Professor Bridget Hutter

Professor of Risk Regulation

Centre for Analysis of Risk and Regulation
London School of Economics and Political Science
Houghton Street
London
WC2A 2AE
United Kingdom

Tel: 020 7955 7287
Fax: 020 7955 6578
Email: b.m.hutter@lse.ac.uk|

Research interests

  • Risk regulation policy-making and enforcement
  • Business responses to regulation
  • Risk-based regulation
  • Anticipating risks
  • Domain interests: environmental regulation; food safety and hygiene; financial regulation; occupational health and safety

Selected publications 

Books

Hutter, B.M. (2010) Anticipating Risks and Organizing Risk Regulation| (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Hutter, B.M. (2001) Regulation and Risk: Occupational Health and Safety on the Railways| (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Hutter, B.M. (1997) Compliance: Regulation and Environment| (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

Hutter, B.M. (1988) The Reasonable Arm of the Law?: The Law Enforcement Procedures of Environmental Health Officers| (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

Edited Books & Journals

Hutter, Bridget M. (ed) (2008) Special Issue of Health, Risk and Society on 'Risk Regulation and Health|' 10(1).

Hutter, B.M. & Power, M.K. (eds) (2005) Organizational Encounters with Risk| (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Hutter, B.M. (1999) Socio-Legal Reader in Environmental Law| (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

Articles and Chapters in Books (since 2000)

Hutter, Bridget M. (2009) 'The Role of Risk Regulation in Mitigating Natural Disasters|' in Learning from Catastrophes: Strategies for Reaction and Response, Wharton School Publishing.

Hutter, B.M. and Lloyd-Bostock, S. (2008) 'Reforming Regulation of the Medical Profession: The Risks of Risk-Based Approaches|' Health, Risk and Society 10(1): 69-83.

Hutter, Bridget M.; Jones, C. (2007) 'From Government to Governance: External Influences on Business Risk Management|' International Journal of Regulation and Governance 1(1): 27-45.

Hutter, Bridget M. (2006) 'Risk Regulation and Management|' in Risk in Social Science, edited by Taylor-Gooby, P. and Zinn, J. Oxford University Press pp. 202-277.

Hutter, Bridget M. (2006) 'The Role of Non-State Actors in Regulation' in Global Governance and the Role of Non-State Actors, edited by Schuppert, F. Nomos, pp. 63-79.

Hutter, B.M. (2005) 'Ways of Seeing: Understandings of Risk in Organizational Settings|' in Hutter and Power.

Hutter, B.M. & Power, M.K. (2005) 'Organizational Encounters with Risk: An Introduction|' in Hutter and Power.

Hutter, B.M. (2004) 'Risk Management and Governance|' in Eliadis, P, Hill, MM and Howlett, M (eds.) Designing Government: From Instruments to Governance, Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.

Hutter, B.M. and O'Mahony, J. (2003) 'NGOs, Democratization and the Regulatory State: Concluding Remarks' in European Policy Forum, ESRC Future of Governance, CARR and European Economic and Social Committee NGOs, Democratization and the Regulatory State, London: European Policy Forum.

Hutter, B.M. (2001) 'Is Enforced Self-Regulation a Form of Risk Taking?: The Case of Railway Health and Safety' International Journal of the Sociology of Law 29: 379-400.

Hutter, B.M. and Power, M. (2000) 'Risk Management and Business Regulation' in J. Pickford, Mastering Risk 1 (Pearson).

Hutter, B.M. with N. Dodd (2000) 'Geopolitics and the Regulation of Economic Life|' Law & Policy 22(1) 1-24.

Reports and discussion papers (since 2000)

Hutter, B.M contributed to the Pennington Inquiry| report on the Welsh E.coli outbreak which took the life of one five year old and made around 150 others ill. The Inquiry commissioned Professor Hutter and Dr Tola Amodu (former CARR graduate) to prepare a report on Risk Regulation and Compliance: Food Safety in the UK|. This report| is now available on the Welsh government website and it draws on Professor Hutter's earlier research| on food safety and hygiene.

Hutter, B.M. and Jones, C.J. (2006) 'Business Risk Management Practices: The Influence of State Regulatory Agencies and Non-State Sources|' CARR Discussion Paper 41.

