a crowd of people

Crisis States Programme - Phase One

Developing the Crisis States Programme

The first phase of work on the Crisis States Programme took place between 2001 and 2005 and involved an international consortium of researchers.

an institutional approach to studying crisis and breakdown

The Crisis States Research Programme was launched in 2001 with a five-year grant from the UK Department for International Development (DfID).  Its aim was to provide new understandings of the underlying causes of crisis and breakdown in the developing world as well as the processes and interventions that might help to avoid or overcome such crises.  The programme analysed why some political systems and communities in what were termed ‘fragile states’, found in many poor and middle income countries, had broken down even to the point of violent conflict while others had not. The programme also sought to examine whether processes of globalisation had precipitated or helped to avoid crisis and social breakdown.  The first phase of work had 4 key objectives:

(1) To assess how constellations of power at local, national and global levels drive processes of institutional change, collapse and reconstruction.  In doing so, the research will challenge simplistic paradigms about the beneficial effects of economic and political liberalisation.

(2) To examine the effects of international interventions promoting democratic reform, human rights and market competition on the 'conflict management capacity', and production and distributional systems, of existing politics.

(3) To analyse how communities have responded to crisis, and the incentives and moral frameworks that have led toward either violent or non-violent outcomes.

(4) To examine what kinds of formal and informal institutional arrangements poor communities have constructed to deal with economic survival and local order.  

In 2003 CSRC Director, Prof James Putzel, highlighted some emerging themes at the mid-point of Phase One in this report.

Research Methodology for Phase One

The following outline was produced at the start of the programme of research:

The programme will investigate the sources of crisis and breakdown in some of the “fragile” political economies that make up the developing world through research at the global, national and local levels. Understanding both the causes of crisis and the processes of institutional change and reform in response to crises can only be deepened by examining the linkages between processes situated both within particular countries and those in wider regional and global systems, and the interrelationship between local, national and international systems. Below, we outline the principal issues and questions to be examined in the projects that make up this programme of work. Most of the research projects operate across the boundaries of local, national and global levels and we have tried to reflect that in the way we have organised the programme.

From the global to the national
This programme of work will look at the impact of global economic changes on patterns of conflict in a number of developing countries. We are interested in the impact of both the structural changes in the global economy and the policy prescriptions related to economic development that have gained authority at the international level. We are also interested in the impact of changes in the patterns of politics at the international level, of dominant ideas and policy prescriptions about political, legal and administrative reform, and of changes in international law on patterns of conflict in the developing countries. Our work that stretches from the global to the national level is three-fold:

Constructive/Destructive trends of global change

• Effects of international intervention

• Deconstructing the agenda for liberalization

Constructive/Destructive trends of global change
We want to examine the extent to which changes at this level have offered new opportunities for growth, poverty reduction and the social and economic conditions to overcome crises or, conversely, the extent to which these have in fact precipitated crisis and breakdown in parts of the developing world. Of course, we expect to see both constructive and destructive trends and it will be our objective to analyse the conditions under which either trend is more likely to prevail.

• How have changes in the patterns of international trade and finance affected the structure of economic organisation and thus the patterns of wealth accumulation, income earning and social inclusion and exclusion?

• What effect have these changes in the global economy and the structure of national economic organisation had on the institutional arrangements that govern the distribution of political power, coalition formation, community organisation and social cohesion? Specifically, what effect have they had on national governments’ ability to contain and regulate social conflict?

Effects of international intervention
We hope to gain a better understanding of the extent to which interventions of various kinds by the international community and the policy prescriptions they have promoted contribute either to exacerbating breakdown or to creating the conditions to overcome crises and breakdown. This takes us onto the terrain of examining both the impact of reform policies advocating structural adjustment, economic liberalisation, democratisation and respect for human rights on patterns of conflict in developing countries, as well as the impact of interventions in situations of breakdown and violent conflict.

• How have prescriptions of liberalisation, privatisation and fiscal reform promoted by international actors affected national governments’ ability to contain and regulate social conflict?

