Special Issue:Poverty in World Politics in the Global Era
PLAYING CATCH-UP: IR THEORY AND POVERTY Mary Durfee and James N. Rosenau.
The discrepancy between the extent of poverty in the world and its treatment in international relations (IR) theory could hardly be greater. While poverty respects no borders and affects a billion people, IR theory has virtually nothing to say on the subject. Despite a burgeoning jobs crisis and an even more pervasive fear of unemployment, poverty remains unexplored by those who treat world affairs as their domain of inquiry. Why? And more importantly, what are the prospects that realist, liberal, and other theories will bring poverty within the scope of their analyses? The article seeks to answer these questions.
LEGALITY WITH A VENGEANCE: FAMINES AND HUMANITARIAN RELIEF IN 'COMPLEX EMERGENCIES' Jenny Edkins.
Recent studies of 'complex emergencies' interpret famines as linked with wars rather than with economic breakdown. Taking a Derridean approach, this article argues that 'force' was already present in Amartya Sen's notion of entitlements, even in the absence of military conflict. Rather than seeing famines and poverty as problems that call for technical solutions from 'experts', what is needed is political and ethical engagement.
RECONCEPTUALISING 'GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT' IN AN ERA OF 'GLOBALISATION' Marianne H. Marchand.
Although many mainstream (as well as some critical) analyses of globalisation tend to ignore its gendered and racialised dimensions, there is a growing body of literature which specifically addresses these aspects. In particular, Gender and Development (GAD) specialists have felt the need to extend and revise their analyses to include the global restructuring problématique. This article provides a critical analysis of the GAD specialists' global shift by exploring three questions. First, why has there been a partial shift within the GAD community from more 'micro-oriented' concerns to more 'macro-level analyses'? Second, to what extent has this shift been accompanied by discursive practices about gender and poverty in general and, more specifically, in conceptualising empowerment? Third, what does the new focus on global restructuring and (the possible) reconceptualisations of poverty mean for social movements organising around gender and development/global restructuring issues?
INTERNATIONALISING ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMEMTAL POLICY: TRANSNATIONAL NGO NETWORKS AND THE WORLD BANK'S EXPANDING INFLUENCE Paul Nelson.
Transnational networks of nongovernmental organisations have won important policy changes at the World Bank. Three networks, on environment, poverty and structural adjustment, have diverse approaches to expanding participation, with varied implications for relations among the World Bank, states and societies. While campaigning to expand the participation and influence of poor communities, they also have strengthened and broadened the World Bank's influence in borrowing countries.
GLOBALISATION AND POVERTY IN SOUTH ASIA Mustapha Kamal Pasha. Recent claims in International Relations Theory and Development Studies promote a shift away from statist discourses of power and planning, to an emphasis on new structures, agents, and processes in civil and global civil society. Challenging liberal notions on the emergence of new forms of transnational life via nongovernmental organisations (NGOs), this article examines the tenuous character of economic globalisation in South Asia. Given the restructuring of state and economy, and the consequent reconstitution of the social compact in South Asia, the burden of poverty alleviation may be falling on NGOs, not necessarily by design, but by default. In the absence of social planning, however, the race to competitiveness is likely to produce a new kind of indifference, undermining social connectedness.
GLOBALISATION, POVERTY AND THE PROMISES OF MODERNITY Julian Saurin.
This article seeks to show how the study of IR has proceeded with scant references to the broad question of development and the implied promises of increasing welfare and human advancement embodied in the modernising project. Furthermore, it seeks to show that the assumptions which inform IRCboth of an orthodox and critical traditionCeffectively represent, through a public transcript, a narrative of development which fails to recognise its historical and ideological provenance and, in so doing, repeats the story of the rich and powerful. Having identified the dominant history of development, the article proceeds to account for the lost history of the global organisation of ordinary life. An approach is proposed which places methodological and empirical emphasis upon the analysis of the politics of the hidden transcript. The significance of the people without history to a proper study of development and international relations is addressed through advocacy of the examination of the infrapolitics of the poor.
THE EPISTEMOLOGY OF POVERTY AND THE POVERTY OF EPISTEMOLOGY IN IPE: MYSTERY, BLINDNESS, AND INVISIBILITY Roger Tooze and Craig N. Murphy.
Mainstream IPE is not concerned with poverty or the poor. This is partly the result of IPE's empiricist epistemology and partly a consequence of power-as-resource. This article offers a critique of this epistemology and that concept of power, using the work of Partha Dasgupta as a case in point, and develops the outline of what we call an 'ameliorative epistemology' as a way forward for IPE.