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Executive LLM Courses

The modules that we will offer on the Executive LLM over the four year degree period are set out below. We will not offer all of these courses every year, although some of the more popular options may be offered in each year, or more than once each year. We aim to offer between 15 and 20 modules on a yearly basis when the programme is operating at full capacity.

Click on a course title for further information.

Arbitration / Dispute Resolution

Fundamentals of International Commercial Arbitration  

This course provides an introduction to the theory and practice of international arbitration, one of the most important mechanisms for settling disputes arising from commercial cross-border transactions. The focus is mainly on English arbitration law, which is put into a comparative perspective and contrasted especially with French law, which highlights the antagonism between Paris and London as the rivalling centres for international arbitration. Special attention is given to the applicable international treaties, the problems of conflicts of laws, and the different types of institutional and transnational rules that may have to be taken into consideration in an international arbitration. This course prepares for ‘Advanced Issues of International Commercial Arbitration’.

Lecturer: Dr Jan Kleinheisterkamp

Course Code: LL415E

Advanced Issues of International Commercial Arbitration  

This course aims at giving students who already are acquainted with the fundamentals of arbitration the possibility to go into depth into selected problems of international commercial arbitration. The course is designed to allow intense discussions of these problems in order to raise the sensitivity for the issues at stake and to lead to a research oriented approach. Despite its academic outset, the course is highly relevant for those wanting to specialise in arbitration practice, as the theoretical problems have a most significant impact on practical solutions. The course will treat a selection of topical contemporary issues of international commercial arbitration, such as the role of internationally mandatory rules of law, arbitration & insolvency, the scope of the competence-competence principle; arbitration and fraud and corruption, or the enforcement of awards set aside abroad. The course seeks to be as topical as possible, so that content may change in the light of developments.

Lecturer: Dr Jan Kleinheisterkamp

Course Code: LL416E

Dispute Resolution and Advanced Mediation  

The principal focus of the course is upon methods of resolving disputes other than adjudication. The course brings together theory and observation of practice and is divided into two parts. In the first section students examine what motivates people to enter into disputes and the range of outcomes they seek, the history of the “informal justice” movement and the transformation of attitudes to dispute resolution in the UK and beyond. The emphasis in this part of the course is also on looking at the two primary forms of dispute resolution, negotiation and mediation. In the second part of the course specialist practitioners work with the class in exploring the interface between theory and practice and the different dynamics of disputes and their resolution in specific subject areas such as commercial law, community disputes, international law and family law. The course is designed to complement the option on Commercial Arbitration.

Lecturer: Professor Linda Mulcahy

Course Code: LL405E

Corporate/Commercial/Financial Law

Commercial Remedies

Remedies are a key area of commercial law practice. The objective of the course is to provide students with an in-depth understanding of remedies in a commercial context. It focuses on remedies for breach of contract and torts. Detailed consideration is given to compensatory damages, specific performance, injunctions, actions for an agreed sum (debt actions), termination, restitutionary damages, punitive damages and agreed remedies (eg termination clauses, liquidated damages clauses). The course is also comparative in perspective. The approach followed in common law jurisdictions is compared with that of civilian jurisdictions (in particular Germany and France).

Lecturer: Dr Solene Rowan

Course Code: LL438E

Comparative Corporate Governance  

This course will focus on the role of boards of directors in large public companies and groups of companies. It will deal with the legal regulation of agency problems arising between the board and shareholders as a class; between the board/majority shareholders and minority shareholders; and between the board and other stakeholder groups, notably creditors and employees. Although the main focus will be on board and shareholder relationships, the aim of the course is to develop and apply a framework of analysis which illuminates relations between the board and all stakeholder groups. The course will be taught largely on a comparative basis, focusing on English, US and German law.

Lecturer: Dr Carsten Gerner-Beuerle

Course Code: LL418E

Competition Law

The course is a comprehensive study of the main features of competition law. While the focus is on EU competition law, reference will be made to the laws of other jurisdictions (e.g. the United States and the UK) when these offer relevant points for comparison. The first part of the course examines the history and aims of competition law. It considers the role of economic analysis and its limitations in the light of non-economic considerations. The second part is a review of the major substantive fields: restrictive practices; the regulation of monopolies and dominant positions; distribution and cooperation agreements and merger control. The third part addresses the public and private enforcement of competition law.