• What effect have internationally promoted prescriptions for political and administrative reform had on institutional reforms at the national and local levels and what impact have they had on patterns of conflict, as well as on the composition, support and strategies of opposition movements?

• What has been the impact of international sanctions on the ‘rogue’ regimes and groups they have been designed to target? Who has benefited and who lost from the imposition of sanctions and under what circumstances have they achieved their objectives or alternatively served to consolidate the position and power of those who they were designed to undermine?

• What are the main precepts of international law that may be relevant to the prevention of, or response to, situations of breakdown? How effective is this body of law? Specifically, as an example of the role of law in situations of breakdown, how relevant is the Convention on the Rights of the Child - as one of the more - comprehensive recent treaties (incorporating both human rights and humanitarian law) - to situations of breakdown as part of a strategy of prevention or response?

Deconstructing the agenda for liberalisation
Rather than simply taking these structural and policy changes at the global level as given, our understanding of their impact must be informed by an analysis of the processes and constellations of power that have brought them about. In other words, we want to turn the lens around and ask where does the agenda for liberalisation that has been so influential in determining the parameters of national and local development come from in the first place.

• Why, given the problematic nature of these prescriptions have an increasing number of countries chosen this path, especially in the 1990s?

• What has been the role of the IMF and the World Bank in setting this agenda, and what are the political forces that have driven their decision-making processes? What, in particular has been the role of the US Treasury in this regard?

From the national to the local
We need to understand what makes some countries or regions within countries more vulnerable to breakdown and violent conflict and crime, and less able to initiate reform and processes of peaceful conflict resolution, than others. To investigate this our programme will undertake research around four central issues that stretch from the national to the local level.

Understanding conflict and violence
We want to look at how forms of political organisations and institutions have been related to the capacity to regulate and contain conflict, and deal with crises and whether some are more prone to breakdown than others. Related to this, we are concerned with exploring the extent to which violent conflict can be seen as rational – and interrogate the relationship between predictable and unpredictable violence and between “greed and grievance”. This means exploring not only the way elites manipulate situations of violent conflict and disorder, but also the “shared goals” of those involved directly in violent conflict. This should contribute to understanding the causes of breakdown and also to understanding the possibilities for the resolution of violent conflicts.

• What has been the relationship of different frameworks of political representation to the capacity or incapacity of political systems to contain and regulate conflict generated by economic and social change? Specifically, we are interested in examining the record of various types of “participationist” forms of political organisation (based on allegiance to populist leaders, organised around communal or ethnic identities, etc) versus the record of programmatic political parties.

• Have competitive political systems, usually considered as “formally democratic” exacerbated or reduced the possibilities of breakdown and under what conditions?

• What are the factors that have led to political fragmentation and the “criminalisation of politics” that are usually associated with breakdown and the increase of violent conflict? How important has the decline of ideologically inspired oppositional organisations been to the proliferation of the “criminalisation of politics” and the proliferation of “disordered violence”?

• How do some courses of action come to seem - and how are they made by powerful people to seem - 'rational'? What are the ‘shared goals’ of those involved in violent confrontations and does identifying them contribute to the possibilities of securing peace?

Effect of changing economic organisation
We are concerned with how changes in patterns of economic organisation have affected political and social organisation in ways more or less conducive to breakdown. In most developing countries there has been a move away from statist forms of economic management that shaped patterns of class and group power and bred forms of social organisation, mechanisms of bargaining between conflicting interests and patterns of conflict mediation. Increased informalisation of employment may have profound effects on the livelihood prospects of those without significant assets and their ability to organise as a class.

• How have changes in economic organisation changed patterns of class power and class coalitions, as well as the basis of group organisation and the manner in which social groups participate in politics? Specifically, have they given rise to new class alliances or the organisation of politics on the basis of other identities (caste, ethnicity, etc) at the expense of , or in opposition to, former ruling coalitions and how has this affected political order?

• How have forms of industrial restructuring, and the expansion of the informal sector as the site of income earning, affected associational patterns among poor groups and their ability to bargain over their interests and exercise voice within the political arena, and thus the possibilities for ordered and non-violent conflict resolution?

