Abstracts Vol. 27, No. 2

THE EVOLUTION OF THE CONSTITUTION OF SOVEREIGNTY AND THE EMERGENCE OF HUMAN RIGHTS NORMS J. Samuel Barkin.

Theories of international relations tend to look at norms of human rights as incompatible with norms of sovereignty. The emergence of norms of human rights in international relations can be seen, instead, as neither a constraint on nor a signal of the decline of sovereignty, but rather an evolution in the way sovereignty is understood by and legitimised in the international community. Norms of sovereign legitimation are social constructions, changes in which affect both the discourse and the conduct of international relations. This article traces a number of major changes in these norms since the Peace of Westphalia. The most recent change, marking the end of the Cold War, has made respect for human rights a condition of legitimate sovereignty, and thus, of full participation in the community of states.

THE NEW POLITICAL ECONOMY OF AREA STUDIES Anthony Payne.

This article seeks to set in train a rethinking of area studies inside international studies capable of bringing this sub-field in from the margins of the discipline. It suggests that the way forward is to connect area studies to the wider debate about the global political economy. Beginning with a survey of recent debates in international political economy and the political economy of development, the article shows that they establish the importance of assessing the structural context in which states and non-state actors have to operate. In so doing, it claims that the notion of structural context can only be freed from excessively determinist connotations by inserting into the overall framework an explicitly agency-oriented body of theory. The final section of the article puts the framework into action and sets out briefly an illustrative research agenda within the new political economy of area studies applied to the Carribean.

CULTURAL RELATIVISM, UNIVERSALISM, AND THE BURDEN OF PROOF John J. Tilley.

In debates over cultural relativism and moral universalism it is commonly assumed that universalists bear the burden of proof, that cultural relativism is the default position. This article shows this assumption to be mistaken, and discusses four sources of the mistake. By so doing, it attempts to lift the burden of proof from universalists. Along the way it shows that cultural relativism is implausible.

THE NUCLEAR WEAPONS DECISION BY THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE: LOCATING THE RAISON BEHIND RAISON D'ETAT Daniel Warner.

In the recent Nuclear Weapons Case before the International Court of Justice, the majority Opinion used raison d'état to justify the legality of the threat or use of nuclear weapons in cases of extreme State survival. After a brief overview of the role of the Court, this article will analyse the crucial paragraph of the decision, focussing on the Judges' failure to maintain the traditional separation of jus ad bellum from jus in bello and their inability to explain the reason behind raison d'état. In the concluding section, the article will suggest some reasons for this failure and try to situate the legal argument within International Relations.

CINDERELLA AT THE BALL: EXPLAINING THE END OF THE WAR IN NORTHERN IRELAND Michael Cox.

This discussion piece focusses on the war in Northern Ireland, which it claims has been ignored by International Relations. It illuminates the relevance of international relations to theTroubles in Northern Ireland. The article emphasises the role of the United States as a Third Party, the end of the Cold War, and the Irish entry into the European Union. It finally reiterates the need to reconsider the validity of realism in International Studies.

GENDERING IR Terrell Carver.

The books reviewed treat gender methodologically in the manner of the third debate. Jill Stean's introductory text uses feminist theory to relate gender to the state, war and security, and gestures towards the role of men and masculinities in IR. The contributors to the Marysia Zalewski and Jane Parpart edited volume tackle this subject head-on, notable chapters consider IR as itself a producer of multiple masculinities and gays in the military as indicative of a defining gender and sexuality. The Nickie Charles and Helen Hintjens edited volume considers women in relation to founding narratives of nationhood and conceptuaslisations of identity and difference amongst citizens, and the Isabella Bakker edited volume considers women as objects and subjects of economic change in contemporary Canada. Contributions to both books are easily grossed up from national to international politics. The Ariel Salleh and Victor J. Seidler monographs are manifestos for a sexual politics against hegemonic masculinities, the former theorising a materialist eco-feminism based in female subsistence labour, and the latter advocating men's groups to link invigorating feelings to politics.

POLITICISING INTERNATIONAL FINANCE Philip G. Cerny.

This review article examines five books on international finance to reconsider the politics of global finance. It asks whether financial globalisation is an autonomous, self-sufficient process or rather inherently political. And if the latter is the case, it stresses that the need to see a multiplicity of agents at a multiplicity of levels in addition to the state and the international system. By reviewing the five books, it attempts to provide a clue to approach the issue of the relationship between financial globalisation and politics.

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