Lecturer: Dr Pablo Ibanez-Colomo

Course Code: LL425E

European Capital Markets Law  

The course examines the EU's regulation of the capital markets. It considers the harmonized regulatory regime which applies to capital market actors across the Member States and which supports the integrated market. The topics covered include: the rationale for integration and the role of law, the evolution of the integration project, the Financial Services Action Plan, and the Lamfalussy Report; the deregulation, liberalization, harmonization, and re-regulation mechanisms used to integrate and regulate the EU market; market access and the passport for investment services; the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive 2004 and regulation; the liberalization of order execution and the regulation of trading markets; the UCITS mutual funds regime; retail investor protection; the prospectus and disclosure regime; and the institutional structure for law-making and for supervision. It also covers the EU's financial crisis reform programme and the new European Securities and Markets Authority. Course coverage may vary slightly from year to year.

Lecturer: Professor Niamh Moloney

Course Code: LL400E

EU State Aid Law  

Member States of the EU are not free to award subsidies to their national companies or to support them in a comparable way (by, inter alia, securing favourable supply conditions to the companies, granting loans at favourable rates or providing unlimited guarantees). In the wake of the recent financial crisis, for instance, bailout measures adopted across the EU had to be cleared by the European Commission in accordance with Articles 107 and 108 TFEU.

The first part of the course explores the economic rationale underpinning the control of State aid in the European Union (the reasons why similar regimes are not implemented at the national level in federal countries facing similar dilemmas, such as the United States, will also be explored). The second part examines (i) the notion of State aid within the meaning of Article 107(1) TFEU and (ii) the conditions under which measures falling under the scope of that provision may be deemed compatible with the internal market. The third part provides an overview of the application of the law in some sectors (including the financial and the communications sectors) or for some purposes (e.g. research and development, regional aid). Finally, the fourth part is devoted to the procedural aspects of the discipline.

Lecturer: Dr Pablo Ibanez-Colomo

Course Code: LL433E

Innovation, Technology and Patent Law

This course critically examines UK and European patent law from different perspectives including the economic case for incentivising innovation, industry and technological-specificity of legal doctrine, international economic and political frameworks, institutional features, and legal developments in the domestic laws of other countries as well as at regional and international levels. Case studies from comparable jurisdictions such as US, India or Latin America will be used where appropriate. The course aims to deliver a sound grounding in legal principles while exploring unprecedented challenges raised by emerging technologies through appropriate case studies.

  • The economics of innovation and patenting/ Jurisprudential rationale for patents. Legislative overview – international and domestic.

  • Priority, Novelty and Inventiveness

  • Industrial Application, disclosure and Genomic Inventions

  • The rational for subject matter exclusions (Methods of medical treatment, diagnostic methods, computer programs, business methods, mental acts, discoveries, genetically modified animals, human embryonic stem cells)

  • Claim drafting, purposive construction and the doctrine of equivalents.

  • Direct/indirect infringement – international concerns

  • The research use exception and its application to post-genomics science

  • The TRIPS Agreement and the global pharmaceutical industry

  • The problem of patent enforcement

  • Patent offices and the property parameters of patents

  • Synthetic biology

  • The patenting of Human gene therapy

Lecturer: Dr Siva Thambisetty

Course Code: LL435E

International Commercial Contracts: General Principles  

The course treats what can be called the general part of transnational contract law, i.e. the general principles of law which are of relevance in any kind of international contract, be it sale, construction, shipping, financing, or joint venture. These general principles relate to contractual formation and negotiations, interpretation, transversal general principles, changed circumstances and hardship, agency, third parties, assignment, self-help and set-off, direct performance and damages and penalties. At present, such contracts are governed either by uniform rules of international conventions or by the national laws applicable by virtue of conflict of law rules. The course puts the existing national and international solutions in a comparative perspective so as to work with the sources of such generally accepted principles. Where there are divergences between existing solutions, the course focuses on the elaboration of new efficient solutions that are internationally acceptable and have the potential of becoming general principles in the future. For these purposes, special attention is given to the UNIDROIT Principles on International Commercial Contracts and the European Principles of Contract Law. Other national laws, however, are drawn upon from time to time. Students are also encouraged, in both examination and classes, to reflect upon the similarities and differences between their own national laws and the UNIDROIT Principles.

