THE RISE AND DEMISE OF NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE ORIGINS OF POST-COLD WAR CAPITALISM Mark T. Berger
This article begins by outlining the way in which the crisis of colonialism, the universalisation of the nation-state system, and the deepening of the Cold War, provided the context for the rise and consolidation between the 1940s and the 1970s, of the national development project, which naturalised the nation-state as the key unit of both capitalist and socialist development worldwide. This leads to an examination of postcolonial and post-development critiques and a discussion of the implications of the onset of globalisation for the project of national development.
It is concluded that the notion of post-Cold War capitalism (in contrast to the idea of the postcolonial condition) more effectively captures the global and the specific aspects of the present historical juncture and the challenges that confront every effort to articulate alternatives to the globalisation project. The immediate origins of post-Cold War capitalism are traced to a number of interconnected trends in the 1970s.
In particular, the modification of the overall shape of the political economy of the Cold War by the US paved the way for the elaboration and eventual consolidation of the US-centred globalisation project. Yet as the global market unfolds the instrumentalities and capacities of states are reconfigured and diluted. Although the new era of post-Cold War capitalism continues to be characterised by an open political horizon, where movements like the Zappatistas can offer an alternative, there is still a lack of serious systemic challenges (of either a reactionary, reformist or a revolutionary character) to the prevailing global order.
IMAGINING MOBUTU'S ZAIRE: THE PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF NATIONAL IDENTITY IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Kevin C. Dunn
Using the example of Mobutu's Zaïre, this article explores the complexities of identity production and consumption within international relations. Through his invention of Zaïre and his rhetoric of authenticité, Mobutu developed a counter-hegemonic discourse on the Congo within international relations, largely through the appropriation of Third World discourses on nationalism, Western philosophical rhetoric, colonial imagery, and the discourses of Cold War competition.
This article also examines the diverse ways Mobutu's discourses on Zaïrian identity were consumed by different groups within the international community. Central to this article's thesis is the belief that an examination of the discursive production of identities in IR should be combined with an exploration of how those discourses are interpreted or consumed. Much of the literature on identity in IR either ignores or overlooks the second half of the production/consumption process. This article constructs a more integrated approach to identity in order to address both aspects.
WE GOOD EUROPEANS GENEALOGICAL REFLECTIONS ON EUROPE Stefan Elbe
This article analyses the ways in which Nietzsche's genealogical ethos can contribute to our contemporary thinking about the meaning of the European idea. It sets out by outlining the main aspects of Nietzsche's genealogical approach. The article then identifies the growing debate on the contemporary 'crisis' and 'meaninglessness' of the European idea as a site where Nietzsche's genealogical reflections can be applied creatively and innovatively. There are at least three benefits that emerge from such an engagement. Firstly, Nietzsche's genealogy of European nihilism can assist in explaining the pessimism that is frequently displayed by contemporary scholars and policy-makers in response to the perceived absence of a more meaningful vision of Europe. Secondly, Nietzsche's genealogical analysis exposes some of the historical limitations that characterise much of the contemporary debate on the idea of Europe, pointing instead to a conception of the 'good European' that seeks to address these limitations. Finally, and most importantly, Nietzsche's genealogical method is capable of provoking a valuable experience of autonomy in relation to many previous constraints of European culture. Nietzsche's genealogical ethos can, thus, be of considerable use in delineating a way of thinking about the European idea in the twenty-first century that neither posits an essentialist idea of Europe, nor restricts itself to a technocratic or functionalist approach to European governance.
REFLEXIVE SECURITY: NATO AND INTERNATIONAL RISK SOCIETY Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen
Risk is becoming the operative concept of Western security. In the post-Cold War world, Western security has become reconstructed in terms of what is most commonly referred to as 'security challenges and risks'. This article seeks to explore the conception of security on which this construction is based, by turning to Ulrich Beck's notion of reflexive risk, which is the centre of a growing sociological research programme that seeks to describe the transformation of modern society in terms of the creation of a new late modern rationality. Through an analysis of the strategic re-conceptualisation of NATO in the 1990s, it is argued that the rationality of security has transformed in ways that be understood by means of notion of reflexive risk.
