In brief

On average, 93% of children aged between 10 and 15 are Internet users and 70% have their own smartphone in Spain (INE, 2018).  Even though the number of children who go online from different devices and in different contexts has increased, as has, obviously, their exposure to risks (EUKO Spain, 2018), the number of children who actually suffer harm from an experience involving risk is, in fact, relatively smaller. The evidence also showed that although social skills in general and skills related to mobile media are relatively widespread, there is a need for improvement in creative and critical skills. 

Spain Spain

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  • The team has informed Spanish policy makers at all levels, through collaborations, invitations for presentations of the findings, reports and other publications and indirectly through media coverage and adaptation of research results in various contexts. We collaborate closely with the Spanish Agency for Digital Agenda (Red.Es) and with the Spanish National Institute for Cybersecurity (INCIBE, in Spanish) which coordinates the Safer Internet Centre in Spain (IS4K).
  • The team has also joined the Safer Internet Action project coordinated by the INCIBE and funded by the CEF-Telecom Programme of the European Comission (CEF-TC-2018-1). This project is aimed at providing an awareness centre, a helpline and a hotline and rising awareness among children, parents, teachers and other professionals working with children on online safety issues.
  • As participants in this project, the team is carrying out fieldwork with parents in seven different regions in Spain. In total, 850 parents will be interviewed face-to-face in their homes. The main aim of this research is to provide a diagnosis of the parents’ mediation strategies in order to recommend mediation policies to some other agents involved in this project. 
  • The team conducted the EU Kids Online IV fieldwork in the autumn of 2018. Over 3,000 minors were surveyed in their schools by filling in a questionnaire. The report, including the main findings of this dataset, was presented on June 18th to the principal national media in Spain. The report publication was funded by the INCIBE. A leaflet will also be published and widely distributed in order to provide some basic advice for parents with which to promote a safer use of the digital technologies among Spanish children and adolescents together with a shorter version of our main findings.
  • EU Kids Online Spain developed in 2018 the fieldwork and coordinated a report on digital divide and disadvantaged childhood for UNICEF Spain which was presented to representatives of NGOs and policy makers related to children’s rights and wellbeing.
  • We also published a report with the main results of the survey developed for the Net Children Go Mobile project about the use of internet and mobile devices in Spain, and edited a book about children and digital media with several collaborations from Spanish, Latin American and European authors, targeted for academics, parents, stakeholders and the school community.
  • The EU Kids Online Spain research group has continued to carry out important work related to the dissemination of the group's findings in the media about the opportunities and risks for children and adolescents on the Internet, by participating in seminars, giving interviews, taking part in colloquia, conferences and round tables etc.

Reports and resources


Garmendia, M., Jiménez, E., & Larrañaga, N. (2019). Bullying y ciberbullying: victimización, acoso y daño. Necesidad de intervenir en el entorno escolar. Revista española de pedagogía77(273), 295-311.

Garmendia, M, & Karrera, I. (2019). ICT use and digital inclusion among Roma/Gitano adolescentsMedia and Communication7(1), 22-31.

Del Río, M.A; Garmendia, M. & Garitaonandia, C (2019)Internet y la infancia española con problemas de aprendizaje, de comportamiento y otras discapacidadesRevista Latina de Comunicación Social, 74, 653-667.

Casado, M. A., Garitaonandia, C. Moreno, G., Jimenez, E., & (2019). Immigrant children and the Internet in Spain: uses, opportunities, and risksMedia and Communication7(1), 56-65.

Garitaonandia, C., Karrera, I., Larrañaga, N. (2019). Media convergence, risk and harm to children onlineDoxa Comunicación, 28, version preprint.

Casado, M.A, Garitaonandia, C., Jiménez, E., Garmendia, M., Karrera, I., Moreno, G. (2018). Los niños y niñas de la brecha digital en EspañaMadrid: Unicef Comité Español.

Garitaonandia, C. (2018). Smartphone Cultures (Review). Communication and Society, 366-367.

Jiménez, E., Garmendia y M., Casado, M.A. (coords) (2018). Entre selfies y whatsapps. Oportunidades y riesgos para la infancia y la adolescencia conectada. Barcelona: Editorial Gedisa.