Lecturer: Dr Jan Kleinheisterkamp

Course Code: LL417E

International Financial Law and Practice I & II  

The traditional financial market sectors of commercial banking, derivatives, capital markets and asset management are converging in practice, but their academic analysis is still largely sector-based. This course offers a cross-sectoral, functional analysis, permitting students to grasp the big picture. It highlights certain anomalies in differing legal treatment of the respective sectors, and considers key trends. The course provides an overview of the substantive law aspects of international financial and business transactions. It is designed to be as topical as possible, and the content may change in the light of developments. While the precise topics covered will vary from year to year they typically will include the following:

  • The logic and the players of the financial market. The creation and allocation of risk. The distinction between ‘Law’ and ‘Regulation’.

  • The reasoning and sources of financial law and regulation. The role of European financial law and regulation. The role of international law. Understanding the financial crisis.

  • Banks and their nature. Assets and Liabilities. Deposit taking and bank loans. Money market instruments. Rank of creditors in bank insolvency. Syndicated loans.

  • Raising capital. Primary market and secondary market. Issuance of debt securities (bonds). Issuance of Eurobonds. Issuance of equity (shares). Investment funds, alternative funds.

  • Security interests. Fix and floating charge. Financial collateral. Rehypothecation. Conflict-of-laws problems.

  • Guarantee, indemnity, insurance and derivatives. Types of derivatives. The rise of derivatives. Recharacterisation risk. Standard documentation.

  • Netting and set-off. Relation to insolvency law. Importance for derivatives, repos, securities lending. Conflict-of-laws analysis. Cross-jurisdictional problems.

  • Structured finance, securitisation and asset-backed securities. The rationale behind it. Risks

  • Transfer of financial instruments. Stock exchanges. Trading and settlement of securities. Intermediated securities. Conflict of laws and cross-jurisdictional problems. Derivatives clearing.

  • Regulatory arbitrage in respect of financial transactions

Lecturer: Dr Philipp Paech

Course Codes: LL410E; LL411E

Introduction to Regulation  

The course provides an introduction to key topics in the study of regulation from with a comparative and generic perspective drawn from public administration, socio-legal studies and institutional economics.

Topics include: What is regulation and Why do it? What is Good Regulation? Regulatory Strategies. Explaining Regulation. Enforcing Regulation. Risk Regulation. Regulatory Standard Setting. Regulatory Competition. Regulation and Cost Benefit Analysis.

Lecturer: Professor Robert Baldwin

Course Code: LL434E

Law of Corporate Finance  

The course examines the private law rules governing how companies raise finance. The issues covered include e.g. capital structures, identifying and protecting shareholder rights, issuing shares, initial legal capital and alternatives, dividends, reduction of capital and share buy-backs, reform and moving to a solvency test and financial assistance. The course will focus on English Law and German Law and reference will be made to the relevant EU rules.

Lecturer: Dr Eva Micheler

Course Code: LL419E

Mergers, Acquisitions and Restructurings in Europe  

This course will look at the regulation of the market for corporate control and corporate restructurings in Europe. The course will focus on the European context in particular on the development of Community Directives on domestic and cross-border mergers and divisions as well as corporate takeovers, the European Company, and the transfer of a company’s seat within the Community. References will also be made to the application to companies of the Treaty provisions on freedom of establishment and free movement of capital.

  • Introduction to the market for corporate control and corporate ownership structures

  • Introduction to takeover transaction structures and restructuring options under European law

  • Introduction to “Varieties of Capitalism”

  • Regulatory competition in the European Union

  • Restructurings through the European Company (SE)

  • Implications of SE restructurings for board structure and composition as well as the involvement of employees

  • EU Cross-Border mergers directive

  • EU directives on domestic mergers and divisions and alternative legal devices available under UK legislation

  • EU Directive on Takeovers (covered in more detail in course ‘Takeover Regulation in the UK and the US’)

Lecturer: Mr Edmund Schuster

Course Code: LL432E

Regulation of Financial Markets I & II  

This course examines the regulatory structures governing financial markets and investment services. It covers the main principles of international, EU and UK financial regulation, with the aim of developing a critical understanding of the dynamics and conceptual framework of financial regulation.

