Digital Divide References


Last updated 6th January 2017
** Updated 6th January 2017
* Updated 13th August 2016

Attewell, P. (2001) 'The First and the Second Digital Divides', Sociology of Education, vol. 74, pp. 252-259.

Barrantes, R. (2007) ‘Analysis of ICT Demand: What is Digital Poverty and how to Measure it?’ in H. Galperin and J.Marisca (eds) Digital poverty: Latin American and Caribbean perspectives, l, 29–54. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre, Practical Action Publishing.

Bennett, S., Maton, K., & Kervin, L. (2008). The ‘Digital Natives’ Debate: A Critical Review of the Evidence. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(5), pp. 775-786.

Bonfadelli, H. (2002) 'The Internet and Knowledge Gaps – A Theoretical and Empirical Investigation, European Journal of Communication, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 65-84.

Barzilai-Nahon, K. (2006) ‘Gaps and Bits: Conceptualizing Measurements for Digital Divide/s’, The Information Society 22:269–78

Bure, C. (2005) ‘Digital Inclusion without Social Inclusion: The Consumption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) within Homeless Subculture in Scotland’, The Journal of Community Informatics, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 116–133.

Clark LS, Demont-Heinrich C and Webber SA (2004) 'Ethnographic interviews on the digital divide'. New Media & Society 6(4): 529–47.

Clayton, J. and Macdonald, S. (2013) 'The Limits of Technology', Information, Communication & Society, 16:6, 945-966

Clement, A. and Shade, L. (2002) 'The Access rainbow: Conceptualising Universal Access to the Information/Communication infrastructure', in Gurstein, M (Ed.) Community informatics, Idea Publishing, Hershey, PA, pp.32-51.

Cleary, P. F., Pierce, G., & Trauth, E. M. (2006) 'Closing the Digital Divide: Understanding Racial, Ethnic, Social Class, Gender and Geographic Disparities in Internet Use among School Age Children in the United States' Information Society, 4, 354–373.

*Colombo, F. and Aroldi, P. (2015) New Elders, Old Divides: ICTs, Inequalities and Well Being amongst Young Elderly Italians, Communicar, No. 45.

Compaine, B. (2001) ‘Declare the War Won’, in Compaine, B. (Ed.) The Digital Divide: Facing a Crisis of Creating a Myth, MIT Press, Camb., pp.315-35

Cooper, J. (2006) The Digital Divide: The Special Case of Gender. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 22, 320–334.

Correa, T., (2010) 'The Participation Divide among ‘‘Online Experts.’’' Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 16 (1), 71–92.

Cotten, S., Hale, T., Moroney, M., O’Neal, L. & Borch, C. (2011) ‘Using Affordable Technology to Decrease Digital Inequality’, Information, Communication & Society, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 424–444.

Couldry, N. (2007) 'Communicative Entitlements and Democracy: The Future of the Digital Divide Debate', in Mansell, R, Avgeroo, C., Quah, D. and Silversotne, R. (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Information and Communication Technologies, OUP, Oxford.

DiMaggio, P. and Hargittai, E. (2001) From the ‘Digital Divide’ to ‘Digital Inequality’: Studying Internet Use as Penetration Increases. Available at:

DiMaggio, P., Hargittai, E., Neuman, W. and Robinson, J. (2001) ‘Social Implications of the Internet’, Annual Review of Sociology, No.27, pp.306-36.

DiMaggio, P., Hargittai, E., Celeste, C. and Shafer, S. (2004) 'Digital Inequality: From Unequal Access to Differentiated Use', in Neckerman. K. (ed.) Social Inequality, Russel Sage Foundation, New York, 2004, pp. 355-400.

Dolničar, V. (2011) ‘Measuring the Dynamics of Cross-national Digital Divides’, in Haddon, L. (Ed.) The Contemporary Internet: National and Cross-National European Studies, Peter Lang, Frankfurt, pp.190-205.