Hutter, B.M. (2006) 'The Role of Non-State Actors in Regulation|' CARR Discussion Paper 37.

Hutter, B.M. (2005) 'The Attractions of Risk-based Regulation: Accounting for the Emergence of Risk Ideas in Regulation|' CARR Discussion Paper 33.

Hutter, B.M. and O'Mahony, J. (2004) 'The Role of Civil Society Organizations in Regulating Business|' CARR Discussion Paper 26.

Baldwin, R., Hutter, B., and Rothstein, H. (2000) 'Regulation, Management and Compliance|', A Report to the Bristol Royal Infirmary Inquiry.
 

Projects 

Regulatory compliance and regulatory enforcement
Professor Bridget Hutter (CARR Director and Professor of Risk Regulation)
Project duration: Since 2001
Funding: Michael Peacock Charitable Foundation 2000-05; LSE 2005-10
Co-Reach funding to study Europe and China 2009-11

Project's aims and objectives:
To consider the meaning of compliance in regulatory settings and most particularly with respect to the enforcement of state regulations. A particular focus has been to consider these issues in light of changing trends in risk regulation, for example in regimes of enforced self-regulation and also in the new regulatory governance where greater emphasis has been placed upon the constitutive aspects of regulation and notions of the 'responsible company' as a central and active player in regulatory space. The project has examined what this means for business organizations, in particular how well understood the changes are and how well equipped businesses are to manage these changes. The importance of empirical data in assessing policy changes and developing theory is a strong theme in this project. A recent and developing aspect of this ambition is to consider the relevance of existing findings about regulatory law enforcement and compliance, which are largely based on OECD countries, in the context of China.

Project's findings:
These papers argue that compliance is a complex negotiated concept. It is the practical resolution of the tensions between risk and mainstream economic activities which results in an approach to compliance which is complex, flexible and dynamic.

We need to recognize the situated character of compliance and that varying perceptions of risk influence its definition, assessment, and achievement. Important here has been a changing context of regulation. Over the past three decades there has been a move from paternalistic notions of regulation to more democratic ones that place greater emphasis upon the constitutive aspects of regulation and involve the state placing greater regulatory responsibilities on business.

These studies find that there are considerable variations in the ability of business organizations to manage their own risks. In some cases this is a matter of motivation and willingness, in others a matter of ignorance and in some cases negligence.

The importance of state regulation is underlined as an overseer of self regulation and also as a source of information and education for small businesses. But there are important advantages to placing responsibilities on business organizations to take responsibility for the risks they generate, for example in influencing the constitutive dimensions of organizational risk management.

Project's dissemination:
Co-Reach funded collaborative project on 'Comparative Research on Regulatory Law Enforcement in China and the EU' 2009-11.

Hutter, BM (forthcoming) 'Negotiating Social, Economic and Political Environments: Compliance with Regulation Within and Beyond the State' in Nielsen and Parker (eds.) Explaining Compliance Edward Elgar, presently drafting.

Hutter, B.M. (forthcoming, 2010) 'Visualizations of Risk and Governance: Some Observations on Changing Roles and Relationships' in Chan, R. et al (eds) Risk and Social Policy in Changing Asian Societies, Ashgate.

Hutter, B.M. (forthcoming, 2010) 'Surveying Empirical Legal Studies Research - Occupational Health and Safety' in Cane, P. and Kritzer (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Empirical Legal Studies, Oxford University Press.

An official invitee of the Shanghai Forum 2010, which was held at Fudan University on May 29-31. Gave a presentation on 'Regulatory Governance: Prospects in a Changing World'.

Presented a paper on 'The New Governance, Risk Regulation and The Business Organization' at workshop on 'New Governance and the Business Organization' at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 25-27 May.

Hutter, B.M. (2001) 'Is Enforced Self-Regulation a Form of Risk Taking?: The Case of Railway Health and Safety' International Journal of the Sociology of Law 29: 379-400.