The course does not aim to provide a detailed comparative account of financial regulation across countries, but international comparisons may be made where these are useful. In this context, students are encouraged to draw on their knowledge of their own national systems of regulation in making comparisons, and to apply the analytical perspectives suggested to those systems. The focus will be on the regulation of national and international aspects of financial services and markets, rather than on private law and transactional aspects.

No previous knowledge of financial market regulation or background in economics is required for those wishing to follow this course. Indeed, the course provides a good background for further study of both financial and economic law and economic analysis of law. For non-lawyers, a willingness to engage in legal analysis will be necessary, although a legal background is not required. The course might be regarded as complimentary to a number of other courses, including Law of Corporate Finance or International Financial Law and Practice I & II.

Given the rapid changes in financial markets and their regulation the exact content of the syllabus may vary from year to year, but core topics will include:

  • Overview of financial markets, institutions and instruments

  • Rationales and techniques of financial regulation

  • Regulatory architecture: global, EU and UK

  • Macro and micro prudential regulation

  • Financial stability and crisis management

  • Regulation of intermediaries

  • Market abuse and insider dealing

Lecturer: Professor Julia Black

Course Codes: LL406E; LL407E

Takeover Regulation in the UK and the US  

This course will look at the regulation of the market for corporate control and corporate restructurings in the United Kingdom and the United States. The course will look at the regulation of the bid process and at takeover defence regulation in the UK and the US. The course will also look at the development of the private equity industry and at typical fund and transaction structures used in private equity deals.

  • Introduction to the market for corporate control

  • Takeover process regulation

  • The extra-territorial effects of US process regulation

  • Takeover defence regulation

  • Private equity and management buyouts: fund structures; deal structures; value strategies

  • Regulating conflicts of interest in going private transactions

  • Financial assistance regulation

  • Effectiveness of the market for corporate control

Lecturer: Professor David Kershaw

Course Code: LL431E

UK Corporate Law

UK corporate law is an advanced corporate law module focusing only on UK law. The module covers in-depth the core areas of UK corporate law including:

  • The conception of the UK company;

  • separate legal personality and piercing the corporate veil;

  • rporate actions in contract, tort and criminal law;

  • the balance of power in the company between the board and the shareholder meeting;

  • UK board composition regulation;

  • Directors’ duties and their enforcement;

  • minority shareholder protection; and

  • the role of company law in protecting creditors.

The module will rely on in-class case studies and problem questions to explore the applicable law and its development.

Lecturer: Professor David Kershaw

Course Code: LL439E


Constitutional/Human Rights Law

Comparative Constitutional Law: Institutions  

This course examines the central issues in comparative constitutional law across a range of jurisdictions and from a variety of perspectives. The course opens with an introduction on the purpose of comparative constitutional law. The first substantive part discusses various approaches to the study of CCL as well as the migration of constitutional ideas (and related notions of constitutional borrowing, transplants etc). The second part of Term 1 deals with key constitutional concepts (constitution; rule of law; presidentialism, parliamentarism) which are discussed from a historical and comparative perspective. The point of these sessions is not to compare for the sake of comparing, but to equip you (the researcher) with the conceptual tools to do insightful, critical, and original comparative work of your own. The third part looks at postcolonialism and constituent power, with a particular focus on Nepal, India, and Pakistan. The overall aim of the course is to develop students’ understanding and use of many general theoretical explanations surrounding debates in CCL, and to develop students’ critical/analytical approach to many of the questions facing judges and scholars in the next decade.

