Banaji, Shakuntala

Dr Shakuntala Banaji  


Position held

Experience keywords:

Bollywood; Hindi cinema; South Asia; audiences; children; creativity; film studies; media education; media literacy; media; online participation; political contexts; young people; youth civic participation

Research summary > [Click to expand]

Dr Banaji's research interests include the meaning, history and textual study of cinema, particularly South Asian media and Hindi films; the socio-political contexts of audiences, representations of gender and ethnicity; tensions between popular and elite media; internet cultures; online civic participation; young people and cultural identities.

Her research focuses on young people's interactions with media genres and technologies both old and new, and the interplay between philosophy, politics, culture, representation and group identities in diverse contexts. She is currently working on a book arising from her research with young people and online civic producers across Europe, examining technological tools for participation and links between online and offline civic participation, motivation, interactivity and institutional responses. More broadly, she is researching the politics, ideologies and pedagogies of different forms of citizenship and participation offered to children and young people. In particular, she is examining the role of children and young people in South Asian media and the ways in which autonomy and agency are construed based on class, religion and ethnicity. Here her main focus is on the ways in which child labour is understood, represented and justified or reviled by different social groups in South Asia and the West.

Sectors and industries to which research relates:

Creative Industries and Culture; Media Technology and New Media

Countries and regions to which research relates:

Bangladesh; Europe; India; Nepal; Pakistan; South Asia; Sri Lanka; UK


Hindi [Spoken: Fluent, Written: Intermediate]

Media experience:


Contact Points

LSE phone number:

+44 (0)207 955 6105

LSE email:

Alt phone number:

+44 (0)7787 580197



Banaji, Shakuntala (2017) Children and media in India: narratives of class, agency and social change Routledge, London. ISBN 9781138929470

Banaji, Shakuntala (2017) India: digitising an unequal world Parenting for a Digital Future (31 May 2017) blog

Banaji, Shakuntala and Mejias, Sam (2017) Story of a vote unforetold: young people, youth activism and the UK general election POLIS: journalism and society at the LSE (27 Jun 2017) blog

Banaji, Shakuntala and Moreno Almeida, Cristina and Adel, Rita and Alabed, Asma and Attafi, Sara and Chahdi, Chadi and Ibrahim, Monica (2017) From passion to activism? The politics, communications, and creativity of participatory networks in the MENA region LSE Middle East Centre Report, Sleiman-Haidar, Ribale, ed Middle East Centre, The London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK.


Banaji, Shakuntala (2016) Bollywood's periphery: child stars and representations of childhood in Hindi films In: O'Connor, Jane and Mercer, John, (eds.) Childhood and Celebrity. Routledge, London, UK. ISBN 9781138855274

Banaji, Shakuntala (2016) Global research on children’s online experiences: addressing diversities and inequalities Global Kids Online, The London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK.

Bruter, Michael and Banaji, Shakuntala and Harrison, Sarah and Cammaerts, Bart and Anstead, Nick (2016) Youth participation in democratic life: stories of hope and disillusion Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, Hampshire. ISBN 9781137540201


Banaji, Shakuntala (2015) Have you seen The Hobbit films? Fill out this questionnaire South Asia @ LSE (2 May 2015) blog

Banaji, Shakuntala and Ledwell, Christian (2015) Human rights, self-censorship and regulation: Shakuntala Banaji on the media under Modi (Part 1) South Asia @ LSE (14 May 2015) blog

Banaji, Shakuntala and Ledwell, Christian (2015) The internet, inclusion and democracy: Shakuntala Banaji on the media under Modi (Part 2) South Asia @ LSE (15 May 2015) blog

Banaji, Shakuntala (2015) Five issues raised by BBC ‘India’s Daughter’ documentary South Asia @ LSE (7 Mar 2015) blog

Banaji, Shakuntala (2015) Behind the high-tech fetish: children, work and media use across classes in India International Communication Gazette, 77 (6). 519-532. ISSN 1748-0485


