization in the Gulf: a Socioeconomic Revolution. Routledge Studies in Middle Eastern Economies. Routledge, London, UK. ISBN 9780415780353

Hertog, Steffen (2010) Defying the resource curse: explaining successful state-owned enterprises in rentier states World Politics, 62 (2). 261-301. ISSN 0043-8871

Hertog, Steffen (2010) The sociology of the Gulf rentier systems: societies of intermediaries Comparative Studies in Society and History, 52 (2). 282-318. ISSN 0010-4175

Hertog, Steffen (2010) Benchmarking SME policies in the GCC: a survey of challenges and opportunities Eurochambres, Brussels, Belgium.


Hertog, Steffen and Gambetta, Diego (2009) Tinker, tailor, engineer, jihadi: can university subjects reveal terrorists in the making New Scientist, 202 (2712). 26-27. ISSN 0262-4079

Hertog, Steffen (2009) A rentier social contract: the Saudi political economy since 1979 In: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 1979-2009: Evolution of a Pivotal State. Middle East Institute, Washington DC, USA.

Hertog, Steffen (2009) Saudi Arabia’s political demobilization in regional comparison: monarchical tortoise and republican hares In: Guazzone, Laura and Pioppi, Daniela, (eds.) The Arab State and Neo-Liberal Globalization: the Restructuring of State Power in the Middle East. Ithaca Press, London, UK. ISBN 9780863723391

Gambetta, Diego and Hertog, Steffen (2009) Why are there so many engineers among Islamic radicals? European Journal of Sociology, 50 (2). 201-230. ISSN 0003-9756

Hertog, Steffen (2009) The GCC economies and the crash: short-term weaknesses, long-term strengths Perspectives, Middle East Institute, National University of Singapore. ISBN 9789810829148

Hertog, Steffen and Luciani, Giacomo (2009) Energy and sustainability policies in the GCC Kuwait Programme on Development, Governance and Globalisation in the Gulf States, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK.

Hertog, Steffen and Luciani, Giacomo (2009) Energy and sustainability policies in the GCC Research papers, Centre for the Study of Global Governance, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK.


Hertog, Steffen (2008) Petromin: the slow death of statist oil development in Saudi Arabia Business History, 50 (5). 645-667. ISSN 0007-6791

Hertog, Steffen (2008) Two-level negotiations in a fragmented system: Saudi Arabia's WTO accession Review of International Political Economy, 15 (4). 650-679. ISSN 0969-2290


Hertog, Steffen (2007) Renewing an old geo-economic axis: Asia and the GCC Gulf Research Center, Dubai, UAE.

Hertog, Steffen (2007) The GCC and Arab economic integration: a new paradigm Middle East Policy, 14 (1). 52-68. ISSN 1061-1924

Hertog, Steffen (2007) Shaping the Saudi state: human agency’s shifting role in rentier-state formation International Journal of Middle East Studies, 39 (04). 539-563. ISSN 0020-7438

Hertog, Steffen (2007) EU-GCC relations in the era of the second oil boom EU and the Middle East, Centrum für angewandte Politikforschung, Munich, Germany.


Hertog, Steffen (2006) Perspectives of economic integration in the Arab countries Committee on Foreign Affairs, European Parliament, Brussels, Belgium.

Hertog, Steffen (2006) Segmented clientelism: the political economy of Saudi economic reform efforts In: Aarts, Paul and Nonneman, Gerd, (eds.) Saudi Arabia in the Balance Political Economy, Society, Foreign Affairs. NYU Press, New York, USA. ISBN 9780814707173

Hertog, Steffen (2006) The new corporatism in Saudi Arabia: limits of formal politics In: Khalaf, Abdulhadi and Luciani, Giacomo, (eds.) Constitutional Reform and Political Participation in the Gulf. Gulf Research Center, Dubai, UAE, 239-273. ISBN 9948432533

Hertog, Steffen (2006) The oil-foreign policy nexus: a response to Simon Bromley St Antony's International Review, 2 (1). 71-74. ISSN 1746-451X

Hertog, Steffen (2006) Modernizing without democratizing? The introduction of formal politics in Saudi Arabia Internationale Politik und Gesellschaft (3). 65-78. ISSN 0945-2419


Hertog, Steffen (2005) Building the body politic: the emerging corporatism in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf Chroniques du Yémen et de la Péninsule Arabe, 2004 (12). ISSN 1248-0568

LSE Research Online|

Collection of LSE research outputs

LSE Consulting|

Service providing unique access
to LSE's expertise

Create or update your
online profile

[access restricted to staff]

Research highlights|

Short articles about LSE research