• Is there a connection between the rise of populism and appeals to identity as a basis of organisation, with the informalisation of employment?

• Has economic change led to an expansion of income earning opportunities or increased unemployment and the proliferation of destructive activities like the sex trade and crime, that could exacerbate other social problems like the AIDS crisis or create unsustainable demands for increased public spending on law and order and social welfare?

Impact of liberalisation
We are concerned with the impact of policies of liberalisation, privatisation and fiscal austerity (whether or not they have been promoted by international actors) on the capacity of state organisations and institutions to regulate and contain conflict and mediate between parties to conflict.

• How have these policies affected the link between state organisations and powerful groups within society and the bargaining processes that existed previously?

• How have these changes in the role of the state affected patterns of patronage and the capacity to deliver social services that may have been the source of economic inefficiencies in the past but also acted to contain and regulate conflict?

Impact of political and governance reforms
We are concerned with the impact of political reforms proposed within the ‘governance agenda’ of international organisations (including those related to democratisation, decentralisation, human rights, public-private partnership and the development of civil society) on patterns of conflict, violence and crime and the possibilities for containing them, increasing cooperation and participation, and overcoming breakdown.

• To what extent has the introduction of competitive politics under pressure from external intervention expanded or reduced processes of breakdown and violent conflict?

• How has the international legal pressure on countries to comply with ‘human rights norms’ affected political and social organisation and has it had any significant impact in national law and policy?

• To what extent have decentralisation measures precipitated breakdown, offered the means to respond constructively to crisis, or made no meaningful impact and what are the conditions that lead to these alternative outcomes?

From the local to the national and the global
The assumption underpinning research that will begin at the local level is that the impact of war, conflict and rapid and disruptive social and economic change, while devastating on individual and collective lives, can be experienced as the everyday, constituting the backdrop against which people act out large periods of their lives. Aggregated and broad-brush analyses of political, economic and social upheaval tell us little about the complexity of people’s problems, choices and possibilities under such circumstances. In other words, the events, activities, institutional interactions and social relationships associated with ‘crisis and breakdown’ are often of an ongoing, long-term nature, which pre-date and out-live significant disordering political events and periods at the national level and beyond.

Much of what people think and do during periods of acute disruption or disorder is influenced by a multiplicity of factors and is experienced in very local ways. It is not possible to deduce what is happening at the local level just by observing the national and international levels, because they intersect with local processes and do not simply determine them. Work that begins at the local level will be carried out in a variety of settings including those emerging from periods of aggravated conflict, breakdown and war, as well as those where relatively stable and peaceful relations have prevailed despite conditions of crisis.

Systematic differences between violent and non-violent regions
We want to understand why under similar economic and social conditions, in some regions violence has put down roots amongst the local people, while in others peace predominates. We will examine the workings of local institutions and political party systems and the action of local political authorities. The goal will be to determine what are the systematic political, institutional and economic differences between violent and non-violent regions. This research will be placed in the context of the local economy and economic actors, natural resource endowments, and the local distribution of income and wealth.

• To what extent does local government represent local civic society and its demands and needs, and then respond effectively to the same?

• What are the linkages between the inclusiveness of local politics, the effectiveness of local government, and civil violence and social breakdown?

• How have measures of devolution or decentralisation affected the local matrix of conflict and cooperation?

Identify the strategies of the poor
We want to identify the strategies poor people follow in rural and in urban areas, in constructing or reconstructing their livelihoods in situations of discord and upheaval, often where natural resources are fragile and the object of conflict. We want to understand ways in which livelihoods are maintained, reconstructed and created in the wake of violent conflicts.

• What are the endowments and histories that people draw upon, which inform how they are able to respond to the challenges, both positive and negative, presented by fluid, unstable and uncertain social and economic environments?

• What happens when formal market institutions (related to local, national and cross border commodity and labour markets) are eroded or break down in the absence of effective state regulation and what practices, relationships and informal institutions do people engage in to achieve or maintain a secure economic position?

