Martin Westlake has spent over four decades studying European integration and working in European Union government and politics. Having completed a first degree in philosophy, politics and economics at University College, Oxford, he went on to take a master's degree at the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies (Bologna Center) and a PhD at the European University Institute in Florence. Since beginning his professional life as a clerk to the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe in Strasbourg, he has worked in the Council of Ministers and the European Commission, with the European Parliament and, since 2003, in the European Economic and Social Committee, where he served as Secretary General, 2008-2013. Martin Westlake has published widely on the European institutions and on European and British politics. He is also the author of a major political biography (Kinnock, The Biography). He has occupied a number of visiting positions and, from 2000 to 2005, was a visiting professor at the College of Europe, Bruges, teaching a seminar on the European Parliament. He is currently a Visiting Professor at the College, running a research seminar on Constitutional, Institutional and Political Reform in the EU.