Spending time by the sea is one of the keys to happiness, according to a ground-breaking study employing mobile technology to track people’s wellbeing in different environments.
The study was led by Dr George MacKerron from the University of Sussex, Department of Economics, and LSE, and Professor Susana Mourato from LSE’s Department of Geography and Environment.
Marine and coastal environments produced the most positive responses from more than 22,000 people who downloaded an app – Mappiness – which was developed specifically for the study on their mobile devices.
The app, which is the first of its kind, beeps users daily to record their levels of happiness, and uses satellite positioning (GPS) to discover their location while they answer. Response locations are linked to environmental data, which is then fed into statistical models of wellbeing. More than one million responses have been recorded in the study.
Professor Mourato said the study was the first of its kind to use smart phones to record states of happiness and how they rise and fall during the day in relation to the surrounding environment.
Being outdoors, near the sea, on a warm, sunny weekend afternoon is the perfect spot for most. In fact, participants were found to be substantially happier outdoors in all natural environments than they were in urban environments.
“People recorded the highest levels of happiness in marine and coastal locations, followed by mountains and moors, forests and farms,” said Dr MacKerron.
Sport and recreational activities, such as running, gardening or bird-watching – most of which occur outdoors in a natural setting – are also associated with increased wellbeing and happiness. Designated areas such as National Parks were similarly found to be positively and significantly related to happiness ratings.
The study also shows that women experience a greater sense of wellbeing in some natural environments than men do, while older people are happier being outdoors relative to the rest of the population.
“This study provides new lines of evidence linking nature with wellbeing,” Dr MacKerron said.
“There are at least three reasons why natural environments are positively related to health, wellbeing and happiness. These environments reduce stress; they have less noise and pollution; and people are more likely to engage in physical exercise and recreation and to interact with others there,” he said.
The findings of the study, Happiness is greater in natural environments, are published in the latest issue of Global Environmental Change.
Notes to editors
For media enquiries contact:
Dr George MacKerron on 01273 872726 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
LSE Press Office, email@example.com|, 020 7955 7060
Dr George MacKerron is Lecturer in the Economics of Environment, Energy and Climate Change in the Department of Economics at the University of Sussex and an associate of the Department of Geography and Environment at LSE.
Professor Susana Mourato is Professor of Environmental Economics in the Department of Geography and Environment at LSE and an associate of the Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment at LSE.
20 June 2013