Risk regulation beyond the state
Professor Bridget Hutter (CARR Director and Professor of Risk Regulation)
Project duration: 2004-08
Funding: LSE

Project's aims and objectives:
An ongoing project has been consideration of regulation beyond the state. There is growing recognition that regulation is not the exclusive domain of the state and the regulatory capacities of non-governmental actors are increasingly recognized and on occasions formally co-opted by the state.

This project examines the ways in which a variety of economic and civil society actors contribute to the information gathering, standard setting and behaviour modification aspects of regulatory control. Particular attention has been paid to the international aspects of this contribution and the limitations and advantages of different forms of non-state regulation.

The early work has been analytic and subsequent work more empirically based. An important dimension of this work has been joint work with Joan O'Mahony focusing on civil society and particular non-governmental organizations. The later empirical work formed part of Hutter's Business Risk Management project.

Project's findings:
The role of non-state regulatory activity is necessarily mixed. It can help in many respects in the information gathering standard setting and behaviour modification aspects of regulation but there are also serious limitations and variations. Non-state actors vary enormously in their focus and organization so we need to exercise caution in treating them as if they represent a homogeneous grouping.

They have had a variable track record in occupying regulatory space and in achieving regulatory change. Data from the empirical research indicates that the move from government to governance is partially understood by those in business. They also point to the enduring importance of state regulatory systems in business risk management decisions.

The state remains a key influence but not an exclusive influence, necessary but insufficient. This research thus adds to the growing body of work which calls for a mix of regulation sources. The mix may be a formalized one, for example enforced self-regulation. Alternatively, there may be a more loosely coupled arrangement where the state relies on organizations beyond the state to manage risks or where there are multiple influences acting independently of one another.

Project's dissemination:
Hutter, Bridget M. and Jones, C. (2007) 'From Government to Governance: External Influences on Business Risk Management' International Journal of Regulation and Governance 1(1): 27-45.

Hutter, Bridget M. (2006) 'The Role of Non-State Actors in Regulation' in Global Governance and the Role of Non State Actors, edited by Schuppert, F. Nomos, 2006, pp. 63-79.

Hutter, B.M. and O'Mahony, J. (2003) 'NGOs, Democratization and the Regulatory State: Concluding Remarks' in European Policy Forum, ESRC Future of Governance, CARR and European Economic and Social Committee NGOs, Democratization and the Regulatory State, London: European Policy Forum.

Hutter, B.M. and Jones, C.J. (2006) 'Business Risk Management Practices: The Influence of State Regulatory Agencies and Non-State Sources|' CARR Discussion Paper 41.

Hutter, B.M. (2006) 'The Role of Non-State Actors in Regulation|' CARR Discussion Paper 37.

Hutter, B.M. (2005) 'Afterword' in Castillo, J et al. 'Governance and NGOs of the Future', European Policy Forum Paper.

Hutter, B.M. and O'Mahony, J. (2004) 'The Role of Civil Society Organizations in Regulating Business|' CARR Discussion Paper 26.

The European Policy Forum and the European Economic and Social Committee; European Economic and Social Committee, co-organization and speaker at a workshop on 'Governance and NGOs of the Future', Brussels, January 2005.

Conference on 'Global Governance and the Role of Non-State Actors' in association with the Social Science Center, Berlin (WZB) and the Alfred Herrhausen Society for International Dialogue, Frankfurt LSE, November 2004.

Risk Regulation, the environment and natural disasters
Professor Bridget Hutter (CARR Director and Professor of Risk Regulation)
Project duration: Since 2008
Funding: World Economic Forum

Project's aims and objectives:
This project is in its preliminary stages and has been developed largely in tandem with the World Economic Forum Global Agenda Setting Councils. The project aims to develop work on risk regulation with respect to natural disasters, particularly how state, transnational and public-private co-operation might help to mitigate through building and planning regulations and also mitigate the inequalities associated with natural disasters.

A related consideration has been examination of the role of risk regulation in reducing harmful emissions and mitigating the risks associated with climate change. In both cases there are various generic forms of risk regulation which can prove useful in reducing the damage which may be caused by environmental pollution and also natural disasters.

This project identifies key points from the existing literature and considers how our knowledge of risk regulation and manufactured risk might be developed internationally with respect to the environment.

