LLM Specialisms 2012/13
Public International Law
[please note: links below are to the 2011/12 course
guides; they will be updated when new guides are made available during the
The LSE has a long
tradition of teaching international law. Previous teachers in the Department
include Judge Rosalyn Higgins, at present Judge on the International Court
of Justice, and Professor Ian Brownlie, member of the International Law
Commission. The distinguished team of current international law teachers
continues this tradition of commitment to the study of international law and
its development in response to changing geo-political conditions. All of the
international law teachers have governmental, practical or activist
experience to complement their academic expertise, for example through
practice in international and regional institutions, participation in
international litigation and consultancies with a range of international
organisations. The contacts and interests of the international lawyers, as
well as the London location, mean that courses include lectures and
discussions with a range of visiting specialists. There is a constant stream
of distinguished visitors to the LSE who give public lectures and involve
themselves in discussion groups and seminars in international law and its
related disciplines. The Centre for the Study of Human Rights, the European
Institute, and the Departments of International Relations and Development
Studies provide further opportunities for consideration of the relevant
issues from more diverse perspectives.
Climate Change and International Law (H) (LL4A6):
the goal of this course is to explore the international law dealing with climate
change with a view to assessing how risks and uncertainties caused by climate
change are governed and allocated. Projected seminars include: climate change
science; politics; ethics; theory of international law; international
environmental law; trade and investment law; human rights law; international
development; energy security; food security.
Human Rights in the
Developing World (LL409):
the application of global human rights standards through the national legal
systems of post-colonial states, with an emphasis on the judicial
application of constitutional bills of rights in culturally diverse and
often economically disadvantaged societies. [not offered 2012/13]
Human Rights of Women
an introduction to a gender-based analysis of the mainstream normative and
institutional frameworks for human rights, including a study of the
international guarantees of the civil, political, social and economic rights
of women, with particular focus on the Convention on the Elimination of All
Forms of Discrimination, refugee women, violence against women in armed
conflict and in peacetime, and the economic and social rights of women.
[not offered 2012/13]
the protection of individuals and the punishment of States and individuals
by international criminal law, including the standards of protection and
procedures for their enforcement.
this course is concerned with the way in which conflicts or potential
conflicts, both between states and with other participants in the
international arena, can be peacefully managed and resolved. (this course is
also available as two half units LL4E6 and LL4F6) [not offered 2012/13]
Resolution : Courts and Tribunals (H) (LL4E6):
Introduction: History and Controversies Surrounding
International Adjudication. Introduction to the International Court of
Justice focussing on jurisdiction, admissibility, contentious cases and
advisory opinions. Introduction to a variety of other specialist
international courts and tribunals, including in some of the following
areas: international criminal law, law of the sea, arbitration and trade
law. Analysis of key theoretical questions: hierarchy and fragmentation;
legitimacy and compliance; and the making of international law.
Resolution: Non-Adjudicatory Processes (H) (LL4F6):
the course will examine the various non-adjudicatory processes for the
management and attempted peaceful resolution of disputes that are currently
available to states and other participants in the international arena. These
will be considered in the historical, political and legal contexts of
various international disputes It will consider the legal and policy issues
that influence choices as to different approaches to dispute resolution.
[not offered 2012/13]
an introduction to the public international law of economic relations,
focusing on the principles governing the production and distribution of
goods, currency and finance, and related services and the structure and
operation of international organisations concerned with such activities.
[not offered 2012/13]
International Economic Law (H) (LL4B1):
an introduction to the
public international law of economic relations, focusing on the principles
governing the production and distribution of goods, currency and finance,
and related services and the structure and operation of international
organisations concerned with such activities.
European Environmental Law (LL4D6):
study of international and European legal responses to global environmental
challenges, including climate changes, biodiversity protection, chemicals
control, and international trade.
a comprehensive introduction to the rapidly expanding international law of
human rights and institutions both at a universal and regional level.
