GLOBALISATION AS DEMOCRATIC THEORY Stephen J. Rosow
Democracy circulates in globalisation in ways democratic theory is beginning to appreciate. While the impact of global flows of capital and labour, deepening interdependence, telematics, and computerisation is being studied, the ways in which prevailing ideologies of globalisation inadequately reassess the scope and concepts of democracy needs also to be contested. This essay argues that three dominant ideologies of globalisation - neoliberal global capitalism, the internationalisation of the liberal democratic state, and a global commercial culture - occlude such contestation over the scope and basic concepts of democracy in contemporary politics. The essay raises suspicions about the circulation of democracy in ideologies of globalisation and about the politics of the language of globalisation, and assesses the inadequate conceptualisations of democracy in each of the dominant stories. It concludes with suggestions for a democratic theory which respects the ambiguities of contemporary identity and action which globalisation produces.
CLEANING THE LAUNDRY: STATES AND THE MONITORING OF THE FINANCIAL SYSTEM Vincent Sica
The current structure of the financial system has increased the private sector's capacity to overcome the state's regulatory capacity. Three notable and much discussed variants of the demise of the state's regulatory capacity thesis rely upon the structural power of capital, the effects of technology, and the decline of territoriality to argue that states are losing their rule making, and hence political, authority over the financial system. In contrast, national and international efforts to prevent money laundering provide empirical evidence of states regulating financial intermediaries to achieve political goals. This paper uses the anti-money laundering regime to demonstrate that key Western states continue to be able to use their authority over financial intermediaries that operate on or through their territory to regulate national and international financial behaviour.
CONSTRUCTING A NEW ORTHODOXY? WENDT'S 'SOCIAL THEORY OF INTERNATIONAL POLITICS' AND THE CONSTRUCTIVIST CHALLENGE Friedrich Kratochwil
This article provides both a critical review of Alex Wendt's Social Theory of International Politics and its version of 'construtivism', and a more principled assessment of 'progress' in theory building in the social sciences. As to the first task, I argue that Wendt's, attempt that is both indebted to scientific realism and constructivism, fails because of the incompatibility of these two metatheoretical positions. Consequently, his effort of constructing a new 'middle ground' is a disciplinary undertaking that is more likely to result in a new orthodoxy than in the creation of new interesting puzzles by engaging constructivism's heuristic power. In addressing the second question, I follow the epistemological discussion of the last few decades and attempt to show their dependence on the often uncritical acceptance of certain metaphors of 'growth', 'approximation', 'foundations' that deserve closer critical examination, before we can embrace a particular metatheory and utilise its criteria in the assessment of knowledge claims.
'CIVILISING' GLOBALISATION? THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE 'BATTLE IN SEATTLE' Mary Kaldor
The article argues that the concept of global civil society is new and distinct from classical definitions of civil society. It refers both to a global rule of law and to political contestation in the global arena. What happened at Seattle was an expression of global civil society. How this influences the future direction of globalisation depends on the political alliances that are constructed and the extent to which global civil society can represent the voices of the victims of globalisation.
CAUTIONARY REFLECTIONS ON SEATTLE Jan Aart Scholte
The so-called 'Battle of Seattle' against a Millennium Round of trade liberalisation negotiations highlighted widespread disquiet about neoliberal globalisation. This event also suggested that popular mobilisation can hinder or even reverse this policy course. However, we must not exaggerate the scale of change represented by popular disruption of the proceedings in Seattle. Nor should we overestimate the capacities or take for granted the democratic credentials of civil society opposition to neoliberalism. Regrettably, too, the demonstrators of Seattle offered relatively little vision of an alternative, better world order.
GETTING REAL ABOUT SEATTLE Fred Halliday
Following the schema of orthodox IR teaching in Britain, the events in Seattle allow three different narratives: a revolutionist, a rationalist, and a realist one. No retrospective that ignores any one of these is adequate. In particular, a historical perspective shows that a caution needs to be exercised when drawing conclusions about Seattle in regard to the growth in the 1990s and 2000s of 'global civil society'. The paper questions whether, without a clear 'emancipatory' agent, the invoking of a global civil society makes much sense and concludes by outlining how the most important underlying issues at Seattle concern the future of global governance itself.
TOWARD A POSTMODERN PRINCE? THE BATTLE IN SEATTLE AS A MOMENT IN THE NEW POLITICS OF GLOBALISATION Stephen Gill
In the new millennium a challenge for political theory is to imagine and hypothesise new forms of political agency that might lead to more ethical and democratic political institutions and practices. The Seattle and Washington protests provide evidence for such an hypothesis, which following Machiavelli and Gramsci I call the 'postmodern Prince', understood as a set of potentials in movement. The postmodern Prince is a complex, multiple, and diverse form of collective action, akin to a postmodern transnational political party. Its mobilising myths involve human and intergenerational security on and for the planet; democratic human development; and human rights. It combines defensive and forward-looking strategies that involve a universal politics of radical (re)construction, related to four sets of globalising contradictions.
DESCRIBING THE NUCLEAR ELEPHANT: NUCLEAR POLICY AND POLITICS IN INDIA AND PAKISTAN Haider K. Nizamani
The review article argues that scholarly accounts and explanations of the intricacies of the nuclear imbroglio in South Asia closely resemble the story of the blind men describing an elephant. The article discusses various perspectives employed to study nuclear politics and policies in the subcontinent. It shows that tenets of political realism guide most analysts on the issue, but of late there have been efforts to go beyond the traditional deterrence theory and analyse nuclear weapons politics with the help of works of scholars like Michel Foucault. The essay concludes that in order to understand and appreciate dynamics of nuclear politics in the subcontinent there is room for conducting research that goes beyond traditional security studies.
RESURRECTING INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL THEORY Brian C. Schmidt
This review essay takes the opportunity provided by the publication of two important books on the history of IR theory to examine the relationship between Political Theory and theories of international relations. The article critically analyses the distinction that scholars have made between Political Theory and IR theory. In the two author's attempt to construct a tradition of international political theory, the article critically analyses the manner in which they both conceptualise the relationship