I specialise in the intellectual and cultural history of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Very broadly, my research and teaching interests encompass: the history of the idea of Europe, the Enlightenment; Romanticism; travel and travel writing; the history of ‘racial’ thought; the history of cartography; and the ‘spatial turn’ in the humanities.
More specifically, my work engages with three inter-related themes. For more details, please see my list of publications:
My principal field is the history of the idea of Europe, especially in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Britain. My first book, The Shelley-Byron Circle and the Idea of Europe (Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), ) investigates how the titular authors and their intellectual circle understood ‘Europe’ in geographical, political and ideological terms, whilst also using other contemporary documents – newspapers, treaties, travel books – to locate their reflections within the wider context of early nineteenth-century Britain. In addition, the book questions the conventional association of Romanticism with emerging nationalism; it argues instead that key figures in the Romantic movement were preoccupied by explicitly international and transnational themes. Consequently the book provides a richer way to understand the development of identity politics in the period.
My current major research project, which received substantial funding from the British Academy, also focuses on the history of the idea of Europe. The project uses geographical and historical works, reference books, and maps to analyse the state of popular ‘geographical knowledge’ in the period 1760-1830. In doing so, it establishes how ordinary literate Britons understood European geography, politics, culture and history in this especially tumultuous and formative period. Importantly, the project addresses questions which have both historical significance and contemporary relevance. For example, what geographical, political, social, or racial ideas facilitate ideas about European unity or division? Where are the boundaries of Europe, and how should they be represented? These questions are especially important given current political and ideological controversy about both the future direction of Europe and Britain’s relationship with other European states. I am currently working on a book which will explore the history of these issues and allow us to understand more clearly the trajectory of (early) modern British thought about ‘Europe’.
I am also interested in broad methodological questions, particularly the so-called ‘spatial turn’ in the humanities and social sciences. What new perspectives can the spatial turn offer? How can it be used to understand the societies, cultures, and mentalities of the past? My book The Uses of Space in Early Modern History (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015), sets out to answer these questions. In the volume, leading historians discuss the uses of space in two respects: how spatial concepts can be employed by or applied to the study of history, and how spaces and spatial ideas were used for practical and ideological purposes in specific periods. The book incorporates a comprehensive range of disciplines concerned with space and history – archaeology, social history, intellectual history, imperial history, geography, and cartography – allowing for a broad variety of case studies and perspectives.
My graduate course HY469: Maps, History and Power: The Spaces and Cultures of the Past stems from my interest in space. The course explores how various European and non-European cultures from the medieval to the modern periods used maps both to understand the world around them, and to serve practical and ideological purposes: for instance, to express religious belief, to aid commercial interests, to assert cultural superiority, and to enable state formation or imperial control.
Finally, I work on the history of travel and travel writing. Using some of the insights of the ‘spatial turn’, I have begun writing about ‘real-and-imagined’ travel. I am interested in how material and other contextual circumstances can give rise to certain imaginings, and how those perspectives help shape the construction and experience of actual sites and journeys. The advantage of this approach is that allows us to study both the physical and the rhetorical aspects of travel experiences, as well as the symbiotic relationship between them. My main case-study so far on this topic has been philhellenic travel to Greece during the War of Independence: see my article ‘The Real-and-Imagined Spaces of Philhellenic Travel’, European Review of History – Revue européenne d’histoire (2013).
My undergraduate course HY323: Travel, Pleasure and Politics: The European Grand Tour 1670-1825 derives from my research on travel and travel writing. The course explores the motivations, preconceptions, activities and attitudes of the Grand Tourists, showing how they shaped the modern tourist industry in both practical and ideological terms.
Before I joined LSE, I was Lecturer in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Culture and Literature at Birkbeck, and Teaching Fellow in European Studies at UCL. I also held a British Academy Postdoctoral Fellowship in Intellectual History at LSE immediately prior to my permanent appointment. I have taught widely in several disciplines and sub-fields, including cultural history, intellectual history, political history, political theory, literary studies, and visual culture.