Banaji, Shakuntala and Georgiou, Myria (2014) The Future of the BBC: the Burning Issue of Diversity Behind & on Screen Media Policy Blog (22 Jul 2014) Blog entry

Banaji, Shakuntala (2014) Learning from Gujarat South Asia @ LSE (17 Feb 2014) blog

Daftari, Neeti and Banaji, Shakuntala (2014) Child rights in the Indian media: barriers and enablers South Asia @ LSE (23 Apr 2014) blog

Banaji, Shakuntala (2014) Bollywood horror as an uncanny public sphere: genre theories, postcolonial concepts, and the insightful audience Communication, Culture and Critique, 7 (4). 453-471. ISSN 1753-9129

Banaji, Shakuntala and Cammaerts, Bart (2014) Citizens of nowhere land: youth and news consumption in Europe Journalism Studies, 16 (1). 115-132. ISSN 1461-670X

Cammaerts, Bart and Bruter, Michael and Banaji, Shakuntala and Harrison, Sarah and Anstead, Nick (2014) The myth of youth apathy: young Europeans' critical attitudes toward democratic life American Behavioral Scientist, 58 (5). 645-664. ISSN 0002-7642


Banaji, Shakuntala (2013) Hindi film audiences outside South Asia In: Gokulsing, K. and Dissanayake, Wimal, (eds.) Routledge Handbook of Indian Cinemas. Routledge, Abingdon, UK, 391-401. ISBN 9780415677745

Banaji, Shakuntala (2013) Slippery subjects: gender, meaning and the Bollywood audience In: Carter, Cynthia and Steiner, Linda and McLaughlin, Lisa, (eds.) The Routledge Companion to Media and Gender. Routledge, Abingdon, UK, 493-502. ISBN 9780415527699

Banaji, Shakuntala and Buckingham, David (2013) Creating the civic web: exploring the perspectives of web producers in Europe and Turkey In: Olsson, Tobias, (ed.) Producing the Internet: Critical Perspectives of Social Media. Research Anthologies and Monographs. Nordicom, Göteborg, Sweden, 221-238. ISBN 9789186523596

Banaji, Shakuntala (2013) Why freedom of speech is only one of India’s worries South Asia @ LSE (17 Apr 2013) blog

Banaji, Shakuntala and Cranmer, Sue and Perrotta, Carlo (2013) What’s stopping us? Barriers to creativity and innovation in schooling across Europe In: Thomas, Kerry and Chan, Janet, (eds.) Handbook of Research on Creativity. Elgar original reference. Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, UK, 450-463. ISBN 9780857939807

Banaji, Shakuntala and Buckingham, David (2013) The civic web: young people, the Internet and civic participation The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation series on digital media and learning. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA. ISBN 9780262019644

Banaji, Shakuntala (2013) Everyday racism and "my tram experience": emotion, civic performance and learning on YouTube Comunicar, 20 (40). 69-78. ISSN 1134-3478

Cammaerts, Bart and Bruter, Michael and Banaji, Shakuntala and Harrison, Sarah and Anstead, Nick (2013) EACEA 2010/03: youth participation in democratic life, final report LSE Enterprise, London, UK.


Banaji, Shakuntala (2012) Children’s media encounters in contemporary India: exclusion, leisure and learning In: Hoechsmann, M. and Poyntz, S., (eds.) Media Literacy: a Critical Introduction. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.