Dolničar, V., Christou, C., Gannon, R., Haddon, L, Louca, S., Puga, P. and Vieira, J. (2011) ‘Cross-national Broadband Digital Divides’, in Haddon, L. (Ed.) The Contemporary Internet: National and Cross-National European Studies, Peter Lang, Frankfurt, pp.121-138.

Dutton, W. H., Shepherd, A. & di Gennaro, C. (2007) ‘Digital Divides and Choices Reconfiguring Access’, in Information and Communication Technologies in Society: e-Living in a Digital Europe, eds B. Anderson, M. Brynin, J. Gershuny & Y. Raban, Routledge, London, pp. 31–45.

Dutton, W.H., Gillet, S. E., McKnight L. W. and Peltu, M. (2004) Bridging Broadband Internet Divides: Reconfiguring Access to Enhance Communicative Power',  Journal of Information Technologies, vol. 19, pp. 28-38.

Eastin, M (2005) 'Internet Self-efficacy and the Psychology of the Digital Divide'. Cyberpsychology and Behavior 8: 62–75.

Epstein, D, Nisbet, E. and Gillespie, T. (2011) ‚ Who's Responsible for the Digital Divide? Public Perceptions and Policy Implications, The Information Society, 27: 92–104.

Eynon, R. and Helsper, E. (2011) ‘UK Adults Learning Online: Digital Choice and/or Digital Exclusion?’, New Media and Society, 13(4) 534–551.

Facer, K., & Furlong, R. (2001). 'Beyond the Myth of the 'Cyberkid': Young People at the Margins of the Information Revolution.' Journal of Youth Studies, 4(4), 451-469.

Foley, P. (2004) ‘Does the Internet Help to overcome Social Exclusion?’ Electronic Journal of e-Government, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 139–146.

Frissen, V. (2003) ‘The Myth of the Digital Divide’, in Cammaerts, B., Van Audenhove, L., Nulens, G. and Pauwels, C. (eds) Beyond the Digital Divide: Reducing Exclusion, Fostering Inclusion, VUB, Brussels University Press, Brussels, pp.17-34.

Godoy, S., & Galvez, M. (2011). The Corresponding Digital Divide: Barriers and Facilitators of the Use of ICTs in Middle and Lower-middle Class Parents in Chile. Revista CTS, 18(6), 199–219.

Gunkel, D. (2003) ‘Second Thoughts: Toward a Critique of the Digital Divide', New Media and Society, Vol.5, No.4, pp.499-522.

Haddon, L. (2000) ‘Social Exclusion and Information and Communication Technologies: Lessons from Studies of Single Parents and the Young Elderly’, New Media and Society, Vol.2, No.4, 387-406.

Haddon, L. (2004) Information and Communication Technologies in Everyday Life: A Concise Introduction and Research Guide, Berg, Oxford

Halford, S. and Savage, M. (2010) 'Reconceptualizing digital social inequality', Information, Communication & Society Vol. 13, No. 7, October 2010, pp. 937–955

Hargittai E (2002) 'Second-level digital divide: Differences in people’s online skills.' First Monday 7(4). Available at:

*Hargittai, E., (2007). 'Whose space?' Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 13 (1), 14.

Hargittai, E. (2008) 'The Digital Reproduction of Inequality', in Grusky, D (Ed.) Social Stratification, Westview Press, Boulder, pp. 936-944.

Hargittai, E. (2010) ‘Digital Na(t)ives? Variations in Internet Skills and Uses among Members of the New Generation’, Sociological Enquirer, 80 (1), 92-113

Hargittai, E. and Hinnant, A. (2008) 'Digital Inequality: Differences in Young Adults' Use of the Internet', Communication Research, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 602-621.

*Hargittai, E., Walejko, G., (2008) 'The Participation Divide'. Information, Communication and Society 11 (2), 239–256.

Helsper, E. J. (2008) Digital Inclusion: An Analysis of Social Disadvantage and the Information Society, Department for Communities and Local Government, London.