• How do people cope with the direct legacy of war and its impact on livelihood possibilities through the persistence of violence and banditry often perpetrated by former combatants (with ample access to weapons and the knowledge to use them) even beyond the geographical limits of war zones?

• How do household and family forms (relationships within households, both across gender and generation) affect people’s strategies to secure livelihoods, recognising that ‘families’ themselves are often fragmenting and reforming under the strains of people’s efforts to maintain social reproduction? Do people retreat into families or do wider forms of trust and networks and communities of reciprocity, mutuality and altruism persist?

Understanding associational life, politics and public action
We want to understand what happens to associational life, local politics and public action in situations of violent conflict and post-conflict reconstruction. The starting point for this part of the investigation is that while generalised national level or international transition is essential for transformatory politics and policy, local arenas are crucial sites of struggle towards social change. It is at the local level that state support on the one hand, or oppression, neglect and breakdown on the other, is felt. It is here too that resistance is generated. The research will question dichotomised characterisations of people either as heroes of resistance or as passive and hopeless, absorbed by fatalism. We will analyse associational life at the local level and the widely divergent bases on which it may be organised and how these relate to political organisations and agencies of the central state. We want to understand the micro-politics of everyday life and the ways in which struggles become collective, publicly articulated and politically engaged in at different times.

• How is social and political life 're-normalised' in the wake of violent conflict and war?

• Do local people actually see the livelihood strategies they contrive as forms of resistance against the state?

• How far do local people and local initiatives build upon older principles of authority and hierarchy, or alternatively do they construct new institutional forms (such as new cults and churches or vigilante groups and people's militia). Do these provide a basis for a central state to extend its legitimacy and operational capability, or, do they, alternatively, challenge state structures at the local level, either in overt defiance or by providing informal and relatively hidden structures for living?

• Why do impoverished and defenseless people at some times risk arrest, torture and even death to fight regimes they seemed to have little chance of defeating and why do protests occur in some areas and not others? Under what conditions do people engage in collective and public action and what is the potential for the formation of social movements under conditions of conflict or post-conflict reconstruction?

• To what extent have processes of breakdown provoked extreme marginalisation? Have measures of reconstruction actually involved marginalising and demobilising the majority? Has ‘conflict management’ at the local level systematically benefited some at the expense of others?

• Does the return of democratically elected political parties to the forefront signal the demise of popular organisations and grass-roots activism and a return to ‘politics as usual’?

Enquiries regarding the work of the Crisis States Programme should be directed to Prof James Putzel 

Publications

The following working papers were produced during the first phase of the Crisis States Programme and are free to download in PDF.

WP81 : Dominance and Retaliation in the Informal Structure of Authority: a comparative study of Madhya Pradesh and Bihar
Author(s) : Rakesh Chaubey
Date : September 2006

WP80 : A State of One's Own: secessionism and federalism in India
Author(s) : Neera Chandhoke
Date : September 2006 

WP79 :Explaining Manipur's Breakdown and Mizoram's Peace: the state and identities in North East India
Author(s) : M.Sajjad Hassan
Date :February 2006 

WP78 : State Failure and Success in Uganda and Zimbabwe: the logic of political decay and reconstruction in Africa
Author(s) : E.A. Brett
Date : February 2006 

WP77: Rwanda's Ordinary Killers: interpreting popular participation in the Rwandan genocide 
Author(s) : Omar McDoom
Date : December 2005 

WP76 : The Political Economy of Anti-Politics and Social Polarisation in Venezuela, 1998-2004
Author(s) : Jonathan DiJohn
Date : December 2005 

WP75 : Of Broken Social Contracts and Ethnic Violence: the case of Kashmir
Author(s) : Neera Chandhoke
Date :December 2005

WP74 : The Country Behind the Ballot Box: the impact of political reform in Colombia during a humanitarian crisis   
Author(s) : Marcela Ceballo & Ivan Romero
Date : December 2005
PDF - Espagnol