Project's findings:
Using risk regulation in the mitigation of natural and other disasters such as climate change, can potentially contribute significantly to reducing the risks associated with these disasters. But these measures need to be used strategically.

Absolutely crucial in deciding optimal policy options are the quality and accuracy of the information available about the levels and especially the location of risks. Working locally to enhance sustainability and resilience is important in all areas vulnerable to extreme events. Where levels of certainly are high then more detailed risk regulation measures and planning are also possible.

The effectiveness of such measures is highly dependent on the local context within which these policies need to be implemented. There is no doubt that a strong central government mandate is important but there has to be local government support and beyond this local business and civil society awareness of the risks and support and willingness of regulatory efforts. Western experience suggests that a mix of regulatory tools and regulatory sources works best.

One important research area is to consider how well these tools might travel to non Western countries. Ultimately, however, there must be transnational co-operative effort to combat global risks. And this must take account of global and regional inequalities and provide for global information sharing and research and development.

Project's dissemination:
Invited presentation on 'Policy Responses to Climate Change: the Role of Risk Regulation in Mitigating Adverse Effects' Shanghai Forum, Fudan University, 11-12 May 2009.

Hutter, B.M. (2009) 'The Role of Regulation in Mitigating the Risks of Natural Disasters' in Kunreuther, H and Useem, M (eds) Learning from Catastrophes: Strategies for Reaction and Response, Wharton School Publishing.

19-22 November 2009 took part in the World Economic Forum Summit on the Global Agenda 2009 in Dubai, as part of the Global Agenda Setting Council on Catastrophic Risks.

World Economic Forum (WEF) Council on Mitigation of Natural Disasters.

WEF workshops on Global Risks July 2008, 2005.

Business Risk Management: Managing Risks and Responding to Regulation
Professor Bridget Hutter (CARR Director and Professor of Risk Regulation)

This project focuses on these important issues by examining the influence exercised by different government and non-government regulatory sources over business risk management. In particular, it draws on a detailed analysis of the risk management practices of food retail and hospitality businesses in the UK. The project's objectives are:

  • To investigate how business risk management practices may influence and be influenced by various sources of regulation. This includes those external to the business (for example, state regulators; the law; trade associations; shareholders; consultants; civil society organizations; insurance companies and consumers) and those internal to businesses (for example, Board directives, risk officers, union/employee representation and professional groups).
  • To examine how businesses manage risks, for example, the tools and techniques, knowledge and expertise employed to manage risk within the organization.
  • To analyze the institutional and policy changes resulting from external/internal influences and impact (if any) on the everyday practice of business organizations and the individuals working within them. This involves consideration of the pressures of compliance and non-compliance at each of these levels and how these relate to understandings of risk and uncertainty.

Project's outputs:
Hutter, B.M contributed to the Pennington Inquiry| report on the Welsh E.coli outbreak which took the life of one five year old and made around 150 others ill. The Inquiry commissioned Professor Hutter and Dr Tola Amodu (former CARR graduate) to prepare a report on Risk Regulation and Compliance: Food Safety in the UK|. This report| is now available on the Welsh government website and it draws on Professor Hutter's earlier research| on food safety and hygiene.

Hutter, Bridget M. and Jones, C. (2007) 'From Government to Governance: External Influences on Business Risk Management|' International Journal of Regulation and Governance (2007) 1(1): 27-45.

Hutter, B.M. and Jones, C. (2006) 'Business Risk Management Practices: The Influence of State Regulatory Agencies and Non-State Sources|' CARR Discussion Paper 41.

Hutter, B.M. and Jones, C. (2006) 'Managing Risks: Who Influences Businesses?' Environmental Health Scotland 18(2): 4-9.

A monograph Business Risk Management: Managing Risks and Responding to Regulation in the Food Industry is currently being drafted.

Hutter, B.M. (2006) 'Managing Risks: Influence and Variation in the Food Industry' Cullen Centre for Risk & Governance, Glasgow, May 2006.

Hutter, B.M. and Jones, C. (2006) 'From Government to Governance: External Influences on Business Risk Management' LSA Annual Meeting, Baltimore, July 2006.

Hutter, B.M. (2006) 'Who Regulates Beyond the State?'. Politics Department and Centre for Regulatory Governance University of Exeter, November 2006.