Lecturer: Dr Jo Murkens

Course Code: LL408E

Comparative Constitutional Law: Rights  

This course examines a range of controversial issues in human and constitutional rights law from a comparative perspective. These issues include: abortion; euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide; gay sex and sodomy; religion in the public sphere; affirmative action; hate speech and denial of the holocaust; obscenity. We will approach them by comparing and contrasting judgments from courts all over the world, with a certain emphasis on cases from the U.S. Supreme Court, the Canadian Supreme Court, the South African Constitutional Court, the European Court of Human Rights, the U.K. Supreme Court, and the German Federal Constitutional Court. The goals of the course are, first, to introduce the students to the jurisprudence of those extremely powerful and influential courts, and, second, to invite them to think about and critically analyse some of the most controversial, difficult, and important rights issues of our time.

Lecturer: Dr Kai Möller

Course Code: LL409E

Constitutional Law and Theory

This course examines the role of constitutions and the nature of constitutional discourse. It considers the ways in which theorists have advanced understanding of constitutions and devised solutions to a range of constitutional questions. The course deals with the following topics: the scope of constitutional theory; the constitution of government; constitutional politics; representation; sovereignty; constituent power; constitutional rights; the rule of law; liberalism and republicanism; constitutional adjudication; cultural pluralism; theories of federalism; the cosmopolitan polity.

Lecturer: Dr Tom Poole

Course Code: LL427E

European and UK Human Rights Law  

The course has two parts. In part one the origins, development and current standing of the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms are considered. The primary focus will be on the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights, though the cases of other jurisdictions will also be referred to where appropriate. The course will analyse the Convention from the perspective of selected rights within it, but will also engage with the subject thematically, subjecting such concepts as the 'margin of appreciation' and proportionality to close scrutiny. The goal of this part of the course is to give students a good critical understanding of the Convention, the case-law of the Strasbourg court and the Convention's place within the constitutional and political structure of 'Greater Europe'.
The second part of the course is made up of a detailed study of the UK Human Rights Act. The origins and the political background to the Act will be explained, and the structure of the measure will be fully elaborated, relying on the text of the Act itself but also on the burgeoning case law that accompanies the measure. This part of the course will identify the principles that underpin the UK Act and explain its proper place in British law. It will also explore the wider constitutional implications of the measure, looking at its effect on the relationship between courts and Parliament. Linkages with the broader European framework discussed in the first part will be made by students through their reading and through class-engagement.

Lecturer: Professor Conor Gearty

Course Code: LL404E

Philosophy of EU Law

EU law is a fast-moving, dynamic area of law. The course will build on core knowledge of EU law and develop a number of key themes in the public law and policy of the EU and its Member States. It will provide a sophisticated understanding of the legal, political and constitutional issues surrounding the central debates in the EU, from its origins to the recent crises. Topics will include: - Law and Politics of European Integration – Fundamental Freedoms – Collective Autonomy and Social Justice – Authority of EU Law - Sovereignty, Identity and Pluralism – Political Economy – Future of the EU. The course will use general theoretical accounts in law and related disciplines in order to situate EU law in its political and social context. It uses the LSE’s unique interdisciplinary expertise in European law, constitutional theory, public law, and legal theory for a rich and varied study of the challenges facing the EU and its development.Lecturer: Dr Michael Wilkinson

Course Code: LL436E

Theory of Human Rights Law  

The course will provide an introduction to the philosophy of human rights and theoretical issues in human rights law. The emphasis is on a combination of law and theory; to this end, each seminar will rely on a mixture of cases from various jurisdictions and theoretical and philosophical materials. The overarching questions to be examined are to what extent current philosophical theories of human rights can illuminate our understanding of the cases and legal doctrines, and to what extent the cases and doctrines can help improving the theoretical and philosophical understanding of human rights. Topics to be discussed will include: Negative and Positive Freedom; Theories of Human Rights; Ronald Dworkin’s Theory of Rights; Balancing and Proportionality; Rights Inflation; Human Rights and Judicial Review I (The American Perspective); Human Rights and Judicial Review II (The European Perspective); Absolute Rights.

Lecturer: Dr Kai Möller

Course Code: LL426E


International Law

International Criminal Law  

The course looks at the history of and background to international criminal law and at its substantive content—its origins in the early Twentieth Century, its purported objectives, and the core crimes set out in the Rome Statute over which the International Criminal Court has jurisdiction (war crimes, crimes against humanity, genocide). The course will then examine in more detail a number of areas of contemporary interest (universal jurisdiction, immunity, terrorism). The course is mainly directed at the conceptual problems associated with the prosecution of war criminals and, more broadly, legalised retribution.

