My research interests include the economic history of modern Germany and East Central Europe, the determinants of long-run growth, state capacity in fostering economic development, the economics of modern warfare, particularly World War II, and socialist industrialisation. I have been involved in collaborative research on comparative industrial development as member of the Groningen Growth and Development Centre. My most recent and forthcoming publications investigate the economic impact of World War II in post-war Germany, focussing on both geographical dislocation and structural disproportions. I am co-editor of a forthcoming collection of international research on the economic impact of the world wars. I am also preparing a monograph on the consequences of World War II for West German economic growth. My newest project seeks to determine the extent and the sources of relative economic decline in Eastern Europe under state socialism.