Risk-based regulation
Professor Bridget Hutter (CARR Director and Professor of Risk Regulation)

Risk-based approaches to regulation have gained in popularity over the past 20 years. In the UK the Hampton Review (2005), commissioned by HM Treasury, placed risk based regulation at the centre of its recommendations for improving regulatory inspection and enforcement. It recommended 'entrenching the principle of risk assessment throughout the regulatory system, so that the burden of enforcement falls most on highest-risk businesses, and least on those with the best records of compliance' (2005: 8). The Report's recommendations on risk based regulation were fully endorsed by the Government and UK regulators were directed to adopt this approach (HMT, 2006).

This project explores the various meanings attaching to the term risk-based regulation. It is cautious about claiming universality and examines variations in the take up of risk based approaches according to domain and country. The advantages and limitations of the approach have been examined.

Project's outputs:
Lloyd-Bostock, S. and Hutter, B.M. (2008) 'Reforming Regulation of the Medical Profession: The Risks of Risk-Based Approaches|' Health, Risk and Society 10(1): 69-83.

Hutter, B.M. (2005) 'The Attractions of Risk-based Regulation: Accounting for the Emergence of Risk Ideas in Regulation|' CARR Discussion Paper 33

Hutter, B.M. (2004) 'Risk Management and Governance|' in Eliadis, P, Hill, MM and Howlett, M (eds.) Designing Government: From Instruments to Governance, Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.

Keynote address on 'Risk Management and Governance' at the Joint NPIA, ACPO and Home Office Research Conference on 'Managing Risk To Improve Policing' in Birmingham, October 18, 2007.

Presentation on 'What is Risk Based Regulation?' to FOCA/EPFL workshop 'Risk-Based Regulation and Certification: Implications for the Aviation Sector', Magglingen, Switzerland, November 2006.

Break Out Sessions on 'Risk, Risk Assessment and Risk-based Regulation' organized, introduced and run by Professor Bridget Hutter. 'Better Regulation: The New Agenda - A Conference for Independent Regulators' organized by BRTF and NAO, 2 November 2005, Jolly Hotel St Ermins, Caxton Street, London.

Hutter, B.M. (2007) 'Risk Based Regulation: Some Myths, Risks & Dilemmas|' CARR Conference 'Organising Risk Regulation: Current Dilemmas, Future Directions' March 2007, LSE.

External activities

  • Bridget is currently a member of the World Economic Forum (WEF) Council on Mitigation of Natural Disasters.
  • Bridget regularly meets with members of the regulatory agencies, business representatives and consumer groups. She has given advice to the Environment Agency on compliance and small businesses; HSE on compliance research and regulatory impact; the Pennington Inquiry into the 2005 South Wales E.coli outbreak on food regulation; the Pitt Review Team on regulation and natural disasters; and various regulators on risk-based regulation.
  • The Expert Panel for National Consumer Council Project 'Rating regulators' and a member of the Law and Society Association International Affairs Committee.
  • Member of British Journal of Sociology and Regulation & Governance Editorial Boards. Editor British Journal of Sociology (2002-2008).