Lecturer: Dr Stephen Humphreys

Course Code: LL437E

International Economic Law I & II

These two courses are principally concerned with the law of the World Trade Organization, as a regime of public international law. Using WTO law as an illustration of multiple contemporary trends in international economic law and governance, they aim to provide both a solid grounding in the technical aspects of international trade law as well as a set of conceptual and critical tools for reflecting more deeply on the dynamics and logics of global economic governance. Students can take either course independently, or both courses together, but those taking International Economic Law II on its own will be expected already to have some basic training in WTO law.

In International Economic Law I, we will discuss the history, economics and politics of the post-war international economic system, and then focus on the legal and institutional infrastructure of the post-1994 international trade regime. We will study WTO decision-making and dispute settlement, and core principles of the GATT. In International Economic Law II, topics to be covered will include: Services Liberalization under the GATS; Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights; Legal Regulation of Technical Barriers to Trade; Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, and Subsidies. In both courses, we will set aside time to consider topical issues, for example around public international regulation of global finance, regional economic integration, development and developing countries in the trading system, and environmental aspects of international trade.

Lecturer: Dr Andrew Lang

Course Codes: LL412E; LL413E

International Human Rights: Concepts, Law and Practice

This course is concerned with the international protection of human rights and its relation to a range of current global problems. The course draws on the international law and practice of human rights to examine how we might best understand the contribution and limitations of human rights to addressing contemporary ills. Through the consideration of a range of standards and thematic issues, participants will learn about, and critically analyse, human rights concepts, norms, institutions and actors.

The course begins by studying the ideas and objectives that underpin the post-1945 human rights legal order and then turns to assess the United Nations and regional architectures and standards of international human rights. We build on this foundation to examine a variety of human rights topics and to consider how international law in these areas has developed and is being applied. The lectures will explore civil and political rights, economic social and cultural rights, ‘third generation’ rights, the rights of particular groups, as well as a selection of current issues. Subjects may include: the prohibition of torture and the war on terror; the right to privacy; the right to food; the right to self-determination; the right to development; the rights of indigenous peoples; women’s human rights; transnational corporations and human rights; human rights and poverty, and; human rights and the environment.

Lecturer: Dr Margot Salomon

Course Code: LL403E

International Law and Climate Change

This course covers the international law dealing with climate change with a view to assessing how risks and uncertainties caused by climate change are governed and allocated in different legal regimes. The course adopts the stance that the political and legal questions raised by climate change cannot be addressed by reference to climate change law (or indeed international environmental law) alone. Climate change gives rise to a series of profound problems touching upon a range of bodies of law (international economic law, human rights law, state responsibility inter alia) in a complex political and ethical environment. In approaching climate change as a concrete concern relevant to these various bodies of law and practice, the course will address the normative and/or ethical bases for choosing between actions designed to prevent and/or manage climate change and its consequences, and the theoretical concerns raised by the 'fragmented' nature of international law.

Lecturer: Dr Stephen Humphreys

Course Code: LL420E

Investment Treaty Law

The aim of the course is to introduce students to international investment law and dispute settlement, the latter emphasizing developments in investment treaty arbitration. The course focuses on the public international law rules and institutions that govern investments and investment treaty disputes. The course has four components: (1) the historical, theoretical and policy background behind investment treaties and dispute settlement by arbitration; (2) the rules governing jurisdiction and admissibility of investor-state arbitration cases; (3) the substantive principles and standards – such as national treatment, most-favoured-nation treatment, expropriation, and the minimum standard in international law – that may apply to the investor-state relationships; and (4) recognition and enforcement of investor-state arbitral awards and interaction between international tribunals and national courts.

Introduction; policy background. Treaties, institutions, rules. Theoretical perspectives. Jurisdiction: temporal, personal, subject matter. Admissibility: duty to exhaust local remedies, fork in the road. Standards: expropriation. Standards: minimum standard of treatment. Standards: national treatment, most favoured nation treatment. Standards: umbrella clauses, contract/legislation-based investment arbitration. Awards/recognition and enforcement.

