Abstracts Vol. 28, No. 1

EMERGENCY OR EMERGING IDENTITIES? REFUGEES AND TRANSFORMATIONS IN WORLD ORDER Peter Nyers

Emergency situations are always interesting for how they reveal the often unquestioned and undertheorised assumptions about what constitutes a 'normal state of affairs'. This article applies this perspective when considering the current possibilities and limitations of multilateral humanitarian action during refugee crises. While humanitarianism is often portrayed as posing a challenge to the codes and practices of state sovereignty, this article argues that framing the refugee phenomenon as a 'humanitarian emergency' works to sustain constitutive practices which stabilise and reproduce statist resolutions to questions of political identity, community, and world order. In contrast to the 'problem solving' approach favoured by conventional refugee studies, this paper seeks to provide a perspective on refugee flows which highlights how refugees actively contest and challenge statist resolutions to ethico-political questions. Here, refugee flows are seen as being intimately connected to ongoing historical struggles over the nature and location of 'political' community and identity.

DIALOGUES OF MANOEUVRE AND ENTANGLEMENT: NATO, RUSSIA AND THE CEECS K.M. Fierke

Dialogue has become a central feature of post-Cold War NATO discourse as well as a concept for theoretical exploration in International Relations. This article explores the role of NATO's dialogue with its former adversaries in constructing post-Cold War security relations in Europe. The theoretical argument builds on two concepts: a 'language of manoeuvre', as used by Hollis and Smith, and the Wittgensteinian notion of being 'entangled' in our language. These insights are applied to an analysis of interactions between NATO, Russia, and the Central and Eastern European countries over a six-year period. While accepting that NATO may have had an instrumental goal in encouraging dialogue, once engaged in the process, Alliance manoeuvres, including the decision to expand, were circumscribed and shaped at any given point in time by its entanglement in conflicting promises to others.

WESTERN MODELS AND THE 'RUSSIAN IDEA': BEYOND 'INSIDE/OUTSIDE' IN DISCOURSES ON CIVIL SOCIETY Heikki Patomäki and Christer Pursiainen

Contemporary Russian theoretical debates on civil society can be divided between two major trends in Russian political thought, Westernism and Eurasianism, i.e., between the Russian versions of a universalist, linear modernisation theory, and a culture-centred, nationalist-oriented relativist communitarism. There are good arguments for going beyond the simplistic juxtaposition between the Westernisers, or zapadniki, and the Eurasianists in Russia. The zapadniki are mistaken in thinking they represent the only possible way of seeing Western values and progress in terms of modernisation, while the Eurasianists wrongly think that many of their particularist concerns cannot be addressed in terms of Western discourses of pluralism and democratisation. The authors argue that participatory models of democracy offer a more plausible and sustainable view of civil society for both zapadniki and Eurasianists. Moreover, the authors suggest that the Eurasianist call for global pluralism can be better addressed by a theory of cosmopolitan democracy than a gloomy vision of a clash of civilisations.

CONSTRUCTING THE ECONOMIC SPACE: THE WORLD BANK AND THE MAKING OF HOMO OECONOMICUS David Williams

The World Bank is engaged in constructing market economies in developing countries. Part of the justification for this activity is that market-based economic arrangements are, at base, 'natural' because they are the product of an economic rationality inherent in all persons. An examination of the practices of the World Bank, however, reveals that the economy is a 'constructed' space not simply in terms of the need for the 'right' economic policies, or a 'good' institutional and regulatory environment, but because economic rationality itself must be constructed.

A STORY BEYOND TELOS: REDEEMING THE SHIELD OF ACHILLES: FOR A REALISM OF RIGHTS IN IR Stephen Chan

This paper sets out to tell a story, and to do so in both an archaic and modern way, using primarily the characters and motifs of Homer's Illiad. In a way it is, therefore, an effort loosely in the style of Horkheimer and Adorno's use of Homer's Odyssey, and is meant to be an antidote to the more sterile formats of a formal IR. The point of the story is that, unlike Shapiro and Der Derian's view, a story does not have to embody a telos. The world has stories to tell, and it is the responsibility of IR scholars, not just to deconstruct them for their political animations, but to reinvent them as the basis of solidarities and the imagination implicit in successful dialogue.

Going Cultural: Star Trek, State Action, and Popular Culture Jutta Weldes

International Relations has recently witnessed a 'return of culture' both as a source of insecurity and as an object of analysis. But this renewed focus on culture has limited the investigation of culture to elite or interstate settings and has correspondingly failed to examine the role of popular culture. This essay argues that popular culture contributes significantly to the reproduction, and hence the popularisation, of official foreign policy discourse, and thus to state action. Popular culture, it is argued, provides a background of meanings that help to constitute public images of international relations and foreign policy. As a result, popular culture helps to construct the reality of international politics for officials and non-officials alike and, to the extent that it reproduces the content and structure of the dominant foreign policy discourse, it helps to produce consent to foreign policy and state action. In order to direct the attention of IR scholars to the importance of popular culture and its role in the production of common sense about international relations and state action, the relationship between US foreign policy, and the discursive universe of Star Trek is examined.

CIVILIZATION ON TRIAL Patrick Thaddeus Jackson

The concept of 'civilisation' has recently re-entered the theoretical horizons of IR. Authors have deployed the concept in various ways in their efforts to explain the dynamics of world politics. Yet a basic divide in this research between 'substantialist' and 'processual' or 'relational' approaches to phenomena has gone largely unnoticed. Identifying and appreciating this difference will help us to organise and execute our researches in a more self-conscious manner, and assist us in appreciating the role played by civilisations

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