*Hassani, S.N., (2006).' Locating Digital Divides at Home, Work and Everywhere Else'. Poetics 34 (4–5), 250–272.

Helsper, E. J., & Eynon, R. (2010). 'Digital Natives: Where is the Evidence?' British Educational Research Journal, 36(3), 503 - 520.

Helsper, E. J., & Galacz, A. (2009). 'Understanding the Links between Social and Digital Inclusion in Europe'. In G. Cardoso, A. Cheong & J. Cole (Eds.), The World Wide Internet: Changing Societies, Economies and Cultures (pp. 146-178). Taipa: University of Macau Press.

*Herring, S. C. (2008). 'Questioning the Generational Divide: Technological Exoticism and Adult Construction of Online youth Identity'. In D. Buckingham (Ed.), Youth, identity, and digital media (pp. 71–92). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

*Hollingworth, S., Mansaray, A., Allen, K., & Rose, A. (2011). Parents’ Perspectives on Technology and Children’s Learning in the Home: Social Class and the Role of the Habitus. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 27(4), 347-360

Horrigan, J., Rainie, L., Allen, K., Madden, M. and O’Grady, E (2003) The Ever-Shifting Internet Population: A New Look of Internet Access and the Digital Divide, Pew Internet and American Life Project, April, 16th.

James, J. (2008) ‘Digital divide complacency: Misconceptions and dangers’,  The Information Society, Vol.24, No.1, pp.54–61.

Judge, S., et al. (2006). "Closing the digital divide: Update from the early childhood longitudinal study." The Journal of Educational Research 100(1): 52-60.

Jung, J, Qui, J. and Kim, Y. (2001) 'Internet Connectedness and Inequality: Beyond the Divide', Communication Research, Vol.28, no.4, pp.507-35.

Katz, J. and Aspden, P. (1998) ‘Internet Dropouts in the USA. The Invisible Group’, Telecommunications Policy, Vol.22, No.4/5, pp.327-39.

Katz, J. and Rice, R (2002) Social Consequences of Internet Use: Access, Involvement and Interaction, MIT press, Boston (Chapters 2 to 5)

Katz, J. Rice, R. and Aspden, P. (2001) ‘The Internet, 1995-2000. Access, Civic Involvement and Social Interaction’, American Behavioral Scientist, 45: 3, 405-17

Kiel, J. M. (2005) ‘The digital divide: Internet and e-mail use by the elderly’, Informatics for Health and Social Care, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 19–23.

Kingsely, P. and Anderson, T. (1998) ‘Facing Life without the Internet’, Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy, 8: 4, 303-12.

Kvasny, L. (2006) 'The Cultural (Re)production of Digital Inequality'. Information, Communication and Society 9(2): 160–81.

Lee, L. (2008) ‘The Impact of Young People’s Internet Use on Class Boundaries and Life Trajectories’, Sociology, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 137–153.

Lenhart, A., and Horrigan, J. (2003) Re-visualizing the Digital Divide as a Digital Spectrum. IT & Society 1(5): 23–39.

*Lim, S. S. (2009) Young People and the Digital Divide – An Ethnographic Study of Media-have-less Youths. Keywords in Communication: 2009 Annual Conference of the International Communication Association . Chicago. 21-25 May.

Ling, R. (2008) Should we be concerned that the elderly don’t text? The Information Society 24(5):334–41.

Livingstone, S. and Helsper, E. (2007)' Gradations in Digital Inclusion: Children, Young People and the Digital Divide', New Media and Society, Vol.9, No.4, pp.671-96.

Loges, W. and Jung, J. (2001) 'Exploring the Digital Divide: Internet Connectedness and Age', Communication Research, Vol.28, No.4, pp.536-62

Mansell, R. (2002) 'From Digital Divide to Digital Entitlements in Knowledge Societies', Current Sociology, Vol.50, No.3, pp. 407-26

Mason, S. M. and Hacker, K. (2003) 'Applying Communication Theory to Digital Divide Research', IT&Society, Vol. 1, No. 5, pp. 40-55.