THE LAND OCCUPATION MOVEMENT AND DEMOCRATISATION IN ZIMBABWE: CONTRADICTIONS OF NEOLIBERALISM Sam Moyo
The 1988 land occupations in Zimbabwe received wide public attention by the international media, as a unique phenomenon with significant international dimensions. However, the discipline of international relations, including most of the literature on social movements, has ignored the issue. The article argues that the high profile land occupations in Zimbabwe are not new, but should be understood within the context of a broader political and economic environment of the country's neoliberal experience. Furthermore they constitute a manifestation of a much larger phenomenon currently underway across the South.
The paper focuses on the development of the land occupation movement in Zimbabwe, tracing its origins in the colonial legacy of unfair land distribution, the negative effects of structural adjustment strategies and the neoliberal formal politics, which perpetuated social inequalities, under the banner of a human-rights oriented framework and false promises of land-redistribution. Furthermore, it is emphasised that the way in which the western media portrayed the occupations, as a spontaneous eruption of violence, concealed the fact that they constituted a complex phenomenon that has been manipulated for electoral purposes by all the Zimbabwean political parties, while remaining, in many instances, firmly grounded on local political demands, expressed by war veterans associations, local farmers and even spiritual mediums. The paper concludes with some general comments on the character and nature of land movements, and their implications for the study of social movements at a global level.
CONVERSATION ACROSS BOUNDARIES: POLITICAL THEORY AND GLOBAL DIVERSITY Fred Dallmayr
In his essay 'The Voice of Poetry in the Conversation of Mankind', Michael Oakeshott defended a mode of discourse not subservient to science or technical utility and hence not premised on rational argumentation or strategic manipulation. This essay explores the relevance of his model for a global or cosmopolitan discourse conducted along non-hegemonic lines. The basic thesis is that an Oakeshottian conversation of humankind has to steer a path between a hegemonically imposed universalism and an array of self-enclosed ethnocentric particularisms. The first part of the essay examines some of the major obstacles facing such conversation in the political arena, with special attention to the effects of Realpolitik and political 'Orientalism'. Next, the essay turns to a prominent conception of cosmopolitan discourse, articulated by Habermas in his 'The Unity of Reason in the Diversity of Its Voices'. By way of conclusion, the paper offers an alternative model of cosmopolitan interaction, inspired at least in part by Oakeshott's linkage of conversation with inter-human friendship.
CROSS-STATE CITIZEN NETWORKS: A RESPONSE TO DALLMAYR William E. Connolly
In a response to Fred Dallmayr's 'conversation across boundaries', this article focuses on the concentric character of most contemporary models of the territorial state and global diversity. Endorsing Dallmayr's agenda, while amending and augmenting it, the paper also explores a more rhizomatic or network vision of pluralism. The argument is that such an ideal is most congruent with the conversation Dallmayr pursues.
THE BOUNDARIES OF CONVERSATION: A RESPONSE TO DALLMAYR Nicholas Rengger
This essay dissents from the argument that Fred Dallmayr makes in his article in the current issue. While accepting the centrality of the topics which he raises and accepting also that Oakeshott's work provides an important stimulus to our rethinking of such topics, the essay takes issue with three areas of Dallmayr's discussion. The first challenges his interpretation of Oakeshott's metaphor of conversation; while the second challenges the substantive points developed from that interpretation. The third explores the implications of Dallmayr's argument, which, it might be said, is in Oakeshott's terms a rather 'practical' argument, that might potentially become problematic given Dallmayr's wish to adopt the notion of conversation.
MERGING THE RIVULETS OF OPPOSITION :PERSPECTIVES OF THE ANTI-CAPITALIST MOVEMENT Gareth Dale
In recent years a broad set of organisations and campaigns have come to be seen as forming a loosely unified anti-systemic movement. The names by which it is known - anti-corporate, anti-globalisation, anti-capitalist - indicate both its diversity and its unity around closely related anti-systemic themes. This article reviews three recent books by movement activists. It explores the authors' social critique and sketches their agendas for political transformation, as well as suggesting a number of causes for the movement's emergence.