The International Law
of Self-Determination (H) (LL4K4): this course will provide a
general introduction to the doctrine of self-determination. The doctrine
will be historically contextualised and its contemporary content explored.
Self-determination's relationship to state formation, minority rights,
aboriginal rights, women's rights and the nascent right to democratic
governance will be central topics. Upon completion of the course students
will be in a position to legally analyse contemporary fact patterns and to
identify both strengths and weaknesses in the existing legal framework.
Students will have considered new and novel approaches to self-determination
and will have an appreciation for the doctrine's particular contribution to
political and economic liberty.
International Law and the Use of Force (H) (LL4A8):
this half-unit course
examines the law relating to when it is permissible to use force (jus ad
bellum). The course can be taken alone or (when available) together with
LL4A9: Law in War as a full unit course. The aim of this
course is to develop an understanding of the principles of international law
that regulate the use of force in international society. It concentrates on
the prohibition of resort to force in Article 2(4) of the United Nations
Charter and the exceptions to that prohibition. It looks in detail at the
right of self-defence, humanitarian intervention, pro-democratic
intervention, and protection of nationals. The use of force by or with the
authorization of the United Nations is also considered.
The International Law of
Armed Conflict and the Use of Force (LL452):
the international legal regulation of the use of force, including the law
regarding resort to force contained in the United Nations Charter and
customary international law, and the regulation of the conduct of
hostilities by the law of armed conflict (international humanitarian law).
International Law and the Protection of Refugees, Displaced Persons and
the international framework, and the problems, policies and standards which
apply in the protection of refugees and refugee women, internally displaced
persons and migrants.
Investment Treaty Law (H)
this course introduces students to international investment law and dispute
settlement, the latter emphasizing developments in investment treaty
arbitration. The course focuses on the public international law rules and
institutions that govern investments and investment treaty disputes. The
course has four components: (1) the historical, theoretical and policy
background behind investment treaties and dispute settlement by arbitration;
(2) the rules governing jurisdiction and admissibility of investor-state
arbitration cases; (3) the substantive principles and standards – such as
national treatment, most-favoured-nation treatment, expropriation, and the
minimum standard in international law – that may apply to the investor-state
relationships; and (4) recognition and enforcement of investor-state
arbitral awards and the interaction between international tribunals and
Law of International
Economic and Financial Sanctions (H) (LL4K2):
covers economic and financial sanctions against States and non-State actors.
The course addresses multilateral programmes established by the UN and EU
and unilateral measures instituted by individual States, implementation of
sanctions within domestic legal systems, issues arising in international law
and human rights, and effects on third parties.
Law in War (H) (LL4A9):
this half-unit course
covers the law governing the conduct of hostilities (jus in bello, also
known as the law of armed conflict or international humanitarian law). This
course can be taken alone or (when available) together with LL4A8:
International Law and the Use of Force, as a full unit course. The course
will take a critical approach to the international regulation and
facilitation of armed conflict. As well as the laws governing the means and
methods of warfare ('Hague' law) and the 'protected' groups hors de combat
('Geneva' law), the course will cover 'lawfare' more generally: the recourse
to law as a means of waging war. It will also look at the law of belligerent
occupation. The course will emphasise critical and historical perspectives
on the use of law in situations of violent conflict, rather than preparing
students to apply them in practice.
an advanced level general course in Public International Law, studying the
discipline as a whole from distinctively theoretical, historical and
and the Rule of Law (H) (LL475):
a theoretical and historical introduction to the concept of terrorism. It
will critically consider definitions of terrorism, and analyse the
relationship between terrorism and the right to rebel, and the right to
engage in civil disobedience. The role of international law generally and
international human rights law in particular in the context of terrorism and
anti-terrorism action will be considered in detail.
Poverty and Human Rights (H) (LL4C2):
looks at the topical issues of world poverty and development, inequality
between states, and the roles and duties of states and other actors from the
perspective of the international law of human rights.