Garmendia, M & Karrera, I. (2018). Sexting: qué sabemos y qué nos queda por aprender. En E. Jiménez, M. Garmendia y M.A Casado. (Eds) Entre sefies y whatsapps. Oportunidades y riesgos para la infancia y adolescencia conectada, 141-152.

Garmendia, M., Casado, M. A., Jiménez, E. & Garitaonandia, C. (2018) Oportunidades, riesgos, daño y habilidades digitales de los menores españoles. En E. Jiménez, M. Garmendia y M. A. Casado. (Eds.) Entre selfies y whatsapps. Oportunidades y riesgos para la infancia y adolescencia conectada, 31-54. Barcelona: Gedisa.

Martínez, G. & Casado, M.A. (2018). La responsabilidad  de las madres y de los padres españoles como mediadores en el uso de Internet que hacen los menores: evolución y nuevos retos. En E. Jiménez, M. Garmendia y M. A. Casado. (Eds.) Entre selfies y whatsapps. Oportunidades y riesgos para la infancia y adolescencia conectada, 173-185. Barcelona: Gedisa.

Garmendia, M., Casado del Rio, M. A. & Jiménez, (2018) Adolescents and smartphones: coping with overload. En J. Vincent & L. Haddon (Eds.) Smartphone Cultures, 108-120. London: Routledge.


Maialen Garmendia 2019

Maialen Garmendia (PhD) Senior Lecturer in Sociology at the Faculty of Education, Philosophy and Anthropology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU). Her interests are in social research techniques, audience research and digital technologies and everyday life. Since 2006 she has been a member of the EU Kids Online network. She coordinated the Net children Go Mobile project in Spain.

Carmelo 2019

Carmelo Garitaonandia is Professor of Journalism at the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) and was its Vice-Chancellor from 2009 to 2017. PhD in Political Sciences and B.A. in Law and Master of Information and Audiovisual Communication (University of Paris VII). He has written numerous scientific articles and books on topics related to the history of communication, regional TV, digital TV and digital technologies and their influence on children and teenagers. 

Estefania Jimenez 2019

Estefanía Jiménez, (PhD) Lecturer in Media Studies at University of Basque Country (UPV/EHU). She has been visiting fellow at UAB (Barcelona), Instituto Tecnológico de Monterrey (Mexico) and University of Oxford. She has been member of EU Kids Online since 2012. She has published her works both in journals and divulgative publications and conferences. She has recently co-edited and published the book “Entre selfies y whatsapps. Oportunidades y riesgos para la infancia y la adolescencia conectada” (Gedisa, 2018), and collaborates with institutions related to childhood rights and cibersecurity such as Unicef and She is also a regular contributor to the media.

Iñaki Karrera 2019

Inaki Karrera; (PhD) Lecturer at the Faculty of Education, Philosophy and Anthropology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) in Donostia-San Sebastián. He has taken part in several research projects, at European (Socrates-Grundtvig 2010-1-FR1-GRU06-00253-1), country and local level. His research interests are related to Educational Inclusion and Innovation, digital divide and social inequalities. 

Nekane Larrañaga 2019

Nekane Larrañaga (PhD) Senior Lecturer in Sociology at the Faculty of Education, Philosophy and Antropology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU). Her research interest and topics are related to diversity, intercultural relations, interethnic relationships, values and school, bilingualism, identity, citizenship and acculturation.  She has participated in several research projects. ORCID 0000-0002-8062-3544

Gema Martinez 2019

Gemma Martínez (PhD) has developed her doctoral thesis at the University of the Basque Country within the framework of the EU Kids Online project, focused on the topic of parental mediation. She has collaborated in different national and international projects. During her years of residence in London where she moved to do a research stay at the LSE, she combined her academic career with working in different schools in London with children with different special needs. Gemma has a passion for studying, working and learning about children´s development and collaborates actively with Spanish institutions, which promote a safer use of the new technologies.


Maialen Garmendia
Department of Sociology and Social Work
Universidad del País Vasco/ Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea
Tel: +34 943 01 70 25
EU Kids Online Spain