WP73 : 'Populism' Visits Africa: the case of Yoweri Museveni and no-party democracy in Uganda
Author(s) : Giovanni Carbone
Date :December 2005 

WP72 : Subverting the Spaces of Invitation - local politics and participatory budgeting in post-crisis Buenos Aires
Author(s) : Dennis Rodgers
Date : October 2005
 
WP71 : Urban Segregation from Below: drugs, consumption and primitive accumulation in Managua, Nicaragua
Author(s) : Dennis Rodgers
Date : October 2005

WP70 : Conflict, State and Decentralisation: from social progress to an armed dispute for local control, 1974-2002
Author(s) : Fabio Sanchez and Mario Chacon
Date : October 2005
PDF Espagnol 

WP69 : Law as a Tool: the challenge of HIV/Aids in Uganda
Author(s) : Jenny Kuper
Date : September 2005
 
WP68 : Close Encounters of an Inner Asian Kind: Tibetan-Muslim co-existence and conflict in Tibet past and present
Author(s) : Andrew Fischer
Date : Sept 2005

WP67 : The Ethnicisation of an Afghan faction: Junbesh-i-Milli from its orgins to the presidential elections
Author(s) : Antonio Giustozzi
Date : Sept 2005

WP66 : Re-stating the State:paramilitary territorial control and political order in Colombia (1978-2004)
Author(s) : Francisco Gutierrez Sanin and Mauricio Baron
Date : Sept 2005

WP65 : The Political Economy of Nicaragua's Institutional and Organisational Framework for Dealing with Youth Violence
Author(s) : Jose Luis Rocha Gomez
Date : June 2005
PDF - Espagnol 

WP64 : Surviving the 'Waking Nightmare': Securing Stability in the Face of Crisis in Cuba (1989-2004)
Author(s) : Jonathan Curry-Machado
Date : June 2005 

WP63 : Deconstruction without Reconstruction? The Case of Peru (1978-2004)Working 
Author(s) : Francisco Gutierrez Sanin
Date : June 2005 

WP62 : The Effects of Decentralisation on Public Investment: Evidence and Four Lessons from Bolivia and Colombia
Author(s) : Jean-Paul Faguet
Date : June 2005 

WP61 : Unintentional Democratisation? The Argentinazo and the Politics of Participatory Budgeting in Buenos Aires, 2001-2004
Author(s) : Dennis Rodgers
Date : April 2005 

WP60 : Crafting Democracy and Good Governance in Local Arenas: Theory, Dilemmas, and their Resolution through the Experiments in Madhya Pradesh, India
Author(s) : Manoj Srivastava
Date : April 2005
 
WP59 : Exit, Voice and Tradition: Loyalty to Chieftainship and Democracy in Metropolitan Durban, South Africa
Author(s) : Jo Beall 
Date : January 2005 

WP58 : From Corporatism to Liberalisation in Zimbabwe: Economic Policy Regimes and Political Crisis (1980-1997)
Author(s) : E. A. Brett
Date : January 2005
 
WP57 : Electoral Behaviour Trends and Decentralisation in Colombia's Municipalities, 1988-2000
Author(s) : Diana Hoyos & Marcela Ceballos
Date : December 2004
[espagnol]

WP56 : Business-led Peacebuilding in Colombia: Fad or Future of a Country in Crisis?Author(s) : Angelika Rettberg
Date : December 2004 

WP55 : Security Communities and the Problem of Domestic Instability
Author(s) : Laurie Nathan
Date :November 2004 

WP54 : Decentralisation and Engendering Democracy: Lessons from Local Government Reform in South Africa
Author(s) : Jo Beall 
Date : November 2004 

WP53 : Post-colonial Workplace Regimes in the Engineering Industry in South Africa, Swaziland and Zimbabwe
Author(s) : Andries Bezuidenhout
Date :November 2004
 
WP52 : Critically Assessing Traditions: The Case of Meghalaya
Author(s) : Manorama Sharma
Date : November 2004 