News items 

  • Gave a paper entitled 'Risk Regulation and Food Safety in the UK: Change and Compliance in Post Crisis Environments' at an international workshop on 'The Governance of Food Safety' at Tsinghua University, Beijing, in September 2010.
  • Part of a Co-Reach workshop involving colleagues from the University of Amsterdam and the Chinese Academy of Social Science on 9-10 June 2010.
  • An official invitee of the Shanghai Forum 2010, which was held at Fudan University on May 29-31. Gave a presentation on 'Regulatory Governance: Prospects in a Changing World'.
  • Conferred the Award of Academician of the Academy of Social Sciences.
  • Chaired an expert review of the Environment Agency's Better Regulation Science Programme in Bristol on 26 February 2010.
  • Panellist at the Harvard Kennedy School Global Series Regional Meeting on the subject of 'Managing Widespread Global Risk' in London, on 25 January 2010.
  • Gave a lunchtime lecture entitled 'Thinking Like a Social Scientist' outlining a social science approach to understanding risk regulation, on 26 November 2009 at LSE.
  • Took part in the Summit on the Global Agenda 2009 in Dubai, on 20-22 November.
  • Part of the ESRC Academy of Social Sciences and British Library public debate series on 'Myths and Realities 2: Making Sense of Risk' at the British Library on 18 November 2009.
  • Attended a QFinance round table dinner of QFinance contributors, senior representatives from Bloomsbury Publishing, The Qatar Financial Centre Authority (QFCA) and senior media attendees held in the City of London, on 28 October 2009.
  • Received Co-Reach funding for comparative research on regulatory law enforcement in China and the EU. This is as part of a collaborative project with colleagues from the University of Leiden and the Chinese Academy of Social Science.
  • Invited to become a Member of the World Economic Forum's Global Agenda Council on Catastrophic Risks 2009. Each Council, comprised of 15-20 Members, serves as an advisory board to the Forum and other interested parties, such as governments and international organizations.
  • Participating in a Roundtable on Risk Governance Deficits and Emerging Risks at the Swiss Re Centre for Global Dialogue hosted by The IRGC Scientific and Technical Council, Rüschlikon, Switzerland. 8 and 9 June, 2009.
  • Presenting a paper on 'The New Governance, Risk Regulation and The Business Organization' at workshop on "New Governance and the Business Organization" at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver. 25-27 May 2009.
  • Attended the Shanghai Forum 2009 and giving a presentation on 'Policy Responses to Climate Change: the Role of Risk Regulation in Mitigating Adverse Effects'
  • Was a keynote speaker at the conference on Societal Risk, Relevant Interdisciplinary Frames of Reference in Oslo, 24-25 April 2009.
  • Participated in and chaired a panel at the Environment Agency's 'Measuring the Effectiveness of Regulation' workshop aiming to exchange views and develop a common understanding of what evidence the Environment Agency needs regarding the effectiveness of its interventions.
  • Contributed to the Pennington Inquiry report on the Welsh E.coli outbreak which took the life of one five year old and made around 150 others ill. The Inquiry commissioned Professor Hutter and Dr Tola Amodu (former CARR graduate) to prepare a report on Risk Regulation and Compliance: Food Safety in the UK. This report is now available on the Welsh government website and it draws on Professor Hutter's earlier research on food safety and hygiene.
  • Featured in a short film produced for The Independent newspaper's website. Click here to view the video here.
  • Presented lectures on 'A Delicate Balance: Social Science Perspectives on Risk Regulation' to LSE alumni groups in Beijing and Shanghai and to Chevening scholars at the British Embassy. 7-11 December 2008.
  • A keynote speaker at the International Symposium on Risk and Social Policy in Changing Asian Societies, organized by the Department of Applied Social Studies City University of Hong Kong, and co-organized by Graduate School of International Development and Cooperation Kibi International University, Japan & The Social Policy Research Centre, National Taiwan University, Taiwan. 4-5 December 2008.
  • Presented a lunchtime lecture as part of the LSE Thinking Like a Social Scientist series. 26 November 2008.
  • Participated in the World Economic Forum Summit on the Global Agenda 2008, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. 7-9 November 2008.
  • Presented a paper on 'The role of private actors in regulatory regimes' at a conference on 'New Regulatory Strategies for European integration?' at the Florence School of Regulation and the Robert Schuman Center, European University Institute. 17-18 October 2008. 
  • Presented at the ISA World Forum of Sociology, Barcelona, Spain. 5-8 September 2008.
  • Organized the 'Rationalities of Governance and Regulation' stream and gave a keynote talk on 'Anticipating Risk and Organising Risk Regulation: Governance in Public and Private Spaces'.
  • Appointed to World Economic Forum (WEF) Council on Mitigation of Natural Disasters. May 2008
  • Speaker at a multidisciplinary Social Science Conference, co-hosted by the British Academy under the auspices of an EC-funded project, CO-REACH and the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2008
  • Keynote address on 'Risk Management and Governance' at the Joint NPIA, ACPO and Home Office Research Conference on Managing Risk To Improve Policing in Birmingham, UK. 18 October 2007.

Teaching

Risk, Regulation and Economic Life SO425|
Management and Regulation of Risk FM403|

 

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