Mossberger, K., Tolbert, J. J. and Stansbury, M. (2003) Virtual Inequality: Beyond the Digital Divide, Georgetown University Press, Washington, DC.

Murdock, G. and Golding, P. (2004) 'Dismantling the Digital Divide: Rethinking the Dynamics of Particiaption and Exclusion', in Calabrese, A. and Sparks, C. (eds) Towards the Political Economy of Culture: Capitalism and Communication in the Twenty-First Century, Rowman & Littlefield, Lantham, MD, pp.244-60

National Telecommunications and Information Administration (1995) Falling Through the Net: A Survey of the ‘Haves’ and ‘Have-Nots’ in Rural and Urban America, U.S. Government Printing Office, New York.

Norris, P. (2001) Digital Divide: Civic Engagement, Information Poverty, and the Internet Worldwide, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2001.

Parayil, G. (2005) Digital Divide and Increasing Returns: Contradictions of Informational Capitalism', The Information Society, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 41–51.

Peter, J. & Valkenburg, P. (2006). Adolescents’ internet use: Testing the ‘‘disappearing digital divide’’ versus the ‘‘emerging digital differentiation’’ approach. Poetics, Vol.34, pp.293-305.

Prensky, M. (2001). 'Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants'. On The Horizon - The Strategic Planning Resource for Education Professionals, 9 (5), 1-6.

Puga, P. (2011) ‘eGovernment and the digital divide’, in Haddon, L. (Ed.) The Contemporary Internet: National and Cross-National European Studies, Peter Lang, Frankfurt, pp.139-154.

Rainie L, Madden M, Boyce A, Lenhart A and Allen K (2003) The Ever-shifting Internet Population: A New Look at Internet Access and the Digital Divide. Washington, DC: Pew Internet and American Life Project.

Reisdorf, B. (2010) 'Non-adoption of the internet in Great Britian and Sweden: A Cross National Comparison', Information, Communication and Society, 14 (3), pp. 400-20.

Robinson, L, (2009). 'A Taste for the Necessary', Information, Communication and Society, Vol.12, No. 4, pp.488.

Rogers, E. (2001) ‘The Digital Divide’, Convergence, Vol.7, No.4, pp.96-111.

Sassi, S. (2005). 'Cultural differentiation or social segregation? Four approaches to the digital divide'. New Media & Society, 7(5), 684-700.

Schofield Clark L., Demont-Heinrich C. & Webber S. (2005) Parents, ICTs, and Children’s Prospects for Success: Interviews along the Digital ‘Access Rainbow’. Critical Studies in Media Communication 22, 409–426.

Schradie, J. (2001) ‘The Digital Production Gap: The Digital Divide and Web 2.0 Collide’, Poetics 39, 145–168

Selwyn, N. (2003) Apart from Technology: Understanding Peoples’ Non-use of Information and Communication Technologies in Everyday Life. Technology in Society 25(1): 99–116.

Selwyn, N. (2004) ‘Reconsidering Political and Popular Understandings of the Digital Divide’, New Media and Society, Vol.6, No.3, pp.341-62.

Selwyn N (2006) 'Digital Division or Digital Decision? A Study of Non-users and Low-users of Computers’, Poetics 34(4–5): 273–292.

Selwyn, N. and Facer K (2007) Beyond the Digital Divide. Bristol: NESTA Futurelab.

Selwyn, N. &Facer, K. (2009) ‘Beyond Digital Divide: Towards an Agenda of Change’, in E. Ferro, Y. K. Dwivedi, J. R. Gil-Garcia & M. D. Williams (eds) Handbook of Research on Overcoming Digital Divides: Constructing an Equitable and Competitive Information Society, Information Science Reference, Hershey, PA, pp. 1–20.