Lecturer: Dr Jan Kleinheisterkamp

Course Code: LL430E

Key Issues in Transnational Environmental Law

The course focuses on current developments in environmental law beyond the State, which includes both the European and international level. After reviewing the main law and policy principles that inspire transnational environmental developments, and identifying opportunities for and obstacles to the effectiveness of transnational environmental law, the course turns the spotlight on the most important environmental challenges of our time and examines the role of transnational law in managing or resolving them.

The course is structured as follows:

1. Environmental law in context: economic and alternative approaches to sustainable development
2. Sources and principles of transnational environmental law
3. Transnational liability: responding to global catastrophes
4. Governing environmental risk and the role of the precautionary principle
5. Controlling toxic substances
6. Climate change: international law and policy developments
7. Climate change: transnational carbon reduction regimes
8. Protecting biodiversity through designation: the EU example
9. Regulating markets for ecosystem services
10. Trade and the environment
11. Revision

Lecturer: Dr Veerle Heyvaert

Course Code: LL402E

The Law of Armed Conflict

This course covers the law governing the conduct of hostilities (jus in bello, also known as the law of armed conflict or international humanitarian law). The course will take a critical approach to the international regulation and facilitation of armed conflict. As well as the laws governing the means and methods of warfare (‘Hague’ law) and the ‘protected’ groups hors de combat (‘Geneva’ law), the course will cover ‘lawfare’ more generally: the recourse to law as a means of waging war. It will also look at the law of belligerent occupation.

Lecturer: Dr Stephen Humphreys

Course Code: LL401E


Media Law

Media and Communications Regulation

This course provides a comparative and generic introduction to key issues in the regulation of media and communications, focusing on economic, commercial and content regulation of the print media, broadcasting, telecommunications and internet industries. Consideration is given to the nature of and choice between alternative modes of regulation in light of perceived regulatory goals.

Topics covered include: legal and regulatory protection of reputation and privacy; advertising regulation; rights creation and management; (international) trade in media services; public service broadcasting and impartiality controls; cross-media ownership regulation; public value and state aid controls; competition regulation in the media sector; regulation and liberalisation of telecommunications networks.

Lecturer: Dr Andrew Scott

Course Code: LL422E

Media Law: Regulating Publication

The course examines the legal and administrative regulation of mass media publication (principally the press, the broadcast media, and institutionalised Internet publication). The course is introduced with consideration of a number of themes that underpin the rest of the syllabus: the role(s) of the media in society (including conceptions of the ‘public interest’); the main social, technological and regulatory influences that shape media publication practise, and rights jurisprudence (in particular, the freedom of expression and freedom of the press in national and international law). The course then examines potential restrictions on publication that are aimed at promoting or preserving specific private and/or public interests. The key private interests considered are those in reputation (defamation), privacy, and confidentiality. The key public interests considered are the integrity of the judicial process (contempt and reporting restrictions), the impartiality of political representations, the avoidance of offence (obscenity and religion), national security, and the protection of children.

Lecturer: Dr Andrew Scott

Course Code: LL423E

Media Law: Regulating Newsgathering  

This course examines the legal and administrative regulation of newsgathering and content production practices undertaken by journalists and others working in the media sector. The course is introduced with consideration of a number of themes that underpin the rest of the syllabus: the role(s) of the media in society (including conceptions of the ‘public interest’); the main social, technological and regulatory influences that shape media newsgathering practise, and rights jurisprudence (in particular, the freedom of expression and freedom of the press in national and international law).

The course then examines a number of newsgathering practices that are either facilitated or proscribed by law and/or other forms of regulation. These include protection of sources (in general; vis-a vis police and security interests; payment of sources); access to information held by the state (official secrets; news management; freedom of information); access to the justice system (secret justice / physical access to courts; access to court documents; technology and the courts - text-based reporting and broadcasting; access to prisoners); media-police interaction; harassment and media intrusion, and surreptitious newsgathering practices (hacking, tapping, entrapment and subterfuge).

Lecturer: Dr Andrew Scott

Course Code: LL424E


*Please note that whilst it is our intention to offer all of these modules, our ability to do so will depend on the availability of the staff member in question.

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