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Europe needs a human security doctrine - and a new civil military force

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Civilians should play a significant role in a new EU force designed to combat global insecurity and protect citizens in conflict zones, according to a new study on European security released last week (15 September 04). 

The report, produced by an independent study group at the request of EU secretary-general Javier Solana, argues for a fundamental rethink of Europe's approach to security - not only within its borders but beyond. In the 21st century, when no country or region is immune from terrorism, regional wars, organised crime, failing states or the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, Europe cannot ignore the growing insecurity around the globe.

Human rather than nation-state security should be at the heart of European policy. Instead of defeating enemies or pacifying warring parties, EU missions should focus on protecting civilians, through law enforcement with the occasional use of force. To carry out such missions, the European Union needs an integrated civil-military force of 15,000 personnel, at least one third of whom would be civilians with various professional skills and experiences.

These are the proposals of the Study Group on Europe's Security Capabilities, convened by Professor Mary Kaldor of the London School of Economics and Political Science to consider how Europe should develop its security capabilities. Members include Jan Pronk, now UN special representative in Sudan; Gen Ret Klaus Reinhardt, former commander of KFOR in Kosovo; Narcis Serra, former Spanish minister of defence; and international law specialist Christine Chinkin.

According to Professor Mary Kaldor: 'Europeans cannot be secure while millions of people live in intolerable insecurity. Where people live with lawlessness, poverty, exclusivist ideologies and daily violence, there is fertile ground for human rights violations, criminal networks and terrorism. Conflict regions export or transport hard drugs and guns to the European Union. That is why a contribution to global human security is now the most realistic security policy for Europe.'

The Study Group has developed seven principles for Europe's security policy that apply to prevention, conflict and post-conflict contexts alike and which are intended to guide the actions of high-level EU officials, politicians in the member states, diplomats, and soldiers and civilians in the field alike.

In order to carry out operations based on human security, the EU will need new greater human resources and skills. At present, Europe has 1.8 million people under arms but only a fraction can be deployed in crisis zones. Police and other civilian professionals will also be needed. 

Gen Ret'd Klaus Reinhardt, former commander of Kosovo said: 'Condoleeza Rice is wrong: it is the business of the military to escort children to school, if that makes people in conflict situations more secure. But we also need professional civilians like policemen, human rights monitors and aid workers to make human security interventions successful.'

  • To read the full report, A Human Security Doctrine for Europe: the Barcelona report of the study group on Europe's security capabilities, click here


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A public debate, A Human Security Doctrine for Europe: presentation of the Barcelona Report of the Study Group on European Security, will be held at LSE on Wednesday 10 November with Javier Solana (tbc) and members of the study group, Professor Mary Kaldor, Pavel Seifter, Professor Christine Chinkin, Brigadier Andy Salmon. Former Spanish minister of defence, Narcis Serra, will chair the event. 

A Human Security Doctrine for Europe: presentation of the Barcelona Report of the Study Group on European Security is on Wednesday 10 November at 6.30pm in the Old Theatre, Old Building. The event is free and open to all but a ticket is required. Tickets will be available online from 10am on Monday 1 November. For more information or to request a ticket when available, click here|

A Human Security Doctrine for Europe
was released on 15 September 2004 at Forum Barcelona, where there will be a press briefing. For further information please contact Berta Baquer, bbaquer@cidob.org|,  +34-933 180 807.

The Study Group on Europe's Security Capabilities was convened by Professor Mary Kaldor, of the London School of Economics and Political Science, at the request of EU Secretary General Javier Solana in 2003. Its members are: Ulrich Albrecht, Christine Chinkin, Kemal Dervis, Renata Dwan, Anthony Giddens, Nicole Gnesotto, Sonja Licht, Jan Pronk, Klaus Reinhardt, Genevieve Schmeder, Pavel Seifter and Narcis Serra.

Press cuttings

Open Democracy (24 September 04)
The marriage of Mars and Venus? Europe's search for human security
A proposed new 'human security doctrine for Europe' launched on 15 September 2004 in Barcelona is an opportunity to examine what Europeans can do about massive human rights violations in the 21st century. Reference to Mary Kaldor, convenor of the report. 

Europe told to 'rethink security' (16 September 04)
By Katya Adler, BBC News correspondent in Madrid
- Also translated in Dutch daily NRC Handelsblad
No direct link

International Herald Tribune (16 September 04)
EU urged to revise terror responses
Article by Katrin Bennhold. 
No direct link.

Agence France Presse (16 September 04)
Europe urged to rethink security stategy
No direct link.

El Pais Internacional: Andalucia edition (16 September 04) 
La UE estudia crear una fuerza de reaccion con civiles y militares
No direct link.

EUBusiness.com (16 September 04)
Europe urged to rethink security stategy
No direct link.

Deutsche Presse-Agentur (15 September 04)
Expertos urgen a UE a crear 'fuerza humanitaria de seguridad'
No direct link.

20 September 2004