WP51: 'Good' State vs. 'Bad' Warlords? A Critique of State-Building Strategies in Afghanistan
Author(s) : Antonio Giustozzi
Date : October 2004 

WP50 : The Absence of Common Values and Failure of Common Security in Southern Africa, 1992-2003
Author(s) : Laurie Nathan
Date : July 2004 

WP49 : The Legacies of Apartheid and Implications of Economic Liberalisation
Author(s) : Sarah Mosoetsa
Date : July 2004 

WP48 : Traditional Authority, Institutional Multiplicity and Political Transition in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Author(s) : Jo Beall, Sibongiseni Mkhize & Shahid Vawda
Date : July 2004
 
WP47 : A Geography of Illicit Crops (Coca Leaf) and Armed Conflict in Colombia
Author(s) : Ana Maria Diaz and Fabio Sanchez
Date : July 2004
PDF - Espagnol

WP46 : The Political Economy of Economic Liberalisation in Venezuela
Author(s) : Jonathan DiJohn
Date : June 2004

WP45 : Representation, Participation and Development: Lessons from Small Industry in Latin America
Author(s) : Kenneth C. Shadlen
Date : June 2004 

WP44 : Understanding the Legacies of Political Violence: An Examination of Political Conflict in Mpumalanga Township, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Author(s) : Debby Bonnin
Date : June 2004
 
WP43 : Rethinking Militarism in Post-Apartheid South Africa
Author(s) : Jacklyn Cock
Date : June 2004

WP42 : Urban Fault Lines in Shangri-La: Population and Economic Foundations of Inter-Ethnic Conflict in the Tibetan Areas of Western China
Author(s) : Andrew Martin Fischer
Date : June 2004 

WP41 : Access to Justice: The Palestinian Legal System and the Fragmentation of Coercive Power
Author(s) : Tobias Kelly
Date : March 2004
 
WP40 : Constructing Authority Alternatives in Colombia: Globalisation and the Transformation of Governance
Author(s) : Ann C. Mason
Date : January 2004 

WP39 : Ethnic Conflicts and Traditional Self-governing Institutions: A Study of Laitumkrah Dorbar
Author(s) : Apurba K. Baruah
Date : January 2004 

WP38 : Political Participation and War in Colombia: An Analysis of the 2002 Elections
Author(s) : Miguel Garcia and Gary Hoskin
Date : November 2003 

WP37 : Demobilising Guatemala
Author(s) : David Keen
Date : November 2003

WP36 : Developing Multi-Party Politics: Stability and Change in Ghana and Mozambique
Author(s) : Giovanni M. Carbone
Date : November 2003

WP35: Dying For It: Gangs, Violence and Social Change in Urban Nicaragua
Author(s) : Dennis Rodgers
Date : October 2003

WP34: North African Islamism in the Blinding Light of 9-11
Author(s) : Hugh Roberts
Date : October 2003

WP33 : Respectable Warlords? The Politics of State-Building in Post-Taleban Afghanistan
Author(s) : Antonio Giustozzi
Date :September 2003 

WP32 : Violence and Drug Prohibition in Colombia
Author(s) : Carlos Medina & Hermes Martinez
Date : August 2003 

WP31 : What strategies are viable for developing countries today? The World Trade Organization and the shrinking of 'development space'
Author(s) : Robert Hunter Wade
Date : June 2003
 

WP30 : Peru's Failed Search for Political Stability
Author(s) : Maria Emma Wills and Maria Teresa Pinto
Date : June 2003 

WP29: Decentralization and local government in Bolivia: an overview from the bottom up
Author(s) : Jean-Paul Faguet
Date : May 2003
PDF - Espagnol

WP28 : From the Alliance for Progress to the Plan Colombia: a retrospective look at US aid to Colombia
Author(s) : Luis Eduardo Fajardo
Date : April 2003

WP27 : Criminal Rebels? A discussion of war and criminality from the Colombian experience
Author(s) : Francisco Gutierrez Sanin
Date : April 2003