Banaji, Shakuntala (2012) Remembering Yash Chopra’s complex and critical films South Asia @ LSE (31 Oct 2012) blog

Banaji, Shakuntala (2012) Leisure, learning and exclusion: children’s media encounters in India South Asia @ LSE (13 Jun 2012) blog

Hirzalla, Fadi and Banaji, Shakuntala (2012) Young people’s online civic participation In: Yan, Zheng, (ed.) Encyclopedia of Cyber Behavior. IGI Global, Hershey, PA, USA, 996-1009. ISBN 9781466603158

Banaji, Shakuntala (2012) "Bollywood" adolescents: young viewers discuss childhood, class and Hindi films In: Benwell, Bethan and Procter, James and Robinson, Gemma, (eds.) Postcolonial Audiences: Readers, Viewers and Reception. Routledge research in postcolonial literatures. Routledge, London, UK, 57-72. ISBN 9780415888714

Banaji, Shakuntala (2012) A tale of three worlds: young people, media and class in India In: Henseler, Christine, (ed.) Generation X Goes Global: Mapping a Youth Culture in Motion. Routledge research in cultural and media studies. Routledge, New York, USA, 33-50. ISBN 9780415699440


Banaji, Shakuntala (2011) Mapping the rhetorics of creativity In: Sefton-Green, Julian and Thomson, Pat and Jones, Ken and Bresler, Liora, (eds.) The Routledge International Handbook of Creative Learning. Routledge international handbooks of education. Routledge. ISBN 9780415548892

Banaji, Shakuntala (2011) Disempowering by assumption: digital natives and EU civic web project In: Thomas, Michael, (ed.) Deconstructing Digital Natives: Young People, Technology, and the New Literacies. Routledge, New York, USA, 49-66. ISBN 9780415889933

Selwyn, N. and Banaji, Shakuntala and Hadjithoma-Garstka, C. and Clark, W. (2011) Providing a platform for parents? Exploring the nature of parental engagement with school learning platforms Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 27 (4). 314-323. ISSN 0266-4909

Banaji, Shakuntala (2011) Framing young citizens: explicit invitation and implicit exclusion on European youth civic websites Language and Intercultural Communication, 11 (2). 126-141. ISSN 1470-8477


Banaji, Shakuntala (2010) 'Adverts make me want to break the television': Indian children and their audiovisual media environment in three contrasting locations In: Banaji, Shakuntala, (ed.) South Asian Media Cultures: Representations, Contexts and Audiences. Anthem Press, London, UK, 51-72. ISBN 9781843318422

Banaji, Shakuntala and Perrotta, Carlo and Cranmer, Sue (2010) Creative and innovative good practices in compulsory education in Europe: collection and descriptive analysis of 10 good practices of creativity and innovation in compulsory education in the EU27 JRC technical notes, JRC 59689. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

Banaji, Shakuntala and Cranmer, Sue and Perrotta, Carlo (2010) Expert perspectives on creativity and innovation in European schools and teacher training: enabling factors and barriers to creativity and innovation in compulsory education in Europe, based on interviews with educational stakeholders JCR Technical Notes, JCR 59833. European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Seville, Spain.

Banaji, Shakuntala (2010) Same riot/demo, different views (guest blog) POLIS: journalism and society at the LSE (11 Nov 2010) blog

Banaji, Shakuntala, ed (2010) South Asian media cultures: audiences, representations, contexts Anthem Press, London, UK. ISBN 978-1843318422

Banaji, Shakuntala (2010) Analyzing advertisements in the classroom In: Bazalgette, Cary, (ed.) Teaching Media in Primary Schools. SAGE publications, London, UK, 62-72. ISBN 9781849205764

Banaji, Shakuntala and Buckingham, David (2010) Young people, the Internet, and civic participation: an overview of key findings from the CivicWeb Project International Journal of Learning and Media, 2 (1). 15-24. ISSN 1943-6068

Banaji, Shakuntala (2010) Seduced ‘outsiders’ versus sceptical ‘insiders’?: Slumdog Millionaire through its re/viewers Participations: Journal of Audience and Reception Studies, 7 (1). 1-24. ISSN 1749-8716


Banaji, Shakuntala (2009) "Who are the girls?": reflections on ethnicity, culture, and the idea of 'girlhood' in 'Commentary and criticism' Feminist Media Studies, 9 (1). 118-121. ISSN 1468-0777

Banaji, Shakuntala and Buckingham, David and Van Zoonen, Liesbet and Hirzalla, Fadi (2009) Synthesis of CivicWeb results and policy outcomes Centre for the Study of Children, Youth and Media, Institute of Education, London, UK.