*Stern, S. (2008) ‘Questioning the Generational Divide: Technological Exoticism and Adult Constructions of Online Youth Identity’, in Buckingham, D. (ed) Youth, Identity and Digital Media, Cambridge, MIT Press, pp.95-118.

Stevenson, S. (2009) 'Digital Divide: A Discursive Move away from the Real Inequities'. The Information Society 25(1):1–22.

Thomas, G. and Wyatt, S. (2000) ‘Access is not the only Problem: Using and Controlling the Internet’, in Wyatt, S., Henwood, F., Miller, N. and Senker, P. (eds) Technology and In/equality, Questioning the Information Society, Routledge, London, pp.21-45.

Tolbert, J. and Mossberger, K. (2006) 'New Inequality Frontier: Broadband Internet Access', EPI Working Paper 275. Economic Policy Institute

Tripp, L. (2011) “‘The computer is not for you to be looking around, it is for schoolwork’: Challenges for digital inclusion as Latino immigrant families negotiate children’s access to the internet”, New Media and Society, Vol.13, No.4, pp.552–567.

Tsatsou, P. (2011). 'Digital Divides Revisited: What is New about Divides and their Research?' Media, Culture & Society, Vol.33, No.2, pp.317–31.

Tsatsou, P (2012) ‘The Role of Social Culture in Internet Adoption in Greece: Unpacking “I Don't Want to Use the Internet” and Frequency of Use', The Information Society: An International Journal, 28:3, 174-188

Van Deursen, A. and van Dijk, J. (2011) ‘Internet skills and the digital divide’, New Media and Society, Vol.13, No.6, pp.893–911.

Van Deursen, A. and van Dijk, J. (2014) 'The Digital Divide Shifts to Differences in Usage', New Media & Society, Vol. 16, No.3, pp.507–526'

Van Dijk, J. (1999) The Network Society: Social aspects of New Media, Sage, London.

Van Dijk, J. A. and G. M. (2005). The Deepening Divide: Inequality in the Information Society. Thousand Oaks, CA, USA.: Sage.

Van Dijk, J. (2006) 'Digital Divide Research, Achievements and Shortcomings', Poetics, Vol.34, No.4-5, pp.221-35.

Van Dijk, J. and Hacker, K. (2003) 'The Digital Divide as a Complex and Dynamic Phenomenon’, The Information Society, vol. 19, pp. 315–326.

Vehovar, V., Sicherl P., Hüsing T. and Dolnicar, V. (2006) 'Methodological Challenges of Digital Divide Measurements', The Information Society, Vol. 22, No. 5, pp.279-290.

Verdegem, P., and Verhoest, P. (2009). Profiling the Non-user: Rethinking Policy Initiatives Stimulating ICT Acceptance. Telecommunications Policy, Vol.33, No.10–11, 642–52.

Warschauer, M. (2003) Technology and Social Inclusion: Rethinking the Digital Divide, MIT Press, Cambridge.

Wasserman, I and Richmond-Abbott, M (2005) 'Gender and the Internet: Causes of Variation in Access, Level, and Scope of Use'. Social Science Quarterly, Vol.86, pp.252–270.

Wei, L. and Hindman, D. (2011) 'Does the Digital Divide Matter more? Comparing the Effects of New Media and Old Media Use on the Education-Based Knowledge Gap'. Mass Communication and Society, Vol.14, No. 2, pp/216–235.

Witte, J. and Mannon, S. (2007) The Internet and Social Inequalities. New York: Routledge.

Wyatt, S. Thomas, G. and Terranova, T. (2002), ‘They Came, they Surfed, they Went Back to the Beach: Conceptualising Use and Non-Use of the Internet’, in Woolgar, S. (Ed.) Virtual Society? Technology, Cyperbole and Reality, Oxford, University Press, Oxford, pp.23-40

Zillien, N. and Hargittai, E. (2009) 'Digital Distinction: Status-Specific Internet uses'. Social Science Quarterly, Vol.90, No. 2, pp.274–291.