WP26 : The dynamics of achieving 'power' and 'reform' as a positive-sum game: a report on the preliminary ethnographic explorations of the politics-governance nexus in Madhya Pradesh, India?
Author(s) : Manoj Srivastava
Date : March 2003

WP25 : The Times of Democratic Involutions
Author(s) : Francisco Gutierrez Sanin
Date : March 2003 (revised January 2005)
PDF - Espagnol

WP24 : Hyper-Fragmentation and Traditional Politics in Colombia: Discussing Alternative Explanations
Author(s) : Francisco Gutierrez Sanin
Date : March 2003 (revised September 2004)
PDF - Espagnol 

WP23 : Emerging Pluralist Politics in Mozambique: the Frelimo-Renamo party system
Author(s) : Giovanni M. Carbone
Date : March 2003
 
WP22 : Tribal traditions and crises of governance in North East India, with special reference to Meghalaya
Author(s) : Apurba Baruah
Date : March 2003

WP21: Women in war and crisis zones - one key to Africa's wars of underdevelopment
Author(s) : Victoria Brittain
Date : December 2002 

WP20: Mineral resource abundance and violent political conflict: a critical assessment of the rentier state model
Author(s) : Jonathan DiJohn
Date : December 2002 

WP19 : From Segmentarity to Opacity: on Gellner and Bourdieu, or why Algerian politics have eluded theoretical analysis and vice versa
Author(s) : Hugh Roberts
Date : December 2002
PDF - Francais

WP18 : Politics, the state and the impulse for social protection: the implications of Karl Polanyi's ideas for understanding development and crisis
Author(s) : James Putzel
Date : October 2002 

WP17: Moral economy or moral polity? The political anthropology of Algerian riots
Author(s) : Hugh Roberts
Date : October 2002 

WP16 : Domesticating Leviathan: Sungusungu groups in Tanzania
Author(s) : Suzette Heald
Date : September 2002 

WP15 : Are donors to Mozambique promoting corruption?
Author(s) : Joseph Hanlon
Date : August 2002 

WP14 : "Since I am a Dog, Beware my Fangs": Beyond a 'rational violence' framework in the Sierra Leonean war.
Author(s) : David Keen
Date : August 2002
 
WP13: The state, tradition and conflict in the North Eastern states of India
Author(s) : John Harriss
Date : August 2002 

WP12: Liberal theory, uneven development and institutional reform: responding to the crisis in weak states
Author(s) : E A Brett
Date : July 2002
 

WP11 : Social Differentiation and Urban Governance in Greater Soweto: a case study of post-apartheid reconstruction
Author(s) : Jo Beall, Owen Crankshaw & Susan Parnell
Date : February 2002
PDF - Espagnol
 
WP10 : The People Behind the Walls: Insecurity, identity and gated communitiees in Johannesburg
Author(s) : Jo Beall
Date : February 2002
PDF - Espagnol

WP9 : Governance and Conflict Management: implications for donor intervention
Author(s) : Benedict Latto
Date : February 2002
PDF - Espagnol

WP8 : Subaltern Resurgence: a reconnaissance of Panchayat election in Bihar
Author(s) : Shaibal Gupta
Date : January 2002 

WP7 : Co-opting Identity: the manipulation of Berberism, the frustration of democratisation and the generation of violence in Algeria
Author(s) : Hugh Roberts
Date : December 2001
PDF - Espagnol 

WP6 : Making Danger a Calling: Anthropology, violence and the dilemmas of participant observation
Author(s) : Dennis Rodgers
Date : September 2001
PDF - Espagnol

WP5 : Crisis States: South Africa in Southern Africa
Date : April 2001

WP4 :Research in Latin America
Date :April 2001
PDF - Espagnol 

WP3 : Collaborative Research: States of Crisis in South Asia and on "Political Ethnography"
Author(s) :  CSRC
Date :April 2001
 
WP2 : Research activities
Author(s) :  CSRC
Date :April 2001

WP1 : Concepts and Research Agenda
Author(s) :  CSRC
Date :April 2001
PDF - Espagnol