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This component of the research programme involves a systematic Small N comparative study of processes of state collapse (and state resilience), war, and reconstruction at the national level. Starting from criteria based on countries' experiences with state collapse and war we have chosen a set of eight countries to study in detail, with further comparator countries where work is based primarily on secondary materials. The central research questions for the Development as State-making component are:
1) Why and how, under conditions of late development, are some fragile states able to respond effectively to contestation while others collapse and/or experience large-scale violence?
2) What are the factors that contribute to and impede state reconstruction in post-war periods?
We aim to explain, at a given point in time, whether a state is moving towards collapse or away from it and what causes such movement. We evaluate the condition of a state by looking at processes of institutional change and contestation in five domains, or sub-systems of the state: security, administrative, legal, political and economic management. In fragile states, each of these domains is contested terrain where the authority of state actors and the formal institutions through which they rule are challenged by various non-state actors, often anchored in alternative institutional arrangements. Those patterns of contestation and "institutional multiplicity" are central objects of our investigation.
Primary case studies were undertaken in Afghanistan, Colombia, DR Congo, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia, with secondary research being undertaken in Pakistan, Philippines, Sudan and Tajikistan.
Overview papers on this component of research:
WP88.2 'Patterns of Resource Mobilisation and the underlying elite bargain'
WP86.2 'Double-edged Swords: armies, elite bargaining and state building'
WP84.2 'Taxation, Resource Mobilisation and State Performance'
WP83.2 'Drugs and (Dis)order: the opium trade, political settlements and state-building in Afghanistan'
WP80.2 'Civilian Control of the Military in Tanzania and Zambia: persistent exceptionalism'
WP79.2 'Kyrgyzstan in Crisis: permanent revolution and the curse of nationalism'
WP78.2 'The Political Economy of Taxation and State Resilience in Zambia'
WP77.2 'Inclusive Elite Bargains and Civil War Avoidance: Zambia'
WP76.2 'Exclusionary Elite Bargains and Civil War Onset: Uganda'
DP18 'The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship between Pakistan's ISI and Afghan insurgents'
WP75.2 'State Resilience against the odds'
WP74.2 'Poverty is not being reduced in Mozambique'
WP66.2 'Negotiating with the Taliban: toward a solution for the Afghan conflict'
DP17 ' Anatomy of a 'Political Chameleon'
WP58.2 'The Quandaries of Coding and Ranking'
WP51.2 ' The Dissipation of Political Capital among Afghanistan's Hazaras: 2001-2009'
WP50.2 'Force and Ambiguity: evaluating sources for cross-national research - the case of military interventions'
OP 9 'Economic Initiatives to Tackle Conflict: bringing politics back in'
OP8 'Guarding the State or Protecting the Economy? the economic factors of Pakistan's military coups'
WP46.2 'The Perils of Emerging Statehood: civil war and state reconstruction in Tajikistan'
WP 42.2 'Divide and rule: State penetration in Hazarajat (Afghanistan) from monarchy to the Taliban'
WP 41.2 'At the sources of factionalism and civil war in Hazarajat'
WP 40.2 'Afghanistan: Transition without end'
OP 7 'Tribal Security System (Arbakai) in Southeast Afghanistan'
DP 15 'Do inclusive elite bargains matter? A research framework for
understanding the causes of civil war in Sub-Saharan Africa'
WP 28.2 'Collapse, War and Reconstruction in Rwanda: an analytical narrative on state-making'
WP 27.2 'Collapse, War and reconstruction in Uganda: an analytical narrative on state-making'
WP 26.2 'Drivers of Change in the Democratic Republic of Congo: The Rise and Decline of the State and Challenges For Reconstruction - A Literature Review' [ also available in French]
WP 25.2 'Conceptualising the Causes and Consequences of Failed States: A Critical Review of the Literature'
WP 24.2 'District Creation and Decentralisation in Uganda'
WP 23.2 'Strong Party, Weak State? Frelimo and State Survival Through the Mozambican Civil War: an analytical narrative on state-making'
WP 22.2 'Policing, Regime Change, and Democracy: Reflections from the Case of Mexico'
WP 21.2 'The Rise and Decline of the Congolese State: an analytical narrative on state-making'
WP 19.2 ' Violent Liberalism? State, conflict and political regime in Colombia, 1930-2006: an analytical narrative on state-making'
WP 14.2 'Understanding State-building and Local Government in Afghanistan', Sarah Lister
WP 12.2 'Making Law in Rural East Africa: SunguSungu in Kenya'
WP 11.2 'The Missing Ingredient: non-ideological insurgency and state collapse in Westrn Afghanistan, 1979-1992'
WP 8.2 'Identifying Fraud in Democratic Elections: a case study of the 2004 presidential election in Mozambique'
WP 7.2 '"Tribes" and warlords in Southern Afghanistan, 1980-2005'
WP 6.2 'The Failure of a Clerical Proto-State: Hazarajat, 1979-1984'
WP 4.2 'Genesis of a Prince: the rise of Ismail Khan in Western Afghanistan, 1979-1992'
WP 3.2 'Economic and Political Foundations of State-making in Africa: understanding state reconstruction'
WP 2.2 'Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration of ex-combatants (DDR) in Afghanistan: constraints and limited capabilities'
WP 1.2 'War, State Collapse and Reconstruction: phase 2 of the Crisis States Research Programme'