Banaji, Shakuntala (2009) Analysing civic participation websites: part 4 youth counselling and advice Centre for the Study of Children, Youth and Media, Institute of Education, London, UK.

Banaji, Shakuntala (2009) Analysing civic participation websites: part 8 ethnic and religious and nationalist identities Centre for the Study of Children, Youth and Media, Institute of Education, London, UK.

Banaji, Shakuntala (2009) Qualitative analysis of European web-based civic participation among young people Centre for the Study of Children, Youth and Media, Institute of Education, London, UK.

Banaji, Shakuntala and Buckingham, David (2009) The civic sell: young people, the internet, and ethical consumption Information, Communication and Society, 12 (8). 1197-1223. ISSN 1369-118X


Banaji, Shakuntala (2008) Creativity: exploring the rhetorics and the realities In: Willett, Rebekah and Robinson, Muriel and Marsh, Jackie, (eds.) Play, Creativity and Digital Cultures. Routledge research in education. Routledge, London, UK, 147-165. ISBN 9780415963114

Banaji, Shakuntala (2008) Production of civic websites for young people Centre for the Study of Children, Youth and Media, Institute of Education, London, UK.

Banaji, Shakuntala (2008) The trouble with civic: a snapshot of young people's civic and political engagements in twenty-first-century democracies Journal of Youth Studies, 11 (5). 543-560. ISSN 1469-9680


Banaji, Shakuntala (2007) Fascist imaginaries and clandestine critiques: young Hindi film viewers respond to violence, xenophobia and love in cross-border romances In: Bharat, Meenakshi and Kumar, Nirmal, (eds.) Filming the Line of Control: the Indo–pak Relationship Through the Cinematic Lens. Routledge, Oxford, UK. ISBN 9780415460941

Banaji, Shakuntala (2007) Civic websites in the UK: a national overview Institute of Education, London, UK.

Buckingham, David and Willett, Rebekah and Banaji, Shakuntala and Cranmer, Susan (2007) Media Smart Be Adwise 2: an evaluation Media Smart, London, UK.

Banaji, Shakuntala and Burn, Andrew (2007) Creativity through a rhetorical lens: implications for schooling, literacy and media education Literacy, 41 (2). 62-70. ISSN 1741-4350


Banaji, Shakuntala (2006) 'Reading Bollywood': the young audience and Hindi films Palgrave Macmillan, New York, US. ISBN 9780230001725

Banaji, Shakuntala and Burn, Andrew and Buckingham, David (2006) Rhetorics of creativity: a review of the literature Arts Council England, Centre for the Study of Children, Youth and Media, Institute of Education, University of London, London, UK. ISBN 9780728713178

Banaji, Shakuntala and Al-Ghabban, Ammar (2006) 'Neutrality comes from inside us': British-Asian and Indian perspectives on television news after 11 September Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 32 (6). 1005-1026. ISSN 1469-9451

Banaji, Shakuntala (2006) Loving with irony: young Bombay viewers discuss clothing, sex and their encounters with media Sex Education, 6 (4). 377-391. ISSN 1472-0825

Banaji, Shakuntala (2006) Young people viewing Hindi films: ideology, pleasure and meaning Merz: Medien + Erziehung, 3. 12-18. ISSN 0723-399X


Banaji, Shakuntala (2005) Portrait of an Indian education Changing English, 12 (2). 157-166. ISSN 1469-3585


Banaji, Shakuntala (2002) Private lives and public spaces: the precarious pleasures of gender discourse in Raja Hindustani Women: a Cultural Review, 13 (2). 179-194. ISSN 0957-4042


Banaji, Shakuntala (2001) Indian education in 2001: an overview Forum: for Promoting 3-19 Comprehensive Education, 43 (3). 151-152